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Django Reinhardt

Jean Reinhardt, known by his stage name Django Reinhardt, was a Belgian-born Romani-French jazz guitarist and composer. He remains the most significant. With violinist Stéphane Grappelli, Reinhardt formed the Paris-based Quintette du Hot Club de France in 1934; the group was among the first to play jazz. Reinhardt recorded in France with many visiting American musicians, including Coleman Hawkins and Benny Carter, toured the United States with Duke Ellington's orchestra in 1946, he died of a stroke at the age of 43. Reinhardt's most popular compositions have become standards within gypsy jazz, including "Minor Swing", "Daphne", "Belleville", "Djangology", "Swing'42", "Nuages". Jazz guitarist Frank Vignola claims that nearly every major popular-music guitarist in the world has been influenced by Reinhardt. Over the last few decades, annual Django festivals have been held throughout Europe and the U. S. and a biography has been written about his life. In February 2017, the Berlin International Film Festival held the world premiere of the French film Django.

Reinhardt was born on 23 January 1910 in Liberchies, Pont-à-Celles, into a Belgian family of Manouche Romani descent. His father was Jean Eugene Weiss, but domiciled in Paris with his wife, he went by Jean-Baptiste Reinhardt, his wife's surname, to avoid French military conscription, his mother, Laurence Reinhardt, was a dancer. The birth certificate refers to "Jean Reinhart, son of Jean Baptiste Reinhart and Laurence Reinhart, domiciled in Paris". A number of authors have repeated the claim that Reinhardt's nickname, Django, is Romani for "I awake". Reinhardt spent most of his youth in Romani encampments close to Paris, where he started playing the violin and guitar, he became adept at stealing chickens, viewed as a noble skill by the Romani, because part of their means of survival on the road was to steal from the non-Romani world around them. His father played music in a family band comprising himself and seven brothers. Reinhardt was attracted to music at an early age. At the age of 12 he received a banjo-guitar as a gift.

He learned to play, mimicking the fingerings of musicians he watched, who would have included local virtuoso players of the day such as Jean "Poulette" Castro and Auguste "Gusti" Malha, as well as from his uncle Guiligou, who played violin and guitar. Reinhardt was able to make a living playing music by the time he was 15, busking in cafés with his brother Joseph. At this time, he had not started playing Jazz, he acquired the rudiments of literacy only in adult life. At the age of 17 Reinhardt married Florine "Bella" Mayer, a girl from the same Romani settlement, according to Romani custom; the following year he recorded for the first time. On these recordings, made in 1928, Reinhardt plays the "banjo" accompanying the accordionists Maurice Alexander, Jean Vaissade and Victor Marceau, the singer Maurice Chaumel, his name was now drawing international attention, such as from British bandleader Jack Hylton, who came to France just to hear him play. Hylton offered him a job on the spot, Reinhardt accepted.

Before he had a chance to start with the band, Reinhardt nearly died. On the night of 2 November 1928, Reinhardt was going to bed in the wagon that he and his wife shared in the caravan, he knocked over a candle, which ignited the flammable celluloid that his wife used to make artificial flowers. The wagon was engulfed in flames; the couple escaped. During his 18 month hospitalization, doctors recommended amputation for his badly damaged right leg. Reinhardt refused the surgery and was able to walk with the aid of a cane. More crucial to his music, the third finger and fourth finger of Reinhardt’s left hand were badly burned. Doctors believed. Reinhardt applied himself intensely to relearning his craft, making use of a new guitar bought for him by his brother, Joseph Reinhardt, an accomplished guitarist. While he never regained the use of those two fingers, Reinhardt regained his musical mastery by focusing on his left index and middle fingers, using the two injured fingers only for chord work. Within a year of the fire, in 1929, Bella Mayer gave birth to Henri "Lousson" Reinhardt.

