The Stryi River starts in the Carpathian mountains in western Ukraine. It snakes through the mountains running for 144 miles. After 120 miles it passes Stryi; the river continues for another 20 miles before joining the Dniester near Khodoriv. The river starts in a catchment area above and in the foothills of the Eastern Beskids range of the Carpathian mountains close to the village of Mokhnate, flowing down the East facing flank of the range. From here it begins to grow, being joined by many tributaries on its way North, before flowing into a series of twists and turns through gorges, it exits the hills reaching a flat area around Turka, where there was an attempt at hydro electric generation and flood control. The river meanders through the hills to Pidhorodci where it meets another main tributary the Opir at Nyzhnye Synievydne. From here it begins to straighten, 3.5 km south east of the town, at the start of the Stryi valley where it flows in an straight line past Duliby and Stryi and on to Zhydachiv.
Here the river reaches a flat area and meanders wildly meeting the Dniester on the Eastern side of the Zhydachiv town causing many oxbow lakes. The rocks in the area, known as the Stryi Depression, are arranged in three main layers; the river follows a natural fault line and is around an average of 60 feet wide, but is shallow at only an average of 10 feet deep in summer until its lower tracts where it reaches depths of 20 feet or more. The three layers of rocks types give the Stryi its unique form, in the upper tracts it flows through several areas of hard dense rocks and in between these through softer shales and alluvial deposits; as a consequence the river bed is medium-sized rounded rocks and pebbles with islands of sand and rounded gravels in midstream in the middle and lower tracts. The river is a popular destination for canoeing as it has many rapids in the upper tracts, as well as areas of beauty along its lower course; the river is noted for its quick and massive increases in both flow volume and speed during rain, which cause bridges and the river itself to be impassable.
This results in flooded roads and train lines which, in these mountainous areas, tend to be close to the river. This has quite an effect on transportation causing the halt of the Russian forces in the first world war on 8 July 1917 as they tried to drive the Germans from the Austro-Hungarian army out of the region. There have been attempts to use the river for generating Hydro-electric power, but at the present time there are no current plans to re-introduce their use; the name derives from the Scythian word "Str". Where the Opir and Stryi meet, there is a legend that the Ukrainian "Robin Hood", Oleksa Dovbush was wounded, his blood stained the riverbank causing the red rocks that can be seen there today; the Stryi was used as a northern barrier for the Russian Carpathian Front during the first world war. According to the New York Times Current History and Forum periodical, the river was at the edge of an area the Russian army was using to prevent the Austrian forces advance. "It was noted last week that the Russian line formed a huge crescent, the longer arc of which extended from Bartfeld north east along the Carpathian crests, north of Uzsok to a point on the Stryi River."
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, Hellenistic period, it is succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects. Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers, it has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article contains information about the Epic and Classical periods of the language. Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects; the main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Aeolic and Doric, many of them with several subdivisions.
Some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions. There are several historical forms. Homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the "Iliad" and "Odyssey", in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects; the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period, they differ in some of the detail. The only attested dialect from this period is Mycenaean Greek, but its relationship to the historical dialects and the historical circumstances of the times imply that the overall groups existed in some form. Scholars assume that major Ancient Greek period dialect groups developed not than 1120 BCE, at the time of the Dorian invasion—and that their first appearances as precise alphabetic writing began in the 8th century BCE.
The invasion would not be "Dorian" unless the invaders had some cultural relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, who regarded themselves as descendants of the population displaced by or contending with the Dorians; the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects. Allowing for their oversight of Arcadian, an obscure mountain dialect, Cypriot, far from the center of Greek scholarship, this division of people and language is quite similar to the results of modern archaeological-linguistic investigation. One standard formulation for the dialects is: West vs. non-west Greek is the strongest marked and earliest division, with non-west in subsets of Ionic-Attic and Aeolic vs. Arcadocypriot, or Aeolic and Arcado-Cypriot vs. Ionic-Attic. Non-west is called East Greek. Arcadocypriot descended more from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age.
Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect. Thessalian had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Pamphylian Greek, spoken in a small area on the southwestern coast of Anatolia and little preserved in inscriptions, may be either a fifth major dialect group, or it is Mycenaean Greek overlaid by Doric, with a non-Greek native influence. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, or to an island. Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, Northern Peloponnesus Doric; the Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek. All the groups were represented by colonies beyond Greece proper as well, these colonies developed local characteristics under the influence of settlers or neighbors speaking different Greek dialects; the dialects outside the Ionic group are known from inscriptions, notable exceptions being: fragments of the works of the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, in Aeolian, the poems of the Boeotian poet Pindar and other lyric poets in Doric.
