Doctor of Divinity is an advanced or honorary academic degree in divinity. Doctor of Divinity should not be confused with the Doctor of Theology degree, a research doctorate in theology awarded by universities and divinity schools, such as Duke Divinity School and others. However, many universities award a PhD rather than a ThD to graduates of higher-level religious studies programs. Another research doctorate in theology is the Doctor of Sacred Theology, in particular awarded by Catholic pontifical universities and faculties; the Doctor of Ministry is another doctorate-level religious degree, but is a professional doctorate rather than a research doctorate. In the United Kingdom, the degree is a higher doctorate conferred by universities upon a religious scholar of standing and distinction for accomplishments beyond the PhD level; the candidate will submit a collection of work, published in a peer-reviewed context and pay an examination fee. The university assembles a committee of academics both internal and external who review the work submitted and decide on whether the candidate deserves the doctorate based on the submission.
Most universities restrict candidacy to academic staff of several years' standing. In the United States, the degree is conferred honoris causa by a church-related college, seminary, or university to recognize the recipient's ministry-orientated accomplishments. For example, Martin Luther King Jr. subsequently received honorary Doctor of Divinity degrees from the Chicago Theological Seminary, Boston University, Wesleyan College, Springfield College. Billy Graham was addressed as "Dr. Graham", though his highest earned degree was a Bachelor of Arts degree in anthropology from Wheaton College. Under federal law, a 1974 judgement accepted expert opinion that an "Honorary Doctor of Divinity is a religious title with no academic standing; such titles may be issued by bona fide churches and religious denominations, such as plaintiff, so long as their issuance is limited to a course of instruction in the principles of the church or religious denomination". However, under the California Education Code, "an institution owned and operated and maintained by a religious organization lawfully operating as a nonprofit religious corporation pursuant to Part 4 of Division 2 of Title 1 of the Corporations Code" that offers "instruction... limited to the principles of that religious organization, or to courses offered pursuant to Section 2789 of Business and Professions Code" may confer "degrees and diplomas only in the beliefs and practices of the church, religious denomination, or religious organization" so long as "the diploma or degree is limited to evidence of completion of that education".
In a 1976 interview with Morley Safer of the TV newsmagazine 60 Minutes, Universal Life Church founder Kirby J. Hensley professed that the church's honorary Doctor of Divinity degree was "...just a little piece of paper. And it ain't worth anything, you know, under God's mighty green Earth—you know what I mean?—as far as value." In 2006, Universal Life Church minister Kevin Andrews advised potential degree recipients not to misrepresent the title as an educational achievement to employers, recommending instead that it would be appropriate to list such credentials "under the heading of Titles, Awards, or Other Achievements" on curricula vitae. As of 2009, 20 U. S. states and Puerto Rico had some form of exemption provision under which religious institutions can grant religious degrees without accreditation or government oversight. In the Catholic Church, Doctor of Divinity is an honorary degree denoting ordination as bishop. Christopher St. Germain's 1528 book The Doctor and Student describes a dialogue between a Doctor of Divinity and a law student in England containing the grounds of those laws together with questions and cases concerning the equity thereof.
Ali Bey al-Kabir was a Mamluk leader in Egypt. Nicknamed Jinn Ali and Bulut Kapan, Ali Bey rose to prominence in 1768 when he rebelled against his Ottoman rulers, making the Egypt Eyalet of the Ottoman Empire independent for a short time, his rule ended following the insubordination of his most trusted general, Abu al-Dahab, which led to Ali Bey's downfall and death. Ali Bey was of ethnic Georgian origin; the Encyclopedia of Islam adds that according to Ali Bey's contemporary biographer, Sauveur Lusignan, he was "supposedly" the son of a certain David, a Greek Orthodox priest. However, according to Alexander Mikaberidze, Ali Bey's father was a priest in the Georgian Orthodox Church, he was brought to Cairo in 1743 where he was sold into slavery. He was recruited into the Mamluk force in which he rose in ranks and influence, winning the top office of Shaykh al-Balad in 1760. Attempting to gain complete control, he sought to exile his rival Abd el-Rahman in 1762 when the latter was conducting the caravan of Mecca, but was instead sentenced to exile at Gaza.
