Divisionism was the characteristic style in Neo-Impressionist painting defined by the separation of colors into individual dots or patches which interacted optically. By requiring the viewer to combine the colors optically instead of physically mixing pigments, Divisionists believed they were achieving the maximum luminosity scientifically possible. Georges Seurat founded the style around 1884 as chromoluminarism, drawing from his understanding of the scientific theories of Michel Eugène Chevreul, Ogden Rood and Charles Blanc, among others. Divisionism developed along with another style, defined by the use of dots of paint and does not focus on the separation of colors. Divisionism developed in nineteenth-century painting as artists discovered scientific theories of vision that encouraged a departure from the tenets of Impressionism, which at that point had been well-developed; the scientific theories and rules of color contrast that would guide composition for Divisionists placed the movement of Neo-Impressionism in contrast with Impressionism, characterized by the use of instinct and intuition.
Scientists or artists whose theories of light or color had some impact on the development of Divisionism include Charles Henry, Charles Blanc, David Pierre Giottino Humbert de Superville, David Sutter, Michel Eugène Chevreul, Ogden Rood and Hermann von Helmholtz. Divisionism, along with the Neo-Impressionism movement as a whole, found its beginnings in Georges Seurat's masterpiece, A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte. Seurat had received classical training at the École des Beaux-Arts, and, as such, his initial works reflected the Barbizon style. In 1883, Seurat and some of his colleagues began exploring ways to express as much light as possible on the canvas By 1884, with the exhibition of his first major work, Bathing at Asnières, as well as croquetons of the island of La Grande Jatte, his style began taking form with an awareness of Impressionism, but it was not until he finished La Grande Jatte in 1886 that he established his theory of chromoluminarism. In fact, La Grande Jatte was not painted in the Divisionist style, but he reworked the painting in the winter of 1885-86, enhancing its optical properties in accordance with his interpretation of scientific theories of color and light Charles Blanc's Grammaire des arts du dessin introduced Seurat to the theories of color and vision that would inspire chromoluminarism.
Blanc's work, drawing from the theories of Michel Eugène Chevreul and Eugène Delacroix, stated that optical mixing would produce more vibrant and pure colors than the traditional process of mixing pigments. Mixing pigments physically is a subtractive process with cyan and yellow being the primary colors. On the other hand, if colored light is mixed together, an additive mixture results, a process in which the primary colors are red and blue; the optical mixture which characterized Divisionism — the process of mixing color by juxtaposing pigments — is different from either additive or subtractive mixture, although combining colors in optical mixture functions the same way as additive mixture, i.e. the primary colors are the same. In reality, Seurat's paintings did not achieve true optical mixing. In Divisionist color theory, artists interpreted the scientific literature through making light operate in one of the following contexts: Local color As the dominant element of the painting, local color refers to the true color of subjects, e.g. green grass or blue sky.
Direct sunlight As appropriate, yellow-orange colors representing the sun's action would be interspersed with the natural colors to emulate the effect of direct sunlight. Shadow If lighting is only indirect, various other colors, such as blues and purples, can be used to simulate the darkness and shadows. Reflected light An object, adjacent to another in a painting could cast reflected colors onto it. Contrast To take advantage of Chevreul's theory of simultaneous contrast, contrasting colors might be placed in close proximity. Seurat's theories intrigued many of his contemporaries, as other artists seeking a reaction against Impressionism joined the Neo-Impressionist movement. Paul Signac, in particular, became one of the main proponents of divisionist theory after Seurat's death in 1891. In fact, Signac's book, D’Eugène Delacroix au Néo-Impressionnisme, published in 1899, coined the term Divisionism and became recognized as the manifesto of Neo-Impressionism. In addition to Signac, other French artists through associations in the Société des Artistes Indépendants, adopted some Divisionist techniques, including Camille and Lucien Pissarro, Albert Dubois-Pillet, Charles Angrand, Maximilien Luce, Henri-Edmond Cross and Hippolyte Petitjean.
