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Districts of Indonesia

The term district, in the context of Indonesia, refer the third-level administrative subdivision, below regency or city. The local term kecamatan is used in majority of Indonesian areas, except in Papua, West Papua, the Special Region of Yogyakarta; the term distrik is used in West Papua. In Yogyakarta, the term kapanewon is used for districts within regency, while the term kemantren is used for districts within city. According to Statistics Indonesia, there are a total of 7,024 districts in Indonesia as of 2014. During the Dutch East Indies and early republic period, the term district referred to kewedanan, a subdivision of regency, while kecamatan was translated as subdistrict. Following the abolition of kewedanan, the term district began to be associated with kecamatan which has since been directly administered by regency. Mainstream media such as The Jakarta Post and Tempo use "district" to refer to kecamatan. District in Indonesia is the third-level administrative subdivision, below regency or city and province.

According to the Act Number 23 of 2014, district is formed by the government of regency or city in order to improve the coordination of governance, public services, empowerment of urban/rural villages. District head is a career bureaucrat position directly appointed by mayor; the local district term kecamatan is used in majority of Indonesian areas, with camat being the head. During the Dutch East Indies and early republic period, the term district referred to kewedanan, a subdivision of regency. Kewedanan itself was divided into kecamatan, translated as subdistrict. Following the abolition of kewedanan, the term district began to be associated with kecamatan which has since been directly administered by regency. In English-language dictionary, subdistrict means "a division or subdivision of a district", hence the translation of kecamatan as subdistrict is no longer precise since the absence of kewedanan as district; the 1982 publication of Statistics Indonesia translated kecamatan as district.

With the release of the Act Number 21 of 2001 concerning the Special Autonomous of Papua Province, the term distrik was used instead of kecamatan in the entire Western New Guinea. The difference between the two is the naming, with kepala distrik being the district head, it was followed in 2019 by another autonomous province, the Special Region of Yogyakarta, where kecamatan was replaced with kapanewon and kemantren. Sultan Hamengkubuwono X, the region's governor and the monarch of Yogyakarta Sultanate, issued Gubernatorial Decree Number 25 of 2019, which restored the old naming convention for the region's subdivisions. Kapanewon is headed by a panewu. Media related to Districts of Indonesia at Wikimedia Commons

Honor Among Thieves (Edwin McCain album)

Honor Among Thieves is Edwin McCain's first major-label album, released on CD and cassette tape on August 15, 1995 by Lava Records. Songs from Thieves appear on McCain's live concert DVD, Tinsel & Tap Shoes. All songs written by Edwin McCain. "Alive" - 4:03 "Solitude" - 4:32 "Jesters, Dreamers & Thieves" - 4:23 "Guinevere" - 3:31 "Sorry to a Friend" - 3:56 "America Street" - 4:41 "Russian Roulette" - 4:59 "Bitter Chill" - 4:23 "Don't Bring Me Down" - 4:00 "Kitchen Song" - 4:22 "Thirty Pieces" - 4:32 "3 AM" - 4:24 Greg Adams - trumpet, flugelhorn Scott Bannevich - bass Mark Bryan - electric guitar Alice Echols - background vocals Chuck Findley - trumpet, flugelhorn Paul Fox - piano, Hammond organ, producer Lili Haydn - violin Rami Jaffee - Hammond organ Nick Lane - trombone Edwin McCain - guitar, Hammond organ, background vocals Darius Rucker - vocals Craig Shields - keyboards, tenor and soprano saxophone TJ Hall - drums and percussion Kevin Smith - percussion Rose Stone - background vocals Gerri Sutyak - cello Ed Thacker - engineer George Marino - mastering engineer Album Singles

Approximation property

In mathematics functional analysis, a Banach space is said to have the approximation property, if every compact operator is a limit of finite-rank operators. The converse is always true; every Hilbert space has this property. There are, Banach spaces which do not. However, a lot of work in this area was done by Grothendieck. Many other counterexamples were found; the space of bounded operators on ℓ 2 does not have the approximation property. The spaces ℓ p for p ≠ 2 and c 0 have closed subspaces. A locally convex topological vector space X is said to have the approximation property, if the identity map can be approximated, uniformly on precompact sets, by continuous linear maps of finite rank. If X is a Banach space this requirement becomes that for every compact set K ⊂ X and every ε > 0, there is an operator T: X → X of finite rank so that ‖ T x − x ‖ ≤ ε, for every x ∈ K. Some other flavours of the AP are studied: Let X be a Banach space and let 1 ≤ λ < ∞. We say that X has the λ -approximation property, if, for every compact set K ⊂ X and every ε > 0, there is an operator T: X → X of finite rank so that ‖ T x − x ‖ ≤ ε, for every x ∈ K, ‖ T ‖ ≤ λ.