He hired European advisers to the military and bought European weapons". However, "... he did not make use of native Egyptians or call in foreigners for technical advice. He made no effort to build a modern army..."In 1768, Ali Bey deposed the Ottoman governor Rakım Mehmed Pasha and assumed the post of acting governor. He stopped the annual tribute to the Sublime Porte and in an unprecedented usurpation of the Ottoman Sultan's privileges had his name struck on local coins in 1769 declaring Egypt's independence from Ottoman rule. In 1770 he gained control of the Hijaz and a year temporarily occupied Syria, thereby reconstituting the Mamluk state that had disappeared in 1517. However, a few days after a major victory over Governor Uthman Pasha al-Kurji by the allied forces of Zahir al-Umar and Ali Bey's forces on 6 June 1771, Abu al-Dhahab, the commander of his troops in Syria, refused to continue the fight after an Ottoman agent stirred up mistrust between him and Ali Bey, hastily returned to Egypt.
As a result, Ali Bey lost power in 1772. The following year, he was killed in Cairo. However, the date of 1772 is disputed. Uzunçarşılı claims that he held power until 1773, but Sicill-i Osmani disagrees, saying that he fell out of power in 1769 and naming three interceding governors by name between the end of Ali Bey's reign in 1769 and Kara Halil Pasha's appointment in 1773. First-person source Al-Jabarti declares that Ali Bey gave up power in 1769 when a new governor from the Ottoman capital of Istanbul was assigned by the sultan, it is that Uzunçarşılı read Al-Jabarti's chronicle, but failed to note the narrative about the new governor coming from Istanbul in 1769, since after that, Al-Jabarti does not name any other pasha by name or sequence until 1773 with Kara Halil Pasha. List of Ottoman governors of Egypt Crecelius, Daniel. "ʿAlī Bey al- Kabīr". Encyclopaedia of Islam 3. Doi:10.1163/1573-3912_ei3_SIM_0207. Hathaway, Jane; the Arab Lands under Ottoman Rule: 1516-1800. Routledge. Mikaberidze, Alexander.
"Ali Bey al-Kabir". In Mikaberidze, Alexander. Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia. Vol. I. ABC-CLIO. Mikaberidze, Alexander. Historical Dictionary of Georgia. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1442241466. Virginia H. Aksan. Ottoman Wars, 1700–1870: An Empire Besieged, 234. Sauveur Lusignan: A history of the Revolution of Ali Bey against the Ottoman Porte. London 1783
Tabby's Star known as KIC 8462852, Boyajian's Star or WTF Star, is an F-type main-sequence star located in the constellation Cygnus 1,470 light-years from Earth. Unusual light fluctuations of the star, including up to a 22% dimming in brightness, were discovered by citizen scientists as part of the Planet Hunters project. In September 2015, astronomers and citizen scientists associated with the project posted a preprint of an article describing the data and possible interpretations; the discovery was made from data collected by the Kepler space telescope, which observed changes in the brightness of distant stars to detect exoplanets. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the star's large irregular changes in brightness as measured by its light curve, but none to date explain all aspects of the curve. One explanation is. In another explanation, the star's luminosity is modulated by changes in the efficiency of heat transport to its photosphere, so no external obscuration is required.
A third hypothesis, based on a lack of observed infrared light, posits a swarm of cold, dusty comet fragments in a eccentric orbit, the notion that disturbed comets from such a cloud could exist in high enough numbers to obscure 22% of the star's observed luminosity has been doubted. Another hypothesis is that a large number of small masses in "tight formation" are orbiting the star. Furthermore, spectroscopic study of the system has found no evidence for coalescing material or hot close-in dust or circumstellar matter from an evaporating or exploding planet within a few astronomical units of the mature central star, it has been hypothesized that the changes in brightness could be signs of activity associated with intelligent extraterrestrial life constructing a Dyson swarm. Tabby's Star is not the only star that has large irregular dimmings, but all other such stars are young stellar objects called YSO dippers, which have different dimming patterns. An example of such an object is EPIC 204278916.
New light fluctuation events of Tabby's Star began in the middle of May 2017. Except for a period between late-December 2017 and mid-February 2018 when the star was obscured by the Sun, the fluctuations have been observed to have continued as of July 2018. In September 2019, astronomers reported that the observed dimmings of Tabby's Star may have been produced by fragments resulting from the disruption of an orphaned exomoon. An overall study of other similar stars has been presented; the names "Tabby's Star" and "Boyajian's Star" refer to American astronomer Tabetha S. Boyajian, the lead author of the scientific paper that announced the discovery of the star's irregular light fluctuations in 2015; the nickname "WTF Star" is a reference to the paper's subtitle "where's the flux?", which highlights the observed dips in the star's radiative flux. The nickname is a double entendre for the colloquial expression of disbelief, "what the fuck", or "WTF"; the star has been given the nickname "LGM-2" – a homage to the first pulsar discovered, PSR B1919+21, given the nickname "LGM-1" when it was theorized to be a transmission from an extraterrestrial civilization.
