A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine. This includes forced diuresis. There are several categories of diuretics. All diuretics increase the excretion of water from bodies, although each class does so in a distinct way. Alternatively, an antidiuretic, such as vasopressin, is an agent or drug which reduces the excretion of water in urine. In medicine, diuretics are used to treat heart failure, liver cirrhosis, influenza, water poisoning, certain kidney diseases; some diuretics, such as acetazolamide, help to make the urine more alkaline and are helpful in increasing excretion of substances such as aspirin in cases of overdose or poisoning. Diuretics are sometimes abused by people with an eating disorder people with bulimia nervosa, with the goal of losing weight; the antihypertensive actions of some diuretics are independent of their diuretic effect. That is, the reduction in blood pressure is not due to decreased blood volume resulting from increased urine production, but occurs through other mechanisms and at lower doses than that required to produce diuresis.
Indapamide was designed with this in mind, has a larger therapeutic window for hypertension than most other diuretics. High ceiling diuretics may cause a substantial diuresis – up to 20% of the filtered load of NaCl and water; this is large in comparison to normal renal sodium reabsorption which leaves only about 0.4% of filtered sodium in the urine. Loop diuretics have this ability, are therefore synonymous with high ceiling diuretics. Loop diuretics, such as furosemide, inhibit the body's ability to reabsorb sodium at the ascending loop in the nephron, which leads to an excretion of water in the urine, whereas water follows sodium back into the extracellular fluid. Other examples of high ceiling loop diuretics include ethacrynic torasemide. Thiazide-type diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide act on the distal convoluted tubule and inhibit the sodium-chloride symporter leading to a retention of water in the urine, as water follows penetrating solutes. Frequent urination is due to the increased loss of water that has not been retained from the body as a result of a concomitant relationship with sodium loss from the convoluted tubule.
The short-term anti-hypertensive action is based on the fact that thiazides decrease preload, decreasing blood pressure. On the other hand, the long-term effect is due to an unknown vasodilator effect that decreases blood pressure by decreasing resistance. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors inhibit the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, found in the proximal convoluted tubule; this results in several effects including bicarbonate accumulation in the urine and decreased sodium absorption. Drugs in this class include methazolamide; these are diuretics. The term "potassium-sparing" refers to an effect rather than a location. Aldosterone adds sodium channels in the principal cells of the collecting duct and late distal tubule of the nephron. Spironolactone prevents aldosterone from entering the principal cells, preventing sodium reabsorption. Similar agents are potassium canreonate. Epithelial sodium channel blockers: amiloride and triamterene; the term "calcium-sparing diuretic" is sometimes used to identify agents that result in a low rate of excretion of calcium.
The reduced concentration of calcium in the urine can lead to an increased rate of calcium in serum. The sparing effect on calcium can be beneficial in unwanted in hypercalcemia; the thiazides and potassium-sparing diuretics are considered to be calcium-sparing diuretics. The thiazides cause a net decrease in calcium lost in urine; the potassium-sparing diuretics cause a net increase in calcium lost in urine, but the increase is much smaller than the increase associated with other diuretic classes. By contrast, loop diuretics promote a significant increase in calcium excretion; this can increase risk of reduced bone density. Osmotic diuretics are substances that increase osmolarity but have limited tubular epithelial cell permeability, they work by expanding extracellular fluid and plasma volume, therefore increasing blood flow to the kidney the peritubular capillaries. This thus impairs the concentration of urine in the loop of Henle. Furthermore, the limited tubular epithelial cell permeability increases osmolality and thus water retention in the filtrate.
