Djoser was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 3rd dynasty during the Old Kingdom and the founder of this epoch. He is known by his Hellenized names Tosorthros and Sesorthos, he was the son of king Khasekhemwy and queen Nimaathap, but whether he was the direct throne successor is still unclear. Most Ramesside Kinglists name a king Nebka before him, but since there are still difficulties in connecting that name with contemporary Horus names, some Egyptologists question the received throne sequence; the painted limestone statue of Djoser, now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, is the oldest known life-sized Egyptian statue. Today at the site in Saqqara where it was found, a plaster copy of the statue stands in place of the original; the statue was found during the Antiquities Service Excavations of 1924–1925. In contemporary inscriptions, he is called Netjerikhet, meaning "divine of body." Sources, which include a New Kingdom reference to his construction, help confirm that Netjerikhet and Djoser are the same person.
While Manetho names Necherophes and the Turin King List names Nebka as the first ruler of the Third dynasty, many Egyptologists now believe Djoser was first king of this dynasty, pointing out that the order in which some predecessors of Khufu are mentioned in the Papyrus Westcar suggests Nebka should be placed between Djoser and Huni, not before Djoser. More the English Egyptologist Toby Wilkinson has demonstrated that burial seals found at the entrance to Khasekhemwy's tomb in Abydos name only Djoser, rather than Nebka; this supports the view that it was Djoser who buried and, directly succeeded Khasekhemwy, rather than Nebka. Djoser is linked to Khasekhemwy, the last king of the Second dynasty of Egypt, through his wife Queen Nimaethap via seals found in Khasekhemwy's tomb and at Beit Khallaf; the seal at Abydos names Nimaat-hap as the "mother of the king's children, Nimaat-hap". On mastaba K1 at Beit Khallaf, the same person is mentioned as the "mother of the dual king". Dating of other seals at the Beit Khallaf site place them to the reign of Djoser.
This evidence suggests that Khasekhemwy is either the direct father of Djoser or that Nimaat-hap had him through a previous husband. German Egyptologist Gunter Dreyer found Djoser's sealings at Khasekhemwy's tomb, further suggesting that Djoser was the direct successor of Khasekhemwy and that he finished the construction of the tomb, her cult seems to have still been active in the reign of Sneferu. Hetephernebti is identified as one of Djoser's queens "on a series of boundary stela from the Step Pyramid enclosure and a fragment of relief from a building at Hermopolis" in the Egyptian museum of Turin. Inetkawes was their only daughter known by name. There was a third royal female attested during Djoser's reign, but her name is destroyed; the relationship between Djoser and his successor, Sekhemkhet, is not known, the date of his death is uncertain. The lands of Upper and Lower Egypt were united into a single kingdom sometime around 2686 BC; the period following the unification of the crowns was one of prosperity, marked by the start of the Third Dynasty and the Old Kingdom of Egypt.
The exact identity of the founder of the dynasty is a matter of debate, due to the fragmentary nature of the records from the period. Djoser is one of the principal candidates for the founder of the Third Dynasty. Other candidates are Sanakht. Complicating matters further is the possibility that Nebka and Sanakht are referring to the same person. Egyptologist Toby Wilkinson believes that the weight of archeological evidence favours Djoser as Khasekhemwy's successor and therefore founder of the Third Dynasty. A seal from Khasekhemwy's tomb at Abydos, in combination with a seal from mastaba K1 at Beit Khallaf dated to Djoser's reign, links the two pharaohs together as father and son respectively; the seal at Abydos names a'Nimaat-hap' as the mother of Khasekhemwy's children, while the other seal at Beit Khallaf names the same person as the'mother of the dual-king'. Further archaeological evidence linking the reigns of the two pharaohs together are found at Shunet et-Zebib, which suggest that Djoser oversaw the burial of his predecessor.
Ritual stone vessels found at the sites of the tombs – Khasekhemwy's tomb at Abydos and Djoser's tomb at Saqqara – of the two pharaohs appear to have come from the same collection, as samples from both sites contain identical imagery of the god Min. This archeological evidence is supplemented by at least one historical source, the Saqqara king list, which names Djoser as the immediate successor of Beby – a misreading of Khasekhemwy. Manetho states Djoser ruled Egypt for twenty-nine years, while the Turin King List states it was only nineteen years; because of his many substantial building projects at Saqqara, some scholars argue Djoser must have enjoyed a reign of nearly three decades. Manetho's figure appears to be more accurate, according to Wilkinson's analysis and reconstruction of the Royal Annals. Wilkinson reconstructs the Annals as giving Djoser "28 complete or partial years", noting that the cattle counts recorded on Palermo stone register V, Cairo Fragment 1, register V, for the beginning and ending of Djoser's reign, would most indicate his regnal years 1–5 and 19–28.