Soon thereafter, the couple split up. The son took the surname of his mother's new husband; as Lousson Baumgartner, the son himself became an accomplished musician who would go on to record with his biological father. After parting from his wife and son, Reinhardt traveled throughout France, getting occasional jobs playing music at small clubs, he had no definite goals, living a hand-to-mouth existence spending his earnings as as he made them. Accompanying him on his travels was his new girlfriend, Sophie Ziegler. Nicknamed "Naguine," she and Reinhardt were distant cousins. During the years after the fire, Reinhardt was rehabilitating and experimenting on the guitar that his brother had given him. After having played a broad spectrum of music, he was introduced to American jazz by an acquaintance, Émile Savitry, whose record collection included such musical luminaries as Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Joe Venuti

Celtic Park (1888–92)

Celtic Park was a football ground in Glasgow, Scotland. It was the home ground of Celtic from 1888 until they moved to the site of the modern Celtic Park in 1892; the ground staged an international match between Scotland and Ireland in 1891. Located to the south-east of the Eastern Necropolis graveyard in the Parkhead district of Glasgow, Celtic Park was opened on 8 May 1888; the club had obtained a lease on the site on 13 November 1887, over the next six months Celtic founder Brother Walfrid brought together a large group of Irish volunteers to build the ground. Although the ground was built for Celtic, the opening match at the stadium on 8 May 1888 was between the Edinburgh-based Hibernian and Glasgow club Cowlairs, a game that ended in a 0–0 draw with a crowd of 3,000 present. Hibernian had agreed to play the opening match in order to fulfil a promise that the club's founder and manager Canon Edward Joseph Hannan had made to Brother Walfrid. Celtic's first match at the ground was played on 28 May 1888 against Rangers, with the home side winning 5–2 in front of 2,000 spectators.

In 1890 Celtic were founder members of the Scottish Football League. On the opening day of the league's first season, Celtic played Renton at Celtic Park. Renton's Cameron scored the first-ever goal in the SFL as the visitors won 4–1 in front of a crowd of 10,000; the ground hosted a Scotland international match against Ireland in the 1890–91 British Home Championship. The highest recorded league attendance at Celtic Park was 15,000 for a match against Hearts on 17 October 1891, with Celtic winning 3–1. In 1892 Celtic decided to leave the ground after the landlord increased the annual rent from £50 to £450; the club moved a short distance to a new ground, named Celtic Park. The final league match at the original Celtic Park was played on 14 May 1892, a 2–0 win over Leith Athletic. After the Renton match, Celtic had not lost another league game at the ground; the site was used for housing

Operation Magneto

Operation Magneto was a military operation in August 1985 to transport UNITA soldiers by the South African Defence Force during the Angolan Civil War and South African Border War. In mid 1985, the Angolan government formulated an offensive called Operation Congresso II; the plan called for the largest two frontal attack on UNITA forces in Angola. Led by Soviet and Cuban military advisors this plan called for a simultaneous attack on Cazombo in the east and Mavinga in the south-east and to take one or both objectives by 3 September; the objective of the operation was to split UNITA forces, forcing them to fight on two fronts and therefore weakening their defensive capability. The potential loss of Mavinga by UNITA could give FAPLA the opportunity to stage a further attack on UNITA's capital at Jamba; the South Africans believed that if Mavinga was taken, FAPLA would move its air defence network southwards, threatening the South African Air Force ability to protect Jamba from Angolan air attack, making it susceptible to ground attack and opening southern Angola to increased SWAPO activity into Namibia.

Cazombo is situated in eastern Angola close to the border. In response to FAPLA's advance to recapture the region and town, UNITA requested assistance from the SADF to move its soldiers from the south to the east using the SAAF; the SAAF sent mobile air operations teams to each airfield to control the planned operations that would take place at night to prevent interference by Angolan air force combat aircraft. The operations would last from 23 August until 10 September 1985 and would involve 220 flying hours by C-130 and C-160 transport aircraft and 30 hours of Puma helicopter flights to UNITA controlled airfields at Cazombo and Gago Couthino; the operation would be reversed and the UNITA soldiers were flown back by the SAAF to assist in the defence of Mavinga and their headquarters at Jamba. The return and defence operations were known as Operation Wallpaper. George, Edward; the Cuban intervention in Angola: 1965-1991: from Che Guevara to Cuito Cuanavale. London: Frank Cass. ISBN 0415350158. Lord, Dick.

