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Dodge

Dodge is an American brand of automobile manufactured by FCA US LLC, based in Auburn Hills, Michigan. Dodge vehicles include performance cars, though for much of its existence Dodge was Chrysler's mid-priced brand above Plymouth. Founded as the Dodge Brothers Company machine shop by brothers Horace Elgin Dodge and John Francis Dodge in the early 1900s, Dodge was a supplier of parts and assemblies for Detroit-based automakers and began building complete automobiles under the "Dodge Brothers" brand in 1914, predating the founding of Chrysler Corporation; the factory was located in Hamtramck and was called the Dodge Main factory from 1910 until its closing in January 1980. Both the Dodge brothers died in 1920, the company was sold by their families to Dillon, Read & Co. in 1925 before being sold to Chrysler in 1928. Dodge branded vehicles consisted of trucks and full-sized passenger cars through the 1970s, though it made compact cars and midsize cars; the 1973 oil crisis and its subsequent impact on the American automobile industry led Chrysler to develop the K platform of compact to midsize cars for the 1981 model year.

The K platform and its derivatives are credited with reviving Chrysler's business in the 1980s. The Dodge brand has withstood the multiple ownership changes at Chrysler from 1998 to 2009, including its short-lived merger with Daimler-Benz AG from 1998 to 2007, its subsequent sale to Cerberus Capital Management, its 2009 bailout by the United States government, its subsequent Chapter 11 bankruptcy and acquisition by Fiat. In 2011, Dodge and its model sub-brands, Dodge Ram, Dodge Viper were separated. Dodge said that the Viper would be an SRT product and Ram will be a standalone marque. In 2014, SRT was merged back into Dodge; that year, Chrysler Group was renamed FCA US LLC, corresponding with the merger of Fiat S.p. A. and Chrysler Group into the single corporate structure of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. Horace and John Dodge founded the Dodge Brothers Company in Detroit in 1900, found work manufacturing precision engine and chassis components for the city's growing number of automobile firms. Chief among these customers were the established Olds Motor Vehicle Company and the new Ford Motor Company.

Henry Ford selected the Dodge brothers to supply a wide range of components for his original Model A that included the complete chassis. Henry offered the Dodge brothers a 10% share in his new company in return for $10,000 worth of goods; the first machine shop where the brothers worked as parts suppliers for Olds and Ford was located at the Boydell Building on Beaubien Street at Lafayette. This location was replaced by a larger facility at Hastings Street and Monroe Avenue, now a parking garage for the Greektown Casino Hotel. By 1910 the Dodge Main factory was built in Hamtramck, where it remained until 1979; the Dodge Brothers Motor Company was established in 1913 and by 1914, John and Horace designed and debuted the first car of their own – the four-cylinder Dodge Model 30/35 touring car. Marketed as a more upscale competitor to the ubiquitous Ford Model T, it pioneered or made standard many features taken for granted like all-steel body construction as the vast majority of cars worldwide still used wood-framing under steel panels).

Once the Dodge brothers produced their own car, John Dodge was once quoted as saying, "Someday, people who own a Ford are going to want an automobile". As a result of this, the brothers' well-earned reputation for the highest quality truck and motor parts they made for other successful vehicles, Dodge Brothers cars were ranked at second place for U. S. sales as early as 1916. That same year, Henry Ford decided to stop paying stock dividends to finance the construction of his new River Rouge complex, the Dodges filed a suit to protect their annual stock earnings of one million dollars, leading Ford to buy out his shareholders, they had earned $9,871,500 in dividends making a total return of $34,871,500 on their original $10,000 investment. The contract with Ford set them up for life. In 1916, the Dodge Brothers vehicles won acclaim for their durability in military service. First with the U. S. Army's Pancho Villa Expedition, during the 1910s U. S. Mexico Border War — the U. S. military's first operation to use truck convoys.