After the conquests of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE, a new international dialect known as Koine or Common Greek developed based on Attic Greek, but with influence from other dialects. This dialect replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek. By about the 6th century CE, the Koine had metamorphosized into Medieval Greek. Ancient Macedonian was an Indo-European language at least related to Greek, but its exact relationship is unclear because of insufficient data: a dialect of Greek; the Macedonian dialect (or l
Transnistria, or Transdniestria the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, is a unrecognised state that split off from Moldova after the dissolution of the USSR and consists of a narrow strip of land between the river Dniester and the territory of Ukraine. Transnistria has been recognised only by three other non-recognised states: Abkhazia and South Ossetia; the region is considered by the UN to be part of Moldova. Transnistria is designated by the Republic of Moldova as the Transnistria autonomous territorial unit with special legal status, or Stînga Nistrului. After the dissolution of the USSR, tensions between Moldova and the breakaway Transnistrian territory escalated into a military conflict that started in March 1992 and was concluded by a ceasefire in July of the same year; as part of that agreement, a three-party Joint Control Commission supervises the security arrangements in the demilitarised zone, comprising twenty localities on both sides of the river. Although the ceasefire has held, the territory's political status remains unresolved: Transnistria is an unrecognised but de facto independent semi-presidential republic with its own government, military, postal system and vehicle registration.
Its authorities have adopted a constitution, national anthem and coat of arms. It is the only country still using the sickle on its flag. After a 2005 agreement between Moldova and Ukraine, all Transnistrian companies that seek to export goods through the Ukrainian border must be registered with the Moldovan authorities; this agreement was implemented after the European Union Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine took force in 2005. Most Transnistrians have Moldovan citizenship, but many Transnistrians have Russian and Ukrainian citizenship; the main ethnic groups in 2015 were Russians and Ukrainians. Transnistria, South Ossetia, Artsakh are post-Soviet "frozen conflict" zones; these four recognised states maintain friendly relations with each other and form the Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations. The region can be referred to in English as "Trans-Dniestr" or "Transdniestria"; these names are adaptations of the Romanian colloquial name of the region, "Transnistria" meaning "beyond the River Dniester".
The documents of the government of Moldova refer to the region as Stînga Nistrului meaning "Left Bank of the Dniester". According to the Transnistrian authorities, the name of the state is Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic; the short form of this name is Pridnestrovie. "Pridnestrovie" is a transliteration of the Russian "Приднестровье" meaning " by the Dniester". Transnistria became an autonomous political entity in 1924 with the proclamation of the Moldavian ASSR, which included today's Transnistria and an adjacent area around the city of Balta in modern-day Ukraine, but nothing from Bessarabia, which at the time formed part of Romania. One of the reasons for the creation of the Moldavian ASSR was the desire of the Soviet Union at the time to incorporate Bessarabia; the Moldavian SSR, organised by a decision of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on 2 August 1940, was formed out of a part of Bessarabia and out of a part of the Moldavian ASSR equivalent to present-day Transnistria. In 1941, after Axis forces invaded the Soviet Union during the Second World War, they defeated the Soviet troops in the region and occupied it.
Romania controlled the entire region between Dniester and Southern Bug rivers, including the city of Odessa as local capital. The Romanian-administered territory – called the Transnistria Governorate – with an area of 44,000 km2 and a population of 2.3 million inhabitants, was divided into 13 counties: Ananiev, Berzovca, Golta, Movilau, Odessa, Ovidiopol, Rîbnița, Tiraspol and Tulcin. This enlarged Transnistria was home to nearly 200,000 Romanian/Moldovan-speaking residents; the Romanian administration of Transnistria attempted to stabilise the situation in the area under Romanian control, implementing a process of Romanianization. During the Romanian occupation of 1941–44, between 150,000 and 250,000 Ukrainian and Romanian Jews were deported to Transnistria. After the Red Army reconquered the area in 1944, Soviet authorities executed, exiled or imprisoned hundreds of the Moldavian SSR inhabitants in the following months on charges of collaboration with the "German-fascist occupiers". A campaign was directed against the rich peasant families, who were deported to Kazakhstan and Siberia.
