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Dog breed

A dog breed is a particular strain or dog type, purposefully bred by humans to perform specific tasks, such as herding and guarding. When distinguishing breed from type, the rule of thumb is that a breed always "breeds true". A dog breed will produce the desirable physical traits and temperament, developed over decades of selective breeding. For each breed they recognize, kennel clubs and breed registries maintain and publish a breed standard, a written description of the ideal specimen of the breed. Other uses of the term breed when referring to dogs include pure breeds, cross-breeds, mixed breeds and natural breeds; the origins of dogs date back thousands of years, having evolved as domesticated descendants of the wolf, whereas modern dog breeds date back to the late 19th century. Prior to the Victorian era, there were different types of dogs. Many different terms were used to describe dogs, such as breed, type and variety. By the end of the Victorian era, society so did the role of dogs. Form was given a more prominent role than function.

Different types or breeds of dog were being developed by breeders who wanted to define specific characteristics and desirable features in their dogs. Driven by dog shows and the groups that hosted them, the term dog breed took on an new meaning. Dog show competitions included best in breed winners, the purebreds were winning. Breed standards are the reason the breed came to be, with those standards are key features, including form and fitness for purpose; the Kennel Club in the UK was founded in 1873, was the world's first national kennel club and breed registry. They became the guardians of their country's breed standards. Over time, other breed registries followed suit; the domestic dog is the first species, the only large Omnivore, to have been domesticated. Over the past 200 years, dogs have undergone rapid phenotypic change and were formed into today's modern breeds due to artificial selection imposed by humans; these breeds can vary in weight from a 0.46 kg teacup poodle to a 90 kg giant mastiff.

The skull and limb proportions vary between breeds, with dogs displaying more phenotypic diversity than can be found within the entire order of carnivores. Some breeds demonstrate outstanding skills in herding, scent detection, guarding, which demonstrates the functional and behavioral diversity of dogs; the first dogs were wolflike, but the phenotypic changes that coincided with the dog–wolf genetic divergence are not known. In 2017, a study showed that 9,000 years ago the domestic dog was present at what is now Zhokhov Island, arctic north-eastern Siberia, connected to the mainland at that time; the dogs were selectively bred as either sled dogs or as hunting dogs, which implies that a sled dog standard and a hunting dog standard existed at that time. The optimal maximum size for a sled dog is 20–25 kg based on thermo-regulation, the ancient sled dogs were between 16–25 kg; the same standard has been found in the remains of sled dogs from this region 2,000 ago and in the modern Siberian Husky breed standard.

Other dogs were more massive at 30 kg and appear to be dogs, crossed with wolves and used for polar-bear hunting. At death, the heads of the dogs had been separated from their bodies by humans for ceremonial reasons. Between 3,000 and 4,000 years ago greyhound-type dogs were depicted on pottery and paintings in Egypt and Western Asia. Mastiff-type dogs were kept for guarding and hunting, short-legged dogs were bred. Most modern dog breeds are the products of the controlled breeding practices of the Victorian era, the accurate documenting of pedigrees with the establishment of the English Kennel Club in 1873 in imitation of other stud book registries for cattle and horses. For early depictions of dogs in art, see Early history in art. Domestic dogs are the most variable of mammals. Strong artificial selection has developed around 450 globally recognized breeds; these breeds possess distinct morphological traits including body size, skull shape, tail phenotype, fur colour and fur type. They possess behavioral traits including herding and hunting, in addition to personality traits such as aggression, boldness, or hypersocial behavior.

Most of these breeds were developed within the last 200 years using only small numbers of founders. As a result, the large phenotypic variation across dog breeds can be studied through the analysis with only a small number of genetic markers. "Ancient breed" is a term but no longer, used for a particular group of dog breeds by the American Kennel Club. These breeds were referred to as "ancient", as opposed to modern, breeds because it was believed that they had origins dating back more than 500 years. In 2004, a study looked at the microsatellites of 414 purebred dogs representing 85 breeds; the study found that dog breeds were so genetically distinct that 99% of individual dogs could be assigned to their breed based on their genotype, indicating that breeding barriers has led to distinct genetic units. The study identified 9 breeds that could be represented on the branches of a phylogenetic tree which grouped together with strong statistical support and could be separated from the other breeds with a modern European origin.