It was believed that the primary mechanism of osmotic diuretics such as mannitol is that they are filtered in the glomerulus, but cannot be reabsorbed. Thus their presence leads to an increase in the osmolarity of the filtrate and to maintain osmotic balance, water is retained in the urine. Glucose, like mannitol, is a sugar that can behave as an osmotic diuretic. Unlike mannitol, glucose is found in the blood. However, in certain conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, the concentration of glucose in the blood exceeds the maximum reabsorption capacity of the kidney; when this happens, glucose remains in the filtrate, leading to the osmotic retention of water in the urine. Glucosuria causes a loss of hypotonic water and Na+, leading to a hypertonic state
Terra is the fourth studio album by Portuguese fado singer Mariza, released on 30 June 2008. At the Latin Grammy Awards, it was nominated for Best Producer. Contributions from Cape Verdean singer Tito Paris, Argentine guitarist Dominic Miller, Spanish singer Concha Buika give Terra a jazz and Latin influence. Included at the end of the album is a cover of Charlie Chaplin's famous ballad, "Smile". Terra was the album of Mariza. Terra became Mariza's fourth album to feature on Billboard's World Albums chart, where it peaked at number 5 in March 2009. Vocals: Mariza, Concha Buika, Tito Paris Acoustic Guitar: Bernardo Couto, Diogo Clemente, Dominic Miller Flamenco Guitar: Javier Limón Recorder: Melissa Nanni Trumpet: Carlos Sarduy Piano: Ivan "Melon" Lewis, Chucho Miller Acoustic Bass: Marino De Freitas Double Bass: Dany Noel Percussion: Pirana Mariza.com Mariza's Official Website
This is a partial list of people who lived in Goguryeo from 37 BCE-668 CE and those of Goguryeo descent. Goguryeo was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Goguryeo rulers may have used the title of Taewang. So Seo-no Anseung Go Deokmu Myeongnim Dap-bu Eul Paso Go Uru Myeongnim Eosu Eum-u Sang-nu Chang Jo-ri Wang San-ak Yeon Ja-yu Yeon Taejo Yu Yu Mil U Yu Ok-gu Go Noja Gal Ro Dae Jo Yeong Maeng Gwang On Dal Eulji Mundeok Gang Yi-sik Yeon Gaesomun Yeon Nam-geon Yeon Nam-saeng Yang Man-chun Go Yeon-mu Geom Mojam Bu Wiyeom Dorim Uiyeon Damjing Hyechong Eji Hyegwan Bodeok Go Un Yi Jeonggi Yi Nab Yi Sago Yi Sado Go Seonji List of Silla people List of Baekje people List of Goryeo people List of Joseon people List of Koreans
Agelasta is a genus of longhorn beetles of the subfamily Lamiinae. Agelasta contains the following species: Subgenus AgelastaAgelasta albomaculata Breuning, 1958 Agelasta albomarmorata Breuning, 1947 Agelasta albostictica Breuning, 1980 Agelasta basispreta Heller, 1923 Agelasta estrellae Hüdepohl, 1985 Agelasta humerata Breuning, 1939 Agelasta imogenae Hüdepohl, 1985 Agelasta isthmicola Heller, 1923 Agelasta lacteospreta Heller, 1923 Agelasta lacteostictica Breuning, 1960 Agelasta luzonica Breuning, 1937 Agelasta marionae Hüdepohl, 1985 Agelasta mediofasciata Heller, 1913 Agelasta milagrosae Hüdepohl, 1985 Agelasta mindanaonis Breuning, 1939 Agelasta ocellifera Agelasta pardalina Heller, 1924 Agelasta pardalis Breuning, 1974 Agelasta szetschuanica Breuning, 1967 Agelasta transversa Newman, 1842 Agelasta transversefasciata Breuning, 1939 Agelasta transversesignata Breuning, 1939 Agelasta undulata Breuning, 1939 Agelasta unicolor Breuning, 1962Subgenus AntennagelastaAgelasta perakensis Breuning, 1968Subgenus DissosiraAgelasta albomaculata Breuning, 1957 Agelasta andamanica Agelasta annamensis Agelasta bimaculata Breuning, 1938 Agelasta cana Breuning, 1939 Agelasta catenata Pascoe, 1862 Agelasta catenatoides Yamasako & Ohbayashi, 2009 Agelasta columba Agelasta elongata Breuning, 1963 Agelasta gardneri Agelasta griseonotata Pic, 1944 Agelasta illecideosa Agelasta konoi Agelasta kumei Agelasta lecideosa Agelasta mima Agelasta mixta Gahan, 1895 Agelasta mouhotii Pascoe, 1862 Agelasta nigrolineata Breuning, 1968 Agelasta nigromaculata Gahan, 1894 Agelasta nigropunctata Agelasta nigrostictica Agelasta perplexa Agelasta postvittata Breuning, 1939 Agelasta praelongipes Agelasta quadrimaculata Agelasta riouensis Agelasta rufa Agelasta siamana Agelasta siamensis Breuning, 1956 Agelasta sikkimensis Breuning, 1963 Agelasta tonkinea Pic, 1925 Agelasta villosipes Breuning, 1939 Agelasta yonaguni Agelasta yunnanensis Breuning, 1954Subgenus EpagelastaAgelasta balteata Pascoe, 1866 Agelasta newmanni White, 1856Subgenus MesolophusAgelasta annamana Breuning, 1956 Agelasta birmanensis Agelasta cameroni Breuning, 1978 Agelasta dayremi Breuning, 1938 Agelasta densemarmorata Breuning, 1968 Agelasta humeralis Agelasta marmorata Agelasta pici Breuning, 1938 Agelasta striata Hüdepohl, 1990 Agelasta yunnana Chiang, 1963Subgenus MetagelastaAgelasta albomaculata Agelasta basimaculata Heller, 1934 Agelasta basimaculatoides Breuning, 1980Subgenus ParagelastaAgelasta robinsoni Subgenus ParasaimiaAgelasta alboplagiata Agelasta glabrofasciata Agelasta laosensis Agelasta latefasciata Breuning, 1939Subgenus PseudagelastaAgelasta bifasciana Agelasta birmanica Agelasta cristata Breuning, 1938 Agelasta fallaciosa Breuning, 1939 Agelasta hirsutula Breuning, 1939Incertae sedisAgelasta obscura McLeay, 1884
Andreas Achenbach was a German landscape and seascape painter in the Romantic style. He is considered to be one of the founders of the Düsseldorf School, his brother, was a well known landscape painter. Together, based on their initials, they were known as the "Omega" of landscape painters, his father, was a merchant by trade, but worked at a number of professions. In 1816, he became the manager of a metal factory in Mannheim. Two years they moved to St. Petersburg, where his father wanted to set up a factory with money that his mother had received as an inheritance, it was here. The project failed and they returned to Rhine Province in 1823. Soon, his father had established a brewery in Düsseldorf, with an inn, frequented by the local art community. There, in 1827, he began his artistic education in earnest, attending the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf, where he studied with Friedrich Wilhelm Schadow and Heinrich Christoph Kolbe. In 1831, aged only sixteen, he sold one painting; the following year, he studied landscape painting with Johann Wilhelm Schirmer.
