The domestic dog is a mammal, a member of the genus Canis, which forms part of the wolf-like canids, is the most abundant terrestrial carnivore. The dog and the extant gray wolf are sister taxa as modern wolves are not related to the wolves that were first domesticated, which implies that the direct ancestor of the dog is extinct; the dog was the first species to be domesticated, has been selectively bred over millennia for various behaviors, sensory capabilities, physical attributes. Their long association with humans has led dogs to be uniquely attuned to human behavior and they are able to thrive on a starch-rich diet that would be inadequate for other canids. Dogs vary in shape and colors, they perform many roles for humans, such as hunting, pulling loads, assisting police and military, companionship and, more aiding disabled people and therapeutic roles. This influence on human society has given them the sobriquet of "man's best friend"; the term dog is applied both to the species as a whole, any adult male member of the same.

An adult female is a bitch. An adult male capable of reproduction is a stud. An adult female capable of reproduction is brood mother. Immature males or females are puppies. A group of pups from the same gestation period is called a litter; the father of a litter is a sire. It is possible for one litter to have multiple sires; the mother of a litter is a dam. A group of any three or more adults is a pack. In 1758, the Swedish botanist and zoologist Carl Linnaeus published in his Systema Naturae the binomial nomenclature – or the two-word naming – of species. Canis is the Latin word meaning "dog", under this genus he listed the dog-like carnivores including domestic dogs and jackals, he classified the domestic dog as Canis familiaris, on the next page he classified the wolf as Canis lupus. Linnaeus considered the dog to be a separate species from the wolf because of its cauda recurvata - its upturning tail, not found in any other canid. In 1999, a study of mitochondrial DNA indicated that the domestic dog may have originated from multiple grey wolf populations, with the dingo and New Guinea singing dog "breeds" having developed at a time when human populations were more isolated from each other.

In the third edition of Mammal Species of the World published in 2005, the mammalogist W. Christopher Wozencraft listed under the wolf Canis lupus its wild subspecies, proposed two additional subspecies: "familiaris Linneaus, 1758 " and "dingo Meyer, 1793 ". Wozencraft included hallstromi – the New Guinea singing dog – as a taxonomic synonym for the dingo. Wozencraft referred to the mDNA study as one of the guides in forming his decision; the inclusion of familiaris and dingo under a "domestic dog" clade has been noted by other mammalogists. This classification by Wozencraft is debated among zoologists; the origin of the domestic dog includes the dog's evolutionary divergence from the wolf, its domestication, its development into dog types and dog breeds. The dog is a member of the genus Canis, which forms part of the wolf-like canids, was the first species and the only large carnivore to have been domesticated; the dog and the extant gray wolf are sister taxa, as modern wolves are not related to the population of wolves, first domesticated.

The genetic divergence between dogs and wolves occurred between 40,000–20,000 years ago, just before or during the Last Glacial Maximum. This timespan represents the upper time-limit for the commencement of domestication because it is the time of divergence and not the time of domestication, which occurred later; the domestication of animals commenced over 15,000 years ago, beginning with the grey wolf by nomadic hunter-gatherers. The archaeological record and genetic analysis show the remains of the Bonn–Oberkassel dog buried beside humans 14,200 years ago to be the first undisputed dog, with disputed remains occurring 36,000 years ago; the domestication of the dog predates agriculture. It was not until 11,000 years ago that people living in the Near East entered into relationships with wild populations of aurochs, boar and goats. Where the domestication of the dog took place remains debated, with the most plausible proposals spanning Western Europe, Central Asia and East Asia; this has been made more complicated by the recent proposal that an initial wolf population split into East and West Eurasian groups.

These two groups, before going extinct, were domesticated independently into two distinct dog populations between 14,000 and 6,400 years ago. The Western Eurasian dog population was and replaced by East Asian dogs introduced by humans at least 6,400 years ago; this proposal is debated. Domestic dogs have been selectively bred for millennia for various behaviors, sensory capabilities, physical attributes. Modern dog breeds show more variation in size and behavior than any other domestic animal. Dogs are scavengers. Dogs are variable in height and weight; the smallest known adult dog was a Yorkshire Terrier, that stood only 6.3 cm at the shoulder, 9.5 cm in length along the head-and-body, weighed only 113 grams. The largest known dog was an Saint Bernard which weighed 167.6 kg and was 250 cm from the snout to the tail. The tallest dog


Vrzdenec is a village west of Horjul in the Inner Carniola region of Slovenia. It includes the hamlets of Gošavje and Zagorica. Vrzdenec is a clustered village on a small rise above the marshy Šujica Valley. Prominent elevations in the area include Reber Hill to the north, Baš Hill and Tičina Hill to the east. There are several springs in the area. Sopošče Spring serves as the water supply for the village. There is another spring below the village, west of this are Deklevšek Spring and Jazba Spring. There are fields in higher areas of extensive forested land. There are orchards on Baš Hill. Vrzdenec was attested in written sources in 1309 as Schönprun; the name is a fusion of the phrase *vьrxъ stъdenьca, meaning either'above the spring' or'source of the spring'. In the past it was known as Schönbrunn in German. Prehistoric finds, including stone and bronze axes, have been found at Tabor Hill, testifying to early settlement of the area. Tabor Hill had a fortification during the Middle Ages that served as protection against Ottoman attacks.

The village came under German bombardment during the Second World War on 1 November 1943. The local church in the settlement is dedicated to Saint Cantius and belongs to the Parish of Horjul, it is a Romanesque building dating to the 13th century with poorly preserved traces of frescos from the 14th, 15th, 16th centuries. The more modern wall paintings in the church are by the Slovene Impressionist painter Matej Sternen with scenes from the Life of Christ. Notable people that were born or lived in Vrzdenec include: Neža Cankar, mother of the Slovene writer Ivan Cankar Media related to Vrzdenec at Wikimedia Commons Vrzdenec on Geopedia

Anwar Rasheed

Anwar Rasheed is an Indian film director and producer who works in Malayalam films. He made his debut in 2005 with a masala film, he continued to do successful action-comedy films, such as Annan Thambi. His directorial drama Ustad Hotel won the National Film Award for Best Popular Film Providing Wholesome Entertainment, he has produced commercially successful films like Bangalore Days and Premam under the banner Anwar Rasheed Entertainments. Rasheed debuted as a director in 2005 with Rajamanikyam. In 2007, he directed the action-comedy Chotta Mumbai starring Mohanlal in the lead role, it was followed by the action-comedy Annan Thambi, the drama Bridge in Kerala Cafe and Ustad Hotel, the latter won the National Film Award for Best Popular Film Providing Wholesome Entertainment. In 2013, Anwar directed the segment Aami in the anthology film 5 Sundarikal, his latest movie as a director is Trance. Anwar produced the movie under his production house'Anwar Rasheed Entertainments'. Anwar Rasheed on IMDb