Over the course of two days, 6–7 July 1949, a plan named "Operation South" saw the deportation of over 11,342 families by order of the Moldovian Minister of State Security, Iosif Mordovets. In the 1980s, Mikhail Gorbachev's policies of perestroika and glasnost in the Soviet Union
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
Ukraine, sometimes called the Ukraine, is a country in Eastern Europe. Excluding Crimea, Ukraine has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. Its capital and largest city is Kiev. Ukrainian is the official language and its alphabet is Cyrillic; the dominant religions in the country are Greek Catholicism. Ukraine is in a territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula, which Russia annexed in 2014. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2, making it the largest country within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world; the territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC. During the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture, with the powerful state of Kievan Rus' forming the basis of Ukrainian identity. Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested and divided by a variety of powers, including Lithuania, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Russia. A Cossack republic emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, but its territory was split between Poland and the Russian Empire, merged into the Russian-dominated Soviet Union in the late 1940s as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.
In 1991 Ukraine gained its independence from the Soviet Union in the aftermath of its dissolution at the end of the Cold War. Before its independence, Ukraine was referred to in English as "The Ukraine", but most sources have since moved to drop "the" from the name of Ukraine in all uses. Following its independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state. In 2013, after the government of President Viktor Yanukovych had decided to suspend the Ukraine-European Union Association Agreement and seek closer economic ties with Russia, a several-months-long wave of demonstrations and protests known as the Euromaidan began, which escalated into the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that led to the overthrow of Yanukovych and the establishment of a new government; these events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, the War in Donbass in April 2014. On 1 January 2016, Ukraine applied the economic component of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the European Union.
Ukraine is ranks 88th on the Human Development Index. As of 2018, Ukraine has the second lowest GDP per capita in Europe. At US$40, it has the lowest median wealth per adult in the world, it suffers from a high poverty rate and severe corruption. However, because of its extensive fertile farmlands, Ukraine is one of the world's largest grain exporters. Ukraine maintains the second-largest military in Europe after that of Russia; the country is home to a multi-ethnic population, 77.8 percent of whom are Ukrainians, followed by a large Russian minority, as well as Georgians, Belarusians, Crimean Tatars, Jews and Hungarians. Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers: legislative and judicial branches; the country is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, the GUAM organization, one of the founding states of the Commonwealth of Independent States. There are different hypotheses as to the etymology of the name Ukraine. According to the older widespread hypothesis, it means "borderland", while some more recent linguistic studies claim a different meaning: "homeland" or "region, country"."The Ukraine" used to be the usual form in English, but since the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine, "the Ukraine" has become less common in the English-speaking world, style-guides recommend not using the definite article.
"The Ukraine" now implies disregard for the country's sovereignty, according to U. S. ambassador William Taylor. The Ukrainian position is that the usage of "'The Ukraine' is incorrect both grammatically and politically." Neanderthal settlement in Ukraine is seen in the Molodova archaeological sites which include a mammoth bone dwelling. The territory is considered to be the location for the human domestication of the horse. Modern human settlement in Ukraine and its vicinity dates back to 32,000 BC, with evidence of the Gravettian culture in the Crimean Mountains. By 4,500 BC, the Neolithic Cucuteni–Trypillia culture flourished in wide areas of modern Ukraine including Trypillia and the entire Dnieper-Dniester region. During the Iron Age, the land was inhabited by Cimmerians and Sarmatians. Between 700 BC and 200 BC it was Scythia. Beginning in the sixth century BC, colonies of Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome and the Byzantine Empire, such as Tyras and Chersonesus, were founded on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea.
These colonies thrived well into the 6th century AD. The Goths stayed in the area but came under the sway of the Huns from the 370s AD. In the 7th century AD, the territory of eastern Ukraine was the centre of Old Great Bulgaria. At the end of the century, the majority of Bulgar tribes migrated in different directions, the Khazars took over much of the land. In the 5th and 6th centuries, the Antes were located in the territory of; the Antes were the ancestors of Ukrainians: White Croats, Polans, Dulebes and Tiverians. Migrations from Ukraine throughout the Balkans established many Southern Slavic nations. Northern migrations, reaching to the Ilmen l
Edward Gibbon FRS was an English historian and Member of Parliament. His most important work, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, was published in six volumes between 1776 and 1788 and is known for the quality and irony of its prose, its use of primary sources, its polemical criticism of organised religion. Edward Gibbon was born in 1737, the son of Edward and Judith Gibbon at Lime Grove, in the town of Putney, Surrey, he had six siblings: one sister, all of whom died in infancy. His grandfather named Edward, had lost all of his assets as a result of the South Sea Bubble stock market collapse in 1720, but regained much of his wealth. Gibbon's father was thus able to inherit a substantial estate. One of his grandparents, Catherine Acton, descended from 2nd Baronet; as a youth, Gibbon's health was under constant threat. He described himself as "a puny child, neglected by my Mother, starved by my nurse". At age nine, he was sent to Dr. Woddeson's school at Kingston upon Thames, shortly after which his mother died.