Additionally, through Paul Signac's advocacy of Divisionism, an influence can be seen in some of the works of Vincent van Gogh, Henri Matisse, Jean Metzinger, Robert Delaunay and Pablo Picasso. In 1907 Metzinger and Delaunay were singled out by the critic Louis Vauxcelles as Divisionists who used large, mosaic-like'cubes' to construct small but symbolic compositions. Both artists had develop a new sub-style that had great significance shortly thereafter within the context of their Cubist works. Piet Mondrian, Jan Sluijters and Leo Gestel, in the Netherlands, developed a similar mosaic-like Divisionist technique circa 1909; the Futurists would adapt the style, in part influenced by Gino Severini's Parisian experience, into their dynamic paintings a
The Primrose International Viola Competition referred to as the Primrose Memorial Scholarship Competition, is an international music competition for viola players sponsored by the American Viola Society and named for the 20th-century virtuoso William Primrose. The 15th Primrose International Viola Competition was held June 10–17, 2018 at the Colburn School in Los Angeles. International music competitions for instruments such as violin and piano had been held for decades. However, there was a void in the music world to recognize the viola as a major solo instrument; because of a lack of substantial viola solo literature, the instrument's potential was not realized until the appearance of Lionel Tertis, considered the "father of viola playing". William Primrose continued in Tertis' footsteps of excellence in viola performance, catapulting the instrument on to the international stage; the Primrose International Viola Competition was created in 1979 created as the first competition for the instrument.
In subsequent years other major viola competitions arose: the Lionel Tertis International Viola Competition, the now defunct Maurice Vieux International Viola Competition and, most the Tokyo International Viola Competition. The Primrose International Viola Competition has been held since 1986 in conjunction with biennial meetings of the North American Viola Congress; the competition makes its home in Los Angeles, California at the Colburn School. Eligible participants are younger of any nationality; the competition involves three rounds during a week-long festival in which entrants perform a required work as well as several choices from a viola repertoire list that includes solo works, sonatas and transcriptions by Primrose. A compulsory work to be performed by all competitors has been selected for some competitions. 2014 – Aldonza, Movement II from the Viola Concerto by Christian Colberg.
The Caterham line runs between Purley in South London and Caterham in Surrey. The line operates as a commuter service to London; the Caterham branch was opened as the Caterham Railway on 5 August 1856, from a junction with the London and South Coast Railway. The opening had been delayed because of a quarrel between the LB&SCR and the South Eastern Railway, in whose territory the line was deemed to be; when the Caterham Railway went bankrupt in 1859, the SER took it over. The line is double-track and electrified at 750 V DC using third rail. South of the junction station at Purley the Tattenham Corner line leaves, the railway follows the valley opposite Riddlesdown and the Oxted line, which it parallels to Caterham; the branch has a line speed of 60 mph. 2 tph to London Bridge, calling at Caterham, Whyteleafe South, Kenley, Purley Oaks, South Croydon, East Croydon and London Bridge. This service divides/attaches at Purley, with the other portion continuing to the Tattenham Corner line; this service is operated by Class 377/6 or 7.
2 tph to London Bridge, calling at Caterham, Whyteleafe South, Kenley, East Croydon, Thornton Heath, Streatham Common, Tulse Hill, North Dulwich, East Dulwich, Peckham Rye, Queen's Road Peckham, South Bermondsey and London Bridge. This service is operated by a pair of Class 455s. During the peak hours, the latter service is replaced by a train to/from London Victoria, which calls at all stations to East Croydon Clapham Junction and London Victoria; this service runs jointly to Tattenham Corner, is operated by Class 377/6 or 7. Oyster and contactless payment cards are valid for travel on the entire length of the route; the line from Purley to Caterham is located within Travelcard Zone 6. History of the branch line Spence, Jeoffry; the Caterham Railway. The Oakwood Press. ISBN 978-0-85361-325-1. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2007. Moody, G. T.. Southern Electric 1909-1979. Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0924-4. Glover, John. Southern Electric. Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-2807-9