Alternate designations in various star catalogues have been given to Tabby's Star. In the Kepler Input Catalog, a collection of astronomical objects catalogued by the Kepler space telescope, Tabby's Star is known as KIC 8462852. In the Tycho-2 Catalogue, an enhanced collection of stars catalogued by Hipparcos, the star is known as TYC 3162-665-1. In the infrared Two Micron All-Sky Survey, the star is identified as 2MASS J20061546+4427248. Tabby's Star in the constellation Cygnus is located halfway between the bright stars Deneb and Delta Cygni as part of the Northern Cross. Tabby's Star is situated south of 31 Cygni, northeast of the star cluster NGC 6866. While only a few arcminutes away from the cluster, it is unrelated and closer to the Sun than it is to the star cluster. With an apparent magnitude of 11.7, the star cannot be seen by the naked eye, but is visible with a 5-inch telescope in a dark sky with little light pollution. Tabby's Star was observed as early as the year 1890; the star was cataloged in the Tycho, 2MASS, UCAC4, WISE astronomical catalogs.
The main source of information about the luminosity fluctuations of Tabby's Star is the Kepler space observatory. During its primary and extended mission from 2009 to 2013 it continuously monitored the light curves of over 100,000 stars in a patch of sky in the constellations Cygnus and Lyra. Observations of the luminosity of the star by the Kepler space telescope show small, non-periodic dips in brightness, along with two large recorded dips in brightness two years apart; the amplitude of the changes in the star's brightness, the aperiodicity of the changes, mean that this star is of particular interest for astronomers. The star's changes in brightness are consistent with many small masses orbiting the star in "tight formation"; the first major dip, on 5 March 2011, reduced the star's brightness by up to 15%, the next 726 days by up to 22%. In comparison, a planet the size of Jupiter would only obscure a star of this size by 1%, indicating that whatever is blocking light during the star's major dips is not a planet, but rather something covering up to half the width of the star.
Due to the failure of two of Kepler's reaction wheels, the star's predicted
In electronic engineering, a through-silicon via or through-chip via is a vertical electrical connection that passes through a silicon wafer or die. TSVs are high-performance interconnect techniques used as an alternative to wire-bond and flip chips to create 3D packages and 3D integrated circuits. Compared to alternatives such as package-on-package, the interconnect and device density is higher, the length of the connections becomes shorter. Dictated by the manufacturing process, there exist three different types of TSVs: via-first TSVs are fabricated before the individual devices are patterned, via-middle TSVs are fabricated after the individual devices are patterned but before the metal layers, via-last TSVs are fabricated after the BEOL process. Via-middle TSVs are a popular option for advanced 3D ICs as well as for interposer stacks. TSVs through the front end of line have to be accounted for during the EDA and manufacturing phases; that is because TSVs induce thermo-mechanical stress in the FEOL layer, thereby impacting the transistor behaviour.
CMOS image sensors were among the first applications to adopt TSV in volume manufacturing. In initial CIS applications, TSVs were formed on the backside of the image sensor wafer to form interconnects, eliminate wire bonds, allow for reduced form factor and higher-density interconnects. Chip stacking came about only with the advent of backside illuminated CIS, involved reversing the order of the lens and photodiode from traditional front-side illumination so that the light coming through the lens first hits the photodiode and the circuitry; this was accomplished by flipping the photodiode wafer, thinning the backside, bonding it on top of the readout layer using a direct oxide bond, with TSVs as interconnects around the perimeter. A 3D package contains two or more chips stacked vertically so that they occupy less space and/or have greater connectivity. An alternate type of 3D package can be found in IBM's Silicon Carrier Packaging Technology, where ICs are not stacked but a carrier substrate containing TSVs is used to connect multiple ICs together in a package.
In most 3D packages, the stacked chips are wired together along their edges. In some new 3D packages, TSVs replace edge wiring by creating vertical connections through the body of the chips; the resulting package has width. Because no interposer is required, a TSV 3D package can be flatter than an edge-wired 3D package; this TSV technique is sometimes referred to as TSS. A 3D integrated circuit is a single integrated circuit built by stacking silicon wafers and/or dies and interconnecting them vertically so that they behave as a single device. By using TSV technology, 3D ICs can pack a great deal of functionality into a small “footprint.” The different devices in the stack may be heterogeneous, e.g. combining CMOS logic, DRAM and III-V materials into a single IC. In addition, critical electrical paths through the device can be drastically shortened, leading to faster operation; the Wide I/O 3D DRAM memory standard includes TSV in the design. The origins of the TSV concept can be traced back to William Shockley's patent "Semiconductive Wafer and Method of Making the Same" filed in 1958 and granted in 1962, further developed by IBM researchers Merlin Smith and Emanuel Stern with their patent "Methods of Making Thru-Connections in Semiconductor Wafers" filed in 1964 and granted in 1967, the latter describing a method for etching a hole through silicon.