He took up residence in the Westminster School boarding house, owned by his adored "Aunt Kitty", Catherine Porten. Soon after she died in 1786, he remembered her as rescuing him from his mother's disdain, imparting "the first rudiments of knowledge, the first exercise of reason, a taste for books, still the pleasure and glory of my life". By 1751, Gibbon's reading was extensive and pointed toward his future pursuits: Laurence Echard's Roman History, William Howel's An Institution of General History, several of the 65 volumes of the acclaimed Universal History from the Earliest Account of Time. Following a stay at Bath in 1752 to improve his health, at the age of 15 Gibbon was sent by his father to Magdalen College, where he was enrolled as a gentleman-commoner, he was ill-suited, however, to the college atmosphere and rued his 14 months there as the "most idle and unprofitable" of his life. Because he himself says so in his autobiography, it used to be thought that his penchant for "theological controversy" bloomed when he came under the spell of the deist or rationalist theologian Conyers Middleton, the author of Free Inquiry into the Miraculous Powers.
In that tract, Middleton denied the validity of such powers. The product of that disagreement, with some assistance from the work of Catholic Bishop Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet, that of the Elizabethan Jesuit Robert Parsons, yielded the most memorable event of his time at Oxford: his conversion to Roman Catholicism on 8 June 1753, he was further "corrupted" by the'free thinking' deism of the playwright/poet couple David and Lucy Mallet. David Womersley has shown, that Gibbon's claim to having been converted by a reading of Middleton is unlikely, was introduced only into the final draft of the "Memoirs" in 1792–93. Bowersock suggests that Gibbon fabricated the Middleton story retrospectively in his anxiety about the impact of the French Revolution and Edmund Burke's claim that it was provoked by the French philosophes, so influential on Gibbon. Within weeks of his conversion, the adolescent was removed from Oxford and sent to live under the care and tutelage of Daniel Pavillard, Reformed pastor of Lausanne, Switzerland.
It was here that he made one of his life's two great friendships, that of Jacques Georges Deyverdun, that of John Baker Holroyd. Just a year and a half after his father threatened to disinherit him, on Christmas Day, 1754, he reconverted to Protestantism. "The various articles of the Romish creed," he wrote, "disappeared like a dream". He remained in Lausanne for five intellectually productive years, a period that enriched Gibbon's immense aptitude for scholarship and erudition: he read Latin literature, he met the one romance in his life: the daughter of the pastor of Crassy, a young woman named Suzanne Curchod, to become the wife of Louis XVI's finance minister Jacques Necker, the mother of Madame de Staël. The two developed a warm affinity. Gibbon returned to England in August 1758 to face his father. There could be no refusal of the elder's wishes. Gibbon put it this way: "I sighed as a lover, I obeyed as a son." He proceeded to cut off all contact with Curchod as she vowed to wait for him.
Their final emotional break came at Ferney, France in early 1764, though they did see each other at least one more time a year later. Upon his return to England, Gibbon published his first book, Essai sur l'Étude de la Littérature in 1761, which produced an initial taste of celebrity and distinguished him, in Paris at least, as a man of letters. From 1759 to 1770, Gibbon served on active duty and in reserve with the South Hampshire militia, his deactivation in December 1762 coinciding with the militia's dispersal at the end of the Seven Years' War; the following year he embarked on the Grand Tour. In his autobiography Gibbon vividly records his rapture when he neared "the great object of pilgrimage":...at
Odessa Oblast is an oblast of southwestern Ukraine, located along the northern coast of the Black Sea. Its administrative center is the city of Odessa; the region, the largest in Ukraine by area, is the size of Belgium. The length of coastline reaches 300 km; the region has eight sea-ports, over 80,000 ha of vineyards, five of the biggest lakes in Ukraine. One of the largest, Yalpuh Lake, is as large as the city of Odessa itself. Odessa, the administrative center of the oblast, is the third-largest city in Ukraine; the town has become known in Ukraine as the "Black Sea Pearl" or as the "Southern Palmyra". Odessa became the first city in Ukraine to see a car, with the internal combustion engine brought to the city in 1891 by Vasiliy Navrotskiy, the chief editor of Odesskiy Listok. After Catherine the Great founded Odessa, one of her foreign military commanders, José de Ribas, brought the lava for making the cobblestones on vulytsia Deribasivska from the Vesuvius volcano near his native Naples. Under that street are the Odessa catacombs, which purportedly exceed the expanse of the catacombs in Paris or Rome.