Next to all entrances are illegible today. The Year of coronation is preserved, followed by the year events receiving the twin-pillars and stretching the cords for the fortress Qau-Netjerw. Various sources provide various dates for Djoser's reign. Professor of Ancient Near East history Marc van de Mieroop dates Djoser's reign to somewhere between 2686 BC to 2648 BC. Authors Joann Fletcher and Mic
Victor Vashi was a Hungarian political cartoonist who "cartooned his way through the years of Nazi and Soviet occupation of his country." There is little recorded information on the life of Victor Vashi. Most of the information, available can be found in the brief text on the back of his book Red Primer for Children and Diplomats, a humorous cartoon history of communism in the Soviet Union, published in 1967, on the 50th anniversary of the October Revolution, he co-authored a satirical cartoon book titled The Sing Along with Khrushchev Coloring Book, cleverly written from the perspective of Nikita Khrushchev's granddaughter writing to her pen pal Caroline Kennedy. Vashi was imprisoned by the Soviets in the Gödöllő prison camp. Locked in solitary confinement, he was overlooked the day when the gulag was emptied and all able-bodied men were sent to Siberia. Victor managed to escape to Austria in December 1948, he emigrated to the United States. In 1963 and 1964, Victor Vashi was living at 810 A Street, S.
E. in Washington, D. C. while working at McCoy Art Studio, on Connecticut Avenue, owned by Tom McCoy of Bethesda Maryland. In the 1970s, he was the chief cartoonist for the Machinist union newspaper at its headquarters on Connecticut Avenue near Dupont Circle in Washington D. C, he was kind and doted on the children of headquarters executives who visited entertaining and giving drawing tips to young talent. It is rumored that he returned to his native Hungary near the end of his life, where he lived a short while before he died. Victor Vashi was a graduate of the Hungarian Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Victor Vashi's early career was a cartoonist for one of Budapest's leading newspapers, the 8 Orai Ujsag. Victor's style is similar to that of American political cartoonist Herbert Block. Although, discrete evidence of study or influence by Herbert Block cannot be determined. After his escape to Austria, Victor cartooned for various European newspapers: Salzburger Nachrichten of Salzburg Wiener Kurier of Vienna Hungaria of Munich Emigrans Szabad Szaj of Paris Paraat of AmsterdamHis work was featured throughout his career in several other newspapers: Magyarsag of Pittsburgh Kepes Magyar Magazin of New York The Machinist and Machinist Journal of Washington D.
C. Federation of Hungarian Former Political Prisoners of New York This may be Vashi's first work in book form, it is a satirical letter from Khrushchev's granddaughter, "Nyetochka," to Caroline Kennedy. The 24 pages of text and cartoons are written from the perspective of Nyetochka and makes fun of her "grandpa" and socialist uncles, such as her favorite "Uncle Fidel," who she recommends to color "a dirty brown," or her "Uncle Nehru", who she recommends coloring a "shocking pink." A cartoon of the Berlin Wall suggests "color West Berlin green, because the grass is always greener on the other side. For East Berlin a kind of drab will do." Khrushchev appears throughout as a caricature wearing only one shoe, a reference to his famous shoe pounding spectacle at the United Nations. The text of the book was written by Ilona Fabian with all the cartoons drawn by Vashi; the coloring book was published in the United States in 1962 by the Sov-o'Press – which may suggest a private printing. This is Victor Vashi's magnum opus, a humorous historical retrospective of the Soviet Union told in cartoons, on its 50th anniversary.