From Fledgling to Eagle. The South African Airforce during the Border War. Solihull, England: Helion & Company. ISBN 9781908916624. Nortje, Piet. 32 Battalion: the inside story of South Africa's elite fighting unit. Cape Town: Zebra Press. ISBN 1868729141

Rain Veideman

Rain Veideman is an Estonian professional basketball player who plays for Eurobasket Roma of the Italian Serie A2. He represents the Estonian national basketball team internationally. Standing at a height of 1.92 m, he plays the shooting guard position. Veideman began playing basketball with sPORTKUNDA/Rakvere, he began his professional career in 2008, at the age of 17, with Kuremaa of the Korvpalli Meistriliiga. Kuremaa finished the 2008–09 season in last place, despite Veideman averaging 10.9 points per game. In 2009, he transferred to Rakvere Tarvas; the team finished the 2009–10 season as runners-up, with Veideman averaging 15.1 points per game. He was named to the All-KML Team. In 2010, Veideman signed for the Estonian champions TÜ/Rock. In the 2010–11 season, Veideman averaged 15.6 points per game and once again won the Best Young Player Award. On 4 February 2012, Veideman was loaned to Bayreuth of the Basketball Bundesliga for the remainder of the season. In Germany, Veideman averaged 7.5 points per game as Bayreuth finished the 2011–12 season in 13th place.

Veideman returned to TÜ/Rock for the 2012–13 season. On 30 July 2013, Veideman signed for Kalev/Cramo. Kalev/Cramo won the 2013–14 Estonian League championship. Veideman was named to the All-KML Team. In the 2013–14 VTB United League season, Veideman averaged 8.7 points per game and was named Top Estonian Player of the league. He averaged 11.7 points per game in the 2014–15 VTB United League season and was named Top Estonian Player for the second time. Veideman won his second Estonian Championship in the 2015–16 season, after Kalev/Cramo defeated TÜ/Rock in the finals, winning the series 4 games to 1. On 5 March 2017, Veideman left Kalev/Cramo and signed for G. S. A. Udine of the Serie A2, he stayed with the team for the next season. Veideman signed with AVIS Utilitas Rapla. In December 2018 he signed with Pompea Mantovana and returned to Italian Serie A2, he scored 28 points in 30 minutes on his debut against Hertz Cagliari. He started the 2019–20 season in his hometown club RSK Tarvas. In December 2019 Veideman started his third stint in Italy as he signed with Serie A2 team Eurobasket Roma.

Veideman was a member of the Estonian national under-18 basketball team that competed at the 2008 FIBA Europe Under-18 Championship and finished the tournament last, in 16th place. As a member of the senior Estonian national basketball team, Veideman competed at the EuroBasket 2015, averaging 10 points, 5.4 rebounds and 4 assists per game, in 32.6 minutes. Estonia finished the tournament in 20th place. Veideman was named captain of the national team for the EuroBasket 2017 qualifiers. TÜ/Rock2× Estonian Cup champion: 2010, 2011 BBL Cup champion: 2010Kalev/Cramo2× Estonian League champion: 2014, 2016 2× Estonian Cup champion: 2015, 2016 2× KML Best Young Player Award: 2010, 2011 2× All-KML Team: 2010, 2014 2× VTB United League Top Estonian Player: 2014, 2015 KML All-Star: 2017 KML All-Star MVP: 2017 Note: The EuroLeague is not the only competition in which the player participated for the team during the season, he played in domestic competition, regional competition if applicable. Rain Veideman at basket.ee Rain Veideman at fiba.com