General "Blackjack" Pershing procured a fleet of 150 to 250 Dodge Brothers vehicles for the Mexico campaign. Touring cars were used as reconnaissance vehicles. One notable instance was in May when the 6th Infantry received a reported sighting of Julio Cárdenas, one of Villa's most trusted subordinates. Lt. George S. Patton led ten soldiers and two civilian guides in three Dodge Model 30 touring cars to conduct America's first motorised military raid at a ranch house in San Miguelito, Sonora. During the ensuing firefight the party killed three men. Patton's men tied the bodies to the hoods of the Dodges, returning to headquarters in Dublán and an excited reception from US newspapermen. Subse

South Dakota School for the Blind

The former South Dakota School for the Blind campus is located on Coteau Street in Gary, South Dakota. The school served as a specialized facility for educating the state's blind children. Consisting of eight buildings constructed between 1899 and 1925, it is now home to the Buffalo Ridge Resort; the campus was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1988. The citizens of Gary, South Dakota were invested in bringing a facility for blind people into the town, proposed that their old Deuel county courthouse be used for the building, as they had lost their county seat and no longer had need for the courthouse. However, after inspection by the Board of Charities and Corrections, the town built a new building instead, to better accommodate the future students; the South Dakota School for the Blind was opened on March 1, 1900, was the United States' 42nd school for the blind. In 1945, the school came under the control of the South Dakota Board of Regents. Beginning in 1957, plans for moving the school began, as the facilities were subpar and the students did not have access to a city.

The school was moved to a new campus in Aberdeen in 1961, after this the campus served for a few years as an elderly home. The students who studied at South Dakota's School for the Blind followed a curriculum similar to that of their non-visually impaired peers; the school taught braille in addition to their general coursework, various other courses on things like piano tuning and family and consumer sciences. Additionally, the school kept its own animals and gardens for dairy, meat products and vegetables, which were maintained by and served to the students and faculty who ate at the school. One feature of the school was that it contained tunnels between the separate buildings, which allowed students to travel between buildings without having to go outside into the harsh South Dakota winters. In the 1980s the building which housed South Dakota's original school for the blind fell out of use. In 2008, Joe Kolbach turned it into the Buffalo Ridge Resort. Kolbach has used the resort to house young adults who were in the foster care system, in an effort to help them transition into adult life.

Some visitors at the resort have claimed to see ghosts of former students during their visits. National Register of Historic Places listings in Deuel County, South Dakota Buffalo Ridge Resort web site

Walter Naegle

Walter Naegle is the surviving partner of the late American Civil Rights leader Bayard Rustin, the executive director of the Bayard Rustin Fund, which commemorates Rustin's life and legacy. Born in Morristown, New Jersey, Naegle was raised in Succasunna, New Jersey, in a Roman Catholic home with six siblings. During high school in the 1960s, he became interested in the African-American struggle for civil rights and social justice with its commitment to nonviolence as the means to bring about democratic change. After attending the University of Bridgeport for one year, he left to join VISTA, worked for a year in the Hilliard Houses Senior Center an agency of Hull House Association; as his interest in nonviolence and pacifism grew, he decided to confront the selective service system, writing a letter to his draft board stating that he could not cooperate with the Selective Service and would refuse induction where he called. He was summoned to report for induction, did not appear, but was never indicted because the local draft board had acted improperly in his case.

He found a studio apartment in Spanish Harlem. He worked as a psychiatric technician at the New York State Psychiatric Institute until September 1972, both in the children's ward and on a unit researching bipolar disorder. During this time he attended night school at the Germain School of Photography in lower Manhattan and began taking photographs with a medium format camera, he met Bayard Rustin in April 1977. The day that I met Bayard I was on my way to Times Square. We were on the same corner waiting for the light to change, he had a wonderful shock of white hair. I guess he was of my parents' generation. After a few months, the two became steady partners. Naegle returned to school in the fall of 1977, studying at Fordham University where he was hired to work in the Development Office and in the Graduate School of Education, he was graduated summa cum laude in 1981 with a bachelor's degree in Studio Art. He moved in with Rustin. In 2016 Rustin's residence was listed in the National Register of Historic Places.

Because same-sex marriage was illegal at the time, Rustin adopted Naegle in 1982. The two were together for 10 years until Rustin's death in 1987. On November 20, 2013, Naegle accepted the Medal of Freedom from President Barack Obama in honor of Rustin's work of 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, he and Sally Ride's partner, Tam O'Shaughnessy, were the first LGBT partners to accept the award for their late partners. Troublemaker for Justice: The Story of Bayard Rustin, the Man Behind the March on Washington, ISBN 9780872867659