A Banach space is said to have bounded approximation property, if it has the λ -AP for some λ. A Banach space is said to have metric approximation property, if it is 1-AP. A Banach space is said to have compact approximation property, if in the definition of AP an operator of finite rank is replaced with a compact operator; every projective limit of Hilbert spaces, as well as any subspace of such a projective limit, possesses the approximation property. Hence every nuclear space possesses the approximation property; every subspace of an arbitrary product of Hilbert spaces possesses the approximation property. Every separable Frechet space that contains a Schauder basis possesses the approximation property; every space with a Schauder basis has the AP, thus a lot of spaces with the AP can be found. For example, the ℓ p the symmetric Tsirelson space. Bartle, R. G.. "MR0402468 ". Mathematical Reviews. MR 0402468. Enflo, P.: A counterexample to the approximation property in Banach spaces. Acta Math. 130, 309–317.

Grothendieck, A.: Produits tensoriels topologiques et espaces nucleaires. Memo. Amer. Math. Soc. 16. Halmos, Paul R.. "Schauder bases". American Mathematical Monthly. 85: 256–257. Doi:10.2307/2321165. JSTOR 2321165. MR 0488901. Paul R. Halmos, "Has progress in mathematics slowed down?" Amer. Math. Monthly 97, no. 7, 561—588. MR1066321 William B. Johnson "Complementably universal separable Banach spaces" in Robert G. Bartle, 1980 Studies in functional analysis, Mathematical Association of America. Kwapień, S. "On Enflo's example of a Banach space without the approximation property". Séminaire Goulaouic–Schwartz 1972—1973: Équations aux dérivées partielles et analyse fonctionnelle, Exp. No. 8, 9 pp. Centre de Math. École Polytech. Paris, 1973. MR407569 Lindenstrauss, J.. Nedevski, P.. "P. Enflo solved in the negative Banach's problem on the existence of a basis for every separable Banach space". Fiz.-Mat. Spis. Bulgar. Akad. Nauk. 16: 134–138. MR 0458132. Pietsch, Albrecht. History of Banach spaces and linear operators. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser Boston, Inc. pp. xxiv+855 pp. ISBN 978-0-8176-4367-6.

MR 2300779. Karen Saxe, Beginning Functional Analysis, Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics, 2002 Springer-Verlag, New York. Schaefer, Helmuth H.. P.. Topological Vector Spaces. GTM. 3. New York: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 9780387987262. Singer, Ivan. Bases in Banach spaces. II. Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste România, Bucharest. Viii+880 pp. ISBN 3-540-10394-5. MR610799

One Hundred and Eight Stupas

The One Hundred and Eight Stupas is an array of one hundred and eight Buddhist stupas on a hillside on the west bank of the Yellow River at Qingtongxia in Ningxia, China. The stupas were constructed during the Western Xia, but have been renovated and rebuilt several times over the centuries; the location of the 108 stupas has been turned into a major tourist site, a large area of land between the stupas and the Yellow River has been paved over and landscaped with ponds. A number of buildings have been erected on the site, including a tourist reception centre and an exhibition hall; the exhibition hall describes the history of the stupas, shows photographs of what they looked like when they were investigated and renovated during the 1980s. The 108 stupas are arrayed in a triangular formation up the side of a hill, facing southeast, overlooking the Yellow River. There is one large stupa at the apex of the triangle, with a Buddhist hall behind it, below that are eleven rows of one hundred and seven smaller stupas on brick platforms of increasing width running down the hill.