March 2007 Sumatra earthquakes

The March 2007 Sumatra earthquakes occurred near the northern end of Lake Singkarak in Sumatra, Indonesia, on March 6. The first shock in this earthquake doublet struck with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII and the second shock that arrived two hours had a maximum Mercalli intensity of VI; the initial quake at 10:49 measured 6.4 on the moment magnitude scale and the second quake at 12:49 measured 6.3. The earthquakes were felt as far away as Singapore and Malaysia, which prompted the evacuation of some buildings there. Over 60 fatalities and 460 serious injuries have been reported, spread across many towns and regencies in West Sumatra. Over 43,000 houses were damaged, with over 12,000 of those damaged; the severe damage to other structures includes over 130 public facilities, 310 mosques, 60 government buildings, 370 schools, 230 shops. According to the governor of West Sumatra, Agam Regency is the worst affected area, though other areas including Solok Regency and Tanah Datar are badly affected.

The total value of damage is estimated to be around 1.4 trillion Indonesian rupiah. A variety of local and international aid organizations have deployed to the region to assist victims. A number of countries have pledged aid, including the Netherlands, Canada, United States and Taiwan; the US AID has supplied them with all sorts of essentials like blankets, water and first aid kits. List of earthquakes in 2007 List of earthquakes in Indonesia M. Nakano, H. Kumagai, S. Toda, R. Ando, T. Yamashina, H. Inoue, Sunarjo. H. Tohari, A. Subowo, E. Daryono, M. R. and Boen, T. 2007. Western Sumatra Earthquakes of March 6, 2007, EERI Special Earthquake Report, 1–8 The International Seismological Centre has a bibliography and/or authoritative data for this event

Juul Kraijer

Juul Kraijer is a Dutch visual artist whose principal mediums are drawing and photography. She makes sculptures and video-works. Kraijer studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Rotterdam, graduating in 1994 with a series of large format charcoal drawings. In the drawings Kraijer's subject is always female and depersonalized, an archetype or personage rather than a particular individual; the model is sometimes multiplied: facing herself, head to head, or appearing as Siamese twins or triplets. In most works the human body is combined with other creatures or natural phenomena: surrounded by schools of little fish or swarms of moths, fused with branches or parts of animals or displaying mountainscapes on the skin. Kraijer favors charcoal, only works in colour; the size of her drawings is determined by the image, always depicted more or less life-size. Since 2012 photography has been an important medium in Kraijers practice, her photographs are mostly black and white and thematically related to her drawings.

She works with the same model, who poses with objects or animals, most notably snakes. Kraijer's works share an emblemata-like concision, showing no more than what is necessary. In each image, the figure looms out of an undefined background. Definition of time is absent as well. No hairstyles or dress belonging to any specific period are shown, no hint of a narrative is present; the postures and facial expressions are intensely concentrated. They seem to have been adopted for eternity. Faces and bodies are a vehicle for meaning rather than portrayals of individuals; the impassive visage, in a state of half-sleep, seems to exist at an interface between self-awareness and self-extinction. The images elude traditional iconography. Kraijer creates naturalistic images, her work has been awarded four Dutch art prizes and has been included in major international exhibitions such as ARS 06 at the Museum of Modern Art KIASMA in Helsinki, the Third Moscow Biennale of Contemporay art and the Kochi-Muziris Biennale, India.

Stedelijk Museum Schiedam Stedelijk Museum Het Domein, Sittard Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam Cobra Museum voor Moderne Kunst Amstelveen Gemeentemuseum Den Haag, The Hague Galleria Monica De Cardenas, Milan / Zuoz Kewenig Galerie, Cologne Vadehra Art Gallery, New Delhi The Wapping Project/Bankside, London Kunsthalle Giessen, Giessen Drents Museum and CBK Drenthe, Assen Vadehra Contemporary, New Delhi Huis Marseille Museum for Photography, Amsterdam Galerie Les Filles du Calvaire, Paris Charlotte Köhler Prijs Pendrecht Cultuurprijs Philip Morris Kunstprijs Thérèse van Duyl-Schwartze Portretprijs nominated for Prix Guerlain du Dessin Contemporain Lensculture Portrait Awards - Single Image 3rd Place Lensculture Black&White Awards - Series 3rd Place Museum of Modern Art, New York City.