TSV was not designed for 3D integration, but the first 3D chips based on TSV were invented in the 1980s. The first three-dimensional integrated circuit stacked chips fabricated with a TSV process were invented in 1980s Japan. Hitachi filed a Japanese patent in 1983, followed by Fujitsu in 1984. In 1986, Fujitsu filed a Japanese patent describing a stacked chip structure using TSV. In 1989, Mitsumasa Koyonagi of Tohoku University pioneered the technique of wafer-to-wafer bonding with TSV, which he used to fabricate a 3D LSI chip in 1989. In 1999, the Association of Super-Advanced Electronics Technologies in Japan began funding the development of 3D IC chips using TSV technology, called the "R&D on High Density Electronic System Integration Technology" project; the Koyanagi Group at Tohoku University used TSV technology to fabricate a three-layer stacked image sensor chip in 1999, a three-layer memory chip in 2000, a three-layer artificial retina chip in 2001, a three-layer microprocessor in 2002, a ten-layer memory chip in 2005.
The inter-chip via method was developed in 1997 by a Fraunhofer–Siemens research team including Peter Ramm, D. Bollmann, R. Braun, R. Buchner, U. Cao-Minh, Manfred Engelhardt and Armin Klumpp, it was a variation of the TSV process, was called SLID technology. The term "through-silicon via" was coined by Tru-Si Technologies researchers Sergey Savastiouk, O. Siniaguine, E. Korczynski, who proposed a TSV method for a 3D wafer-level packaging solution in 2000. Savastiouk became the co-founder and CEO of ALLVIA Inc. From the beginning, his vision of the business plan was to create a through silicon interconnect since these would offer significant performance improvements over wire bonds. Savastiouk published two articles on the topic in Solid State Technology, first in January 200
Ken Murray is a retired family medical doctor who had a private practice of general medicine in Studio City, California for about 25 years, until his retirement in 2006. He held a Clinical Assistant Professorship in Family Medicine at the University of Southern California, until his retirement. Murray is most notable for the national attention created by the publication of his article on end-of-life issues, titled "How Doctors Die", which went viral on the internet, it generated a national conversation on issues related to patient wishes at their end of life, quality issues related to that. He has been a long-time commentator on health care systems managed care. Murray has been interviewed such as NPR, the New York Times, physician education sites. Murray was a reviewer for "How To Report Statistics in Medicine:Annotated Guidelines for Authors and Reviewers", by Lang and Secic, an important reference in preparing and writing scientific literature articles. Murray was a physician advisor/editor for the now defunct "Weekly Briefings From the New England Journal of Medicine" He was a founder of Lakeside Medical Group in Burbank, served on its board for 25 years, on the boards of several of its derivative organizations, was an corporate officer, was a medical director for many years.
Murray's lifelong interest in clean water has led him to work as a wilderness ranger in the High Sierra, he has served in a volunteer advisory capacity to the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power's Recycled Water Advisory Board. He serves on the Integrated Resources Plan for the City of Los Angeles, integrating water management for the city; as part of that committee, he was jointly awarded the 2011 United States Water Prize. Zocalo Public Square article by Dr. Murray, "How Doctors Die" Washington Monthly article by national columnust Ezra Klein, which includes reference to how Dr. Murray is influencing the national discussion on dying
François Hérincq was a French botanist and gardener at the Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris. He was the editor of "L'Horticulteur français, journal des amateurs et des intérêts horticoles", published from 1851-1872, illustrating some 414 plants; the botanical genus. "L'Horticulteur Francais de Mil Huit Cent Cinquante Et Un: Journal Des Amateurs Et Des Interets Horticoles" - François Hérincq "Flore des jardins de l'Europe, manuel général des plantes, arbres et arbustes" - Antoine Jacques, François Hérincq, Charles Naudin "Le Règne végétal divisé en traité de botanique générale, flore médicale et usuelle, horticulture botanique" - François Hérincq "Le nouveau jardinier illustré" "Il n'y a pas de sève descendante, extrait des dissertations sur la végétation" - François Hérincq "Observations critiques sur l'origine des plantes domestiques" - François Hérincq "La Verite Sur Le Pretendu Silphion de La Cyrenaique" - Francois Herincq "Végétaux d'ornement: donnant des notions générales sur l'horticulture florale" - François Hérincq, Aristide Dupuis et A. Pilon et Cie Works by or about François Hérincq at Internet Archive