The number of stupas on each level is: 1, 3, 3, 5, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19. The reason why there are a 108 stupas is that the number 108 is a sacred number in Buddhism, for example Buddhist rosary beads number 108. Odd numbers are considered auspicious in Buddhism, why the number of stupas on each row is an odd number; the first row of nineteen stupas starts up the hillside, so the bottom platform is 5 metres high. The width of the bottom platform is 54 metres, the height from the bottom platform to the top platform with the large stupa is 31.82 metres. The stupas have undergone intensive renovation in recent years, they do not represent their original Western Xia form, although they are in the original position and formation. In 1987 the small stupas were 2.0–2.5 metres in height, with a diameter of 1.9–2.1 metres, but after renovation and the addition of a canopy and finial they are now somewhat taller. The stupas are all made with several different designs; the bottom row and the large stupa at the top have a zigzag ratha-shaped base, whereas the remaining 88 stupas all have an octagonal base.

Rows 1 and 12, rows 2–6, row 7, rows 8–11 each have different shapes of hemispherical domed stupa body. Whole bricks are used for the stupa base, half-bricks are used for the body of the stupa; the original stupa canopies and finials had all been lost by the time the stupas were restored in 1987, but as part of the restoration each stupa is now capped by a lead canopy of several designs. In 1987 the large stupa was 5.04 metres high, with a diameter of 3.08 metres, but after renovation it is now somewhat taller. Unlike the small stupas, which are all solid, the large stupa has a small opening on the east side, with a small room in the centre; this is occupied by a Buddhist statue and an offering box. The 108 stupas are believed to have been constructed during the period of the Western Xia kingdom, as part of a Buddhist temple complex; the remains of a temple and two small stupas were located in front of the 108 stupas, but due to the construction of a dam nearby, in 1958 the two stupas were demolished.

Two Western Xia period silk Buddhist paintings were found inside the two stupas, fragments of Tangut Buddhist texts, miniature terracota stupa models, clay tsha-tsha were found in the vicinity of the temple. Further evidence that the temple complex dates back to the Western Xia comes from an octagonal brick platform, located on the hillside just north of the 108 stupas. In 1987 fragments of Buddhist sutras written in the Tangut script were discovered in this platform, together with about a dozen clay stupa models. Artefacts discovered during the renovation of the 108 stupas included four painted clay Buddhist statues and over a hundred plain and painted clay stupa models from the large stupa, seven tsha-tsha from two of the small stupas, a painted clay Buddhist statue from stupa no. 41, three pottery stupa finials from stupa no. 101. During renovation in 1987 it was possible to reconstruct the architectural history of the stupas; the original stupas were made of sun-dried mud bricks surrounding a central wooden supporting pillar.

The mud core was coated in white plaster, with lotus flower designs or Sanskrit text painted in red around the base. The stupa bases were strengthened, additional mud was applied to reinforce the stupa body; the stupas were replastered twice during the Ming dynasties. During the early Qing dynasty the stupas underwent a major renovation, the dilapidated mud stupas were encased in brick to protect them; the brick casing was thinly coated with white plaster several times up to the 1980s. By 1987, most of the stupas were in a poor state of repair, with missing brickwork exposing the mud and plaster core. None of the stupas preserved the top part, in some cases only the stupa base remained. During 1987–1988 the outer brickwork of the stupas was repaired and rebuilt using the few complete stupas as models; the white plaster that still covered the brickwork of most of stupas at that time was removed, the stupas assumed their current form. Major

Dunbar (ship)

The Dunbar was a full-rigged ship, wrecked near the entrance to Sydney Harbour, Australia in 1857 with the loss of 121 lives. Now a heritage site, the Dunbar is a former maritime trade, troop ship and transport and now Gillies artefact collection, tourist attraction, anchor memorial and education facility located at Watsons Bay in the Municipality of Woollahra local government area of New South Wales, Australia; the ship was built from 1852 to 1853 by James Laing & Sons of Sunderland, England. The site is known as Dunbar Group; the property is owned by the Land and Property Management Authority, an agency of the Government of New South Wales and Woollahra Municipal Council. The site was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 17 October 2003; the Dunbar was launched on 30 November 1854 for London shipowner Duncan Dunbar. She was one of a number of large sailing ships that began trading to Australia as a result of the Australian gold rushes; the Dunbar was built as a first class cargo carrier.

Ship rigged and well fitted out throughout, the vessel was, at the time of launching, the largest timber vessel constructed in Sunderland. This was in response to the demand for ships to carry passengers to the la la land ngoldfields; the Dunbar however was deployed as a troop ship in the Crimean War and did not become involved in the Australian trade until 1856. On the night of 20 August 1857, the ship approached the entrance to Port Jackson from the south, but heavy rain and a strong gale made navigating difficult; the ship's captain, James Green, either erroneously believing he had passed the harbour's southern headland or mistaking a smaller break in the coastline known as The Gap for the port's entrance, drove the ship onto rocks. There were 63 passengers on board under command of Captain Green; the ship was driven against the cliffs of South Head and broke apart. The force of the gale caused the Dunbar to break up. Only one out of 122 survived, Able Seaman James Johnson, who managed to cling to the cliff face until rescued some 1–2 days later.