Evidence of the earliest inhabitants in this area comes from the settlements and burial grounds of the Neolithic Gumelniţa, Cucuteni-Trypillian and Usatovo cultures, as well as from the tumuli and hoards of the Bronze Age Proto-Indo-Europeans. In the 1st millennium B. C. the Milesian Greeks founded colonies along the northern coast of the Black Sea, including the towns of Olbia, Niconium and Chersonesus. The Greeks left behind painted vessels, sculptures, inscriptions and crafts that indicate the prosperity of their ancient civilisation; the culture of Scythian tribes inhabiting the Black Sea littoral steppes in the first millennium B. C. is represented by finds from settlements and burial grounds, including weapons, bronze cauldrons, other utensils, adornments. By the beginning of the 1st millennium A. D. the Sarmatians displaced the Scythians. In the 3rd–4th centuries A. D. a tribal alliance, represented by the items of Chernyakhov culture, developed. From the middle of the first millennium the formation of the Slavic people began.
In the 9th century the Slavs became united into a state with Kiev as its centre. The Khazars and Pechenegs were the Slavs' neighbours during different times. Archeological evidence of the period of the 9th–14th centuries survives in materials from the settlements and cities of Kievan Rus': Belgorod, Caffa-Theodosia, Berezan Island. In 1593 the Ottoman Empire set up in the area what became known as its Dnieper Province, unofficially known as the Khanate of Ukraine. Russian historiography refers to it as the Ochakov Oblast; the territory of the Odessa oblast passed to Russia in 1791 in the course of the Russian southern expansion towards the Black Sea at the end of the 18th century. After the February Revolution of 1917 in Russia the area became part of the Ukrainian People's Republic, but soon succumbed first to the Russian Volunteer Army and to the Russian Bolshevik Red Army. By 1920 the Soviet authorities had secured the territory of Odessa Oblast, which became part of the Ukrainian SSR; the oblast was established on 27 February 1932 from five districts: Odessa Okruha, Pervomaisk Okruha, Kirovohrad Okruha, Mykolaiv Okruha, Kherson Okruha.
In 1937 eastern portions of the Odessa Oblast were split to create the Mykolaiv Oblast. During World War II Romania occupied the oblast and administered it as part of the Transnistria Governorate. After the war the Soviet administration reestablished the oblast with its pre-war borders. Odessa Oblast expanded in 1954 to absorb Izmail Oblast, formed in 1940 as a result of the Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, when Northern and Southern parts of Bessarabia were given to the Ukrainian SSR. During the 1991 referendum, 85.38% of votes in Odessa Oblast were in favor of the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine. A survey conducted in December 2014 by the Kyiv International Institute of Sociology found 2.3% of the oblast's population supported their region joining Russia, 91.5% did not support the idea, the rest were undecided or did not respond. A poll by Alexei Navalny found similar results; the country's largest oblast by area, it occupies an area of around 33,300 square kilometres.
It is characterised by flat steppes divided by the estuary of the Dniester river. Its Black Sea coast comprises numerous sandy beaches and lagoons; the region's soils are renowned for their fertility, intensive agriculture is the mainstay of the local economy. The southwest has many vineyards, while arable crops are grown throughout the region. Odessa Opera Akkerman fortress Potemkin Stairs Significant branches of the oblast's economy are: oil refining and chemicals processing transportation; the region's industrial capability is principally concentrated around Odessa. The oblast's population is nearly 40 % of whom live in the city of Odessa. Significant Bulgarian and Romanian minorities reside in the province, it has the highest proportion of Jews of any oblast in Ukraine and there is a small Greek community in