He took a study trip to the Netherlands and had his first real success in 1836, at an exhibition in Cologne, where one of his paintings was purchased by the Governor of Rhine Province, Prince Frederick. After a tour of Bavaria and Tyrolia, he settled in Frankfurt and, with the assistance of Alfred Rethel, opened a studio at the Städelsche Kunstinstitut, he travelled continuously, however in the company of his brother, throughout Scandinavia and Italy. They both became regular visitors to Ostend, he returned home on family business in 1846. That year, he took over the inn, his father, although technically retired, became a free-lance accountant. In 1848, he married Marie Louise Hubertine Catharine Lichtschlag, known as Luise, they had five children. Their second child, became an opera singer, known under the name Max Alvary, he was one of the founding members of an art association known as "Malkasten" and helped them acquire the former estate of the Jacobi family in Pempelfort, turned into the "Malkastenpark".
He took few students other than his brother, notably Albert Flamm, Marcus Larson, Apollinary Goravsky and William Stanley Haseltine. He received many honors throughout his life, he became an honorary member of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in 1853 and a member of the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera in 1862. In 1885, he was named an honorary citizen of Düsseldorf; when he died, he was a given ceremony at the Malkasten house. He was buried in a magnificent tomb with a sculpture by Karl Janssen. There is the "Achenbachweg" named after him in Holsterhausen. Bettina Baumgärtel, Wolfgang Peiffer, Matthias Winzen: Andreas Achenbach. Revolutionär und Malerfürst. Athena-Verlag, Oberhausen 2016, ISBN 978-3-89896-632-0. Wolfgang Peiffer: Andreas Achenbach – Das druckgraphische Werk. Athena-Verlag, Oberhausen 2014, ISBN 978-3-89896-570-5. Wolfgang Peiffer: Andreas Achenbach – Italienreise. Baden-Baden 2009, ISBN 978-3-937978-58-1. Martina Sitt: Andreas und Oswald Achenbach. „Das A und O der Landschaft“.
Kunstmuseum Düsseldorf exhibition catalog and Linz 1997/98. Wienand, Cologne 1997, ISBN 3-87909-549-3. Eberhard Hanfstaengl, "Achenbach, Andreas", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 1, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 30–31. Zeno.org. Andreas Achenbach in Google Arts & Culture Art by Achenbach Andreas Achenbach. Andreas Achenbach Paitings Gallery
Gilmar Tadeu da Silva known as Gil Paulista is a Brazilian football manager and former football player. Gilmar was born in 1970 in São Paulo, started playing football at a well-known youth team called Pequeninos do Jockey in São Paulo moved to Portuguesa de Desportos when he became a professional player playing as striker; as a player he still managed to play in several teams. After retiring, he started his career out the pitch abroad in 2008, working as assistant coach in Greece and Ukraine. In 2010, he coached the International Football Academy from Brazil on Cape Town/RSA International Football Tournament 2010; the competition, organized by ONU and FIFA, gathered football academies from all over the world. Gilmar was the U17 Champion. Late 2010, Gilmar moved to Metalurh Zaporizhya, to coach the Youth team, a year became the assistant coach of the main team, participating in the whole process of the access of Metalurh to the first division in the season 2011/2012. In 2012, he started the process to obtain his UEFA coach license and completed FFU A Coaching Award UEFA A Diploma in 2016.
In 2014, Gilmar left Metalurh and moved back to Brazil to work for União Mogi and in 2015 for Osvaldo Cruz. Despite being a Brazilian footballer, he identified differences between Europe and Brazil, he was quoted as saying, "First, the course covers everything that involves football, so the coach there is called the manager, he participates from the hiring of personnel to the administration of the club. The football coach in Brazil is limited to team and games, with pressure for results". However, despite all constraints, Gilmar was positive about this experience in Brazil for his self improvement and continuous learning. In 2016, he managed to relocate himself to work in Saudi Arabi for Al-Mojzel. After a short break looking for a new team, he is now coaching Chao Pak Kei, a Macanese football team which competes in the Liga de Elite. CPK finished the 2018 Liga de Elite in the second position, the best ranking ever. Gilmar was hired by FC Lviv in Ukraine. DPMM FCBrunei Premier League: 2002 Chao Pak KeiLiga de Elite: 2018