Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC since 1963. The programme depicts the adventures of a Time Lord called "the Doctor", an extraterrestrial being, to all appearances human, from the planet Gallifrey; the Doctor explores the universe in a time-travelling space ship called the TARDIS. Its exterior appears as a blue British police box, a common sight in Britain in 1963 when the series first aired. Accompanied by a number of companions, the Doctor combats a variety of foes while working to save civilisations and help people in need; the show is a significant part of British popular culture, elsewhere it has gained a cult following. It has influenced generations of British television professionals, many of whom grew up watching the series; the programme ran from 1963 to 1989. There was an unsuccessful attempt to revive regular production in 1996 with a backdoor pilot, in the form of a television film titled Doctor Who; the programme was relaunched in 2005, since has been produced in-house by BBC Wales in Cardiff.
Doctor Who has spawned numerous spin-offs, including comic books, novels, audio dramas, the television series Torchwood, The Sarah Jane Adventures, K-9, Class, has been the subject of many parodies and references in popular culture. Thirteen actors have headlined the series as the Doctor; the transition from one actor to another is written into the plot of the show with the concept of regeneration into a new incarnation, a plot device in which a Time Lord "transforms" into a new body when the current one is too badly harmed to heal normally. Each actor's portrayal is unique, but all represent stages in the life of the same character, together, they form a single lifetime with a single narrative; the time-travelling feature of the plot means that different incarnations of the Doctor meet. The Doctor is portrayed by Jodie Whittaker, who took on the role after Peter Capaldi's exit in the 2017 Christmas special "Twice Upon a Time". Doctor Who follows the adventures of the title character, a rogue Time Lord from the planet Gallifrey who goes by the name "the Doctor".
The Doctor fled Gallifrey in a stolen TARDIS, a time machine that travels by materialising into and dematerialising out of the time vortex. The TARDIS has a vast interior but appears smaller on the outside, is equipped with a "chameleon circuit" intended to make the machine take on the appearance of local objects as a disguise. Across time and space, the Doctor's many incarnations find events that pique their curiosity and try to prevent evil forces from harming innocent people or changing history, using only ingenuity and minimal resources, such as the versatile sonic screwdriver; the Doctor travels alone and brings one or more companions to share these adventures. These companions are humans, owing to the Doctor's fascination with planet Earth, which leads to frequent collaborations with the international military task force UNIT when the Earth is threatened; the Doctor is centuries old and, as a Time Lord, has the ability to regenerate in case of mortal damage to the body, taking on a new appearance and personality.
The Doctor has gained numerous reoccurring enemies during their travels, including the Daleks, the Cybermen, the Master, another renegade Time Lord. Doctor Who first appeared on BBC TV at 17:16:20 GMT on Saturday, 23 November 1963, it was to be each episode 25 minutes of transmission length. Discussions and plans for the programme had been in progress for a year; the head of drama Sydney Newman was responsible for developing the programme, with the first format document for the series being written by Newman along with the head of the script department Donald Wilson and staff writer C. E. Webber. Writer Anthony Coburn, story editor David Whitaker and initial producer Verity Lambert heavily contributed to the development of the series; the programme was intended to appeal to a family audience as an educational programme using time travel as a means to explore scientific ideas and famous moments in history. On 31 July 1963, Whitaker commissioned Terry Nation to write a story under the title The Mutants.
As written, the Daleks and Thals were the victims of an alien neutron bomb attack but Nation dropped the aliens and made the Daleks the aggressors. When the script was presented to Newman and Wilson it was rejected as the programme was not permitted to contain any "bug-eyed monsters". According to producer Verity Lambert. We had a bit of a crisis of confidence. Had we had anything else ready we would have made that." Nation's script became the second Doctor. The serial introduced the eponymous aliens that would become the series' most popular monsters, was responsible for the BBC's first merchandising boom; the BBC drama department's serials division produced the programme for 26 seasons, broadcast on BBC 1. Falling viewing numbers, a decline in the public perception of the show and a less-prominent transmission slot saw production suspended in 1989 by Jonathan Powell, controller of BBC 1. Although it was cancelled with the decision not to commission a planned 27th season, which would have been broadcast in 1990, the BBC affirmed, over severa
Sendai Domain was a Japanese domain of the Edo period. Most of its holdings were contiguous, covering all of present-day Miyagi Prefecture, small portions of southern Iwate Prefecture, a portion of northeastern Fukushima Prefecture; the domain's capital, the ruling family's castle, were located in what became the modern Sendai City. Ruled for the entirety of its history by the Date clan, its jitsudaka, or true income level, is said to have been somewhere between one and two million koku. Sendai was the focal point of the Ōuetsu Reppan Dōmei during the Boshin War. Unlike the nearby Aizu domain, Sendai survived the war intact, though with a reduced income rating, it was disbanded with the other domains in 1873. The Sendai domain was founded in the closing years of the 16th century; when Date Masamune presented himself to Toyotomi Hideyoshi, undertaking the Odawara Campaign, he was granted the former fiefs of the Kasai 葛西 and Ōsaki 大崎 families, in return for his hereditary lands of Yonezawa 米沢, Aizu 会津, Sendō 仙道.