Crew member James Johnson was thrown against the cliffs from the impetus of the collision and managed to scramble to safety, however he remained undiscovered for two days. The remainder of the passengers and crew were drowned. Bodies and wreckage filled the harbour. A funeral was held in Sydney for the dead which included several prominent residents and business people. There were four mourning coaches and a long procession of carriages; the city closed down for the ceremony and the streets lined with mourners while all flags flew at half mast across the city and harbour. A day of public mourning was declared; the remains of the bodies of twenty-two victims were recovered and interred in a single large tomb in Camperdown Cemetery in Newtown. Several other victims have individual monuments; the ship's bell was recovered and donated to St John's Anglican church in Darlinghurst Road near Sydney's Kings Cross. It was installed in the bell-tower of the adjoining St John's Primary School where it became a tradition for generations of head-boys to announce the start of each school day by ringing it.

A enquiry blamed the disaster on insufficient navigational aids in the Harbour. As a result of this loss and that of the ship Catherine Adamson at North Head some 9 weeks the Government built the Hornby Light at the tip of South Head. James Johnson was employed in Newcastle as the lighthouse keeper and on 12 July 1866, was instrumental in rescuing the sole survivor of the paddle steamer SS Cawarra wrecked there in 1866. Memorial services for the victims of the Dunbar are held annually at St Stephen's Church; the Dunbar Historic Shipwreck is located beneath the South Head cliffs near to the Signal Station. The site appears to have been relocated several times since the 1857 loss; the anchor that forms the memorial was recovered from the wreck, identified as Dunbar, in 1910. There is no reason to suggest that this was not the Dunbar wreck, being the only reported site in the immediate vicinity of the cliffs. A similar anchor is retained on the identified Dunbar wreck site today and may be the other "bower" or main anchor used by the Ship.

The rock inscription situated above the wreck location appears to have been cut by an onlooker to the tragedy unfolding below, recut on an anniversary of the wreck. Its historical associations are not questioned. A timber full-rigged ship built from East India Teak. Three masts, square rigged. Registered tonnage was 1,321 short tons. Copper fastened throughout. Length of vessel: 61.5 metres. Copper sheathed. Rampant lion figurehead carved by James Brooker of Maryport; the Dunbar Anchor Memorial comprises a large iron Admiralty pattern anchor, attached to the natural sandstone rock cliff face above the southern end of The Gap. The rock face has been worked to a vertical surface to accept the anchor, fastened to it, with a remnant shackle attached; the memorial includes a stone plinth bonded to the wall detailing the date and purpose of the monument. A timber safety rail fence surrounds the memorial precinct; the second item, a rock cut inscription, was inscribed on the flat sandstone cliff top above the actual wreck site location.

The inscription reads: DUNBAR C. P. 25th AUG 1857 RECUT BY E. S. S. 20 AUG 1906". It is unknown which tools were used to make the inscription, which have subsequently been picked out by dark pigment; as at 15 July 2003, The shipwreck site has been reduced due to the exposed nature of its setting at the foot of the South Head cliffs and its shallow depth (~7

Serpentine leaf miner

The serpentine leaf miner is the larva of a fly, Liriomyza brassicae, in the family Agromyzidae, the leaf miner flies. It mines wild and cultivated plants, such as cabbage, broccoli and Chinese broccoli, it is distributed in the Pacific and the Americas. The life cycle of the fly is up to 21 days, it lays eggs in the leaf epidermis of host plants. Larvae hatch within four days, they have three instars. It emerges from the pupa as a gray fly with black and yellow spots; the American serpentine leafminer is a related species, Liriomyza huidobrensis is known as the serpentine leafminer. Another member of the genus, Liriomyza commelinae occurs in the neotropics and pupates within the mine, it feeds on plants within the genus Commelina. The Wire song Outdoor Miner was inspired by co-writer Graham Lewis's fascination with this insect and details its life cycle. Serpentine Leafminer. Texas A&M University