The book's foreword states, "Those who do not read history are condemned to repeat it." The book is a mix of ink sketches. The book was first published in the United States in June 1967, in a paperback edition by Viewpoint Books. Original copies of the book are available from dealers in used books; the book is now available in an online edition
Philip Hershkovitz was an American mammalogist. Born in Pittsburgh, he attended the Universities of Pittsburgh and Michigan and lived in South America collecting mammals. In 1947, he was appointed a curator at the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago and he continued to work there until his death, he has published much on the mammals of the Neotropics primates and rodents, described 70 new species and subspecies of mammals. About a dozen species have been named after him. Philip Hershkovitz was born 12 October 1909 in Pittsburgh to parents Bertha Hershkovitz, he was the second child and only son among four siblings. He reported. After graduating from Schenley High School in 1927, he attended the University of Pittsburgh from 1929 to 1931, majoring in zoology, before transferring to the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, which had more course offerings in zoology, he did taxidermical work. In 1932, he went to Texas to collect Typhlomolge rathbuni cave salamanders, he wanted to trap small mammals, which he found more interesting, but had no traps to do that.
On a chance visit to the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, he befriended the Curator of Mammals there, Colin Campbell Sanborn, who loaned him the supplies he needed. This event was the beginning of Hershkovitz's long relationship with the FMNH; as the Great Depression worsened, Hershkovitz was no longer able to afford life in Michigan, in 1933 he decided to move to Ecuador, which he was told was one of the cheapest countries in the Americas to live in. He collected a number of mammal specimens and learned to speak Spanish, supporting himself in part by trading in horses, he returned in 1937 and again enrolled at Ann Arbor, graduating in 1938. Subsequently, he became a graduate student there and got his MSc degree in 1940, he entered the doctoral program, but in 1941 he was awarded a Walter Rathbone Bacon Traveling Scholarship by the United States National Museum in Washington, D. C. to work in the Santa Marta area of northern Colombia, where he stayed till 1943. Hershkovitz enlisted in the U.
S. Armed Services during World War served the Office of Strategic Services in Europe. In 1945, he married Anne Marie Pierrette Dode, whom he had met in France, the same year he returned to America to continue his Bacon Scholarship studies in Washington, D. C. where his first child of three—Francine and Mark—was born in 1946. In 1947, Hershkovitz was offered a position as Assistant Curator of Mammals at the FMNH and accepted, although it meant that he was unable to complete his doctoral studies, he went back to the field and stayed in Colombia until his curatorial duties called him back to Chicago in 1952. His Colombian collections remained at the center of his research interests afterward, as he revised many taxa of which he had found representatives in Colombia, he had a good relationship with Chief Curator of the Department of Zoology Karl P. Schmidt and took care of his curatorial duties. Schmidt retired in 1957 and his successor, Austin P. Rand, enjoyed a less positive relation with Hershkovitz, the latter detached himself from the Museum's day-to-day affairs.
In 1962, Hershkovitz was replaced as Curator of Mammals by Joseph Moore and took the unprecedented title of Research Curator. He worked in the field in Surinam in 1960–61 and in Bolivia in 1965–66. Hershkovitz retired in 1974, but continued his research unabated as Curator Emeritus, in 1980–81 he worked in the field in Peru. In 1987, a festschrift was published for him under the title Studies in Neotropical Mammalogy: Essays in Honor of Philip Hershkovitz, an honor, given to only three previous Field Museum scientists, it included papers on some of the fields Hershkovitz had worked in, a biography and bibliography of him by Bruce Patterson, a review, written by Hershkovitz himself, of the historical development of mammalogy in the Neotropics. By 1987, he was still tireless, spending long days in the museum without pausing for lunch, he worked in Brazil on several occasions, the last in 1992, after which his health prevented him from going. He died from complications resulting from bone cancer at the Northwestern Memorial Hospital in Chicago on 15 February 1997, at the age of 87.
He was survived by two sons, a son-in-law, two grandchildren. Hershkovitz published extensively on the biology of each of the twelve orders of Neotropical mammals, focusing on taxonomy and biogeography, he wrote 164 papers, including both broad monographs and smaller contributions, described 67 new species and subspecies and 13 new genera. He was an independent researcher, he participated in some fiery scientific debates, with views that according to Patterson's biographical note "brand him as something other than conciliatory or diplomatic". In 1968, he published his theory of metachromism, which attempts to explain variation in fur coloration among mammals through the loss of one of two classes of pigments in the hairs. Hershkovitz may have been most well known for his studies of primates, to the extent that many thought him a primatologist, but he was quick to point out that, as Patterson phrases it, "nothing could be further from the truth", he had published on primates earlier, but did not give them special attention until the 1960s, when grant opportunities persuaded him to begin studying them, first Callitrichidae and Cebidae.
In 1977, he published a re