Upon entry into his new fief, Masamune took up residence in Iwadeyama Castle, started construction on Sendai Castle. The name of Sendai at this time was written 千代, Masamune changed it to 仙臺 (Later changed to the current 仙台）. During the Sekigahara Campaign, the Date clan had been promised an increase in formal domain income to one million koku. A relief sculpture on the base of Masamune's equestrian statue in Sendai Castle commemorates his entry into the city, a small village. A list of the daimyōs of Sendai follows below, in chronological order: Date Masamune, r. 1600–1636 Date Tadamune, r. 1636–1658 Date Tsunamune, r. 1658–1660 Date Tsunamura, r. 1660–1703 Date Yoshimura, r. 1703–1743 Date Munemura, r. 1743–1756 Date Shigemura, r. 1756–1790 Date Narimura, r. 1790–1796 Date Chikamune, r. 1796–1809 Date Narimune, r. 1809–1819 Date Nariyoshi, r. 1819–1827 Date Narikuni, r. 1827–1841 Date Yoshikuni, r. 1841–1868 Date Munemoto, r. 1868Munemoto ruled as the 14th and final lord of Sendai in 1868, when the domain was abolished.
He thus became the first imperial governor of Sendai, serving until 1870, was succeeded by a cousin, Date Muneatsu, who served as the second imperial governor until 1871. The Sendai domain, like many other domains across the country, had its political center in its castle town. However, some retainers had their personal landholdings scattered throughout the domain's territory, as it was contiguous, their presence provided a secondary, more local level of supervision. Certain of the higher-ranked retainers of Sendai separated from the main domain and founded their own territories. Mizusawa Domain was one such short-lived subdomain; the Ichinoseki Domain, ruled by the Tamura family, was another subdomain, survived to the end of the Edo period. There were eleven main ranks into. Ichimon 一門: blood relations of the Date clan. Held prestige but no actual political or administrative role. Ikka 一家: The families who ran much of the high-level day-to-day affairs of the Date clan. Jun ikka 準一家: Families who had lost their heads or had been incapacitated due to internal strife in the Date clan.
Ichizoku 一族: Fudai retainers of the Date clan. Shukurō 宿労: Hereditary bugyō. Chakuza 着座: Retainers who had the right to report to the castle and present the lord with a sword and stirrups for new year's celebrations, in return receive a cup of sake from the lord; this rank was founded after Date Masamune's tenure as lord. Tachi-jō 太刀上: Retainers who had the right to present the lord with a sword at new year's festivities, in return received a cup of sake from the lord; this was a rank founded after Masamune's tenure. Meshidashi 召出: Retainers who had the right to appear at the domainal new year's festivities; as with chakuza and tachi-jō, this rank was founded after Masamune's time. Heishi 平士 and Ōbanshi 大番士: The main body of Sendai's fighting force, the rank was organized in Date Masamune's time and revived during the tenure of the fourth daimyo Tsunamura. One kumi 組 consisted of 360 men, the domain had 10 such units, setting their number at 3600. Kumi-shi 組士: The men under the heishi and ōbanshi.
Footmen, tea instructors, hawking assistants, entourage members, among others, all came from this category. Sotsu 卒: Foot soldiers, lesser menials, so on; the domain's school was known as the Yōkendō 養賢堂. A medical school was established in Sendai in 1822. In 1868, the Sendai Domain did not have forces active in the Battle of Toba–Fushimi, it was approached several times by the nascent imperial government with requests to assist in subduing Aizu. Sendai did provide some cooperation to the new government, accepted its envoys, under Kujō Michitaka, that spring. However, Date Yoshikuni, the daimyō of Sendai, opposed the harshness shown against Aizu, saying that it was like "a sentence being passed on one who never had a trial". Despite its efforts at negotiating on behalf of Aizu, Sendai was cooperative with the
Chen Cuichang, better known by her stage name Xiang Yun, is a Singaporean actress & television host. She is referred to as MediaCorp's first "Ah Jie" for being among the first locally trained artistes and has been in the entertainment industry for more than 30 years. Chen is one of the first batch of graduates from SBC's drama training class, she began her career in children's drama in 1980 and proceeded to act in the drama series Double Blessings and All That Glitters Is Not Gold in 1983. It was her role as "Ah Mei", love interest of Huang Wenyong's character "Ah Shui", in the 1984 blockbuster drama series The Awakening that propelled her to fame, evidenced by the fact that she and Huang were named among the "Top 5 Favourite On-Screen Partners" and "Top 5 Most Memorable Drama Characters" of the last 25 years at the Star Awards 2007 anniversary special. In 1997, she played Singaporean war heroine Elizabeth Choy in the war drama The Price of Peace. After the birth of her second child, she took a brief hiatus from acting.
She returned to television in 2000 and has since been cast in major roles in many of MediaCorp's large-scale productions, such as Double Happiness, Portrait of Home, The Little Nyonya and Kinship. Despite competition from younger actresses, Chen's popularity remained high as she was voted the "Top 10 Most Popular Artistes" in the annual Star Awards from 2000 to 2010 and was awarded the coveted "All-Time Favourite Artiste Award", she has won the "Best Supporting Actress" award for a record 4 times, in years 1998, 2000, 2001 and 2009. In 2011, she received the All-Time Favourite Artiste award after winning the Top 10 Most Popular Female Artistes award from 2000-2010 respectively. Chen is married to former MediaCorp actor Edmund Chen, they first met on the set of Patrol and married after a whirlwind romance, which drew much media attention as unpublicised celebrity marriages were uncommon in the local entertainment industry at that time. They have a son and daughter, Yixin. Profile on xinmsn