These 9 breeds had been referred to as opposed to the modern breeds. The study found that the Pharaoh Hound and Ibizan Hound were not as old as believed but had been recreated from combinations of other breeds, that the Norwegian Elkhound grouped with the other Eu


The Hypixel Network is a Minecraft mini-game server, released on April 13, 2013, by Simon Collins-Laflamme and Philippe Touchette, is managed by Hypixel Inc. Hypixel is only available on the Java Edition of Minecraft; the Hypixel server was released in beta on April 13, 2013, by Simon Collins-Laflamme and Philippe Touchette. The two created Minecraft adventure maps and uploaded them to their YouTube channel, the Hypixel server was created to further showcase these maps. Minigames created for users to play on while waiting for other players, soon gained popularity and became the server's main focus, efforts from Hypixel were put towards new server content instead of making Minecraft maps. Since April 14, 2016, the Housing game mode on Hypixel has hosted a "Featured World" for the New York Times, made with the collaboration of Christoph Niemann. On December 21, 2016, Hypixel reached 10 million unique players in total, had reached 14.1 million by the time Hytale was announced on December 13, 2018.

The server reached 15 million unique logins in May 2019, according to a tweet. As of September 15, 2015, Hypixel attracted 1.9 million players every month. In 2017, Hypixel partnered with NetEase, the publisher of Minecraft China, to release a version of Hypixel in China. Around April 2018, Hypixel started to use Cloudflare Spectrum as a DDoS protection after being the victim of multiple attacks hosted by Mirai against the server; the server costs around $100,000 a month to maintain as of September 2015. Hypixel differs from normal Minecraft gameplay in, is a multi-lobby based server. In a lobby you are able to select from various minigames to play, are put in a game with other players. Games include Murder Mysteries, Bedwars and Spleef. There are various new games in beta. Hypixel allows users purchase in game ranks for real life money. On December 13, 2018, a stand-alone game named Hytale was announced to be in development by Hypixel Studios, a company founded by the creators of Hypixel, with support from Riot Games and other developers including Dennis Fong, Rob Pardo and Peter Levine.

Development for Hytale started around 2015. The trailer for Hytale was released on December 13, 2018, amassed over 30 million views within a month. Minecraft servers Official website Hytale website

Mayfield Salisbury Church

Mayfield Salisbury Church is a member of the Church of Scotland, part of the worldwide family of the Christian Church. It is situated 1.5 miles south of Edinburgh city centre at the junction of Mayfield Road and West Mayfield. The building was designed by the renowned Scottish architect, Hippolyte Blanc and the main building work took place between 1875 and 1879, it is renowned for the range and quality of its stained glass. An extensive internal renovation of the sanctuary was undertaken in 2009. In the mid nineteenth century, the Edinburgh suburb of Newington with its dwellings and businesses, was bounded on its south side by an old drove road beyond which were the farms and fields of Mayfield. However, in 1870 Duncan McLaren of Newington House, a past Lord Provost of Edinburgh and MP, began feuing his Mayfield land and by the time of his death in 1886 it was wholly built over, it was against this background. The site for the present church was selected in July 1876, the main sanctuary was completed in 1879, the spire being added in 1894.

From the start this was a broad church which became known as a preaching centre, so that over the 130 plus years of its existence it has been blessed with a distinguished line of much loved and erudite preachers as minister. A detailed account of its history and past ministers, can be found at the church website. Rev William J. G. McDonald DD minister of the church from 1959 to 1992, he was Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1989. He was a presenter of Thought for the Day on Radio Scotland for many years under the name of Bill McDonald, his daughter is broadcaster Sheena McDonald. Rev James A Whyte minister of the church 1954 to 1958, he became Professor of Practical theology and Christian ethics at St Mary's College, the divinity faculty of the University of St Andrews. He served Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland from 1988 to 1989. Today Mayfield Salisbury offers a variety of services of worship; as well as the sanctuary, the premises include two halls and several other meeting rooms.

Thus a wide range of clubs and groups meet there and the buildings provide a focus point for much that goes on in this part of south Edinburgh. Revd Scott S McKenna has been the minister at Mayfield Salisbury since 2000. From September to June, the church choir provides music for additional services; the choir is made up of keen amateurs and a small group of choral scholars and is led by Walter Thomson. In recent years special autumn festivals have been held. In autumn 2010, there was a three-week Festival of Meditation and Prayer which included musical events, special services, a pilgrimage. In the autumn of 2011, there was a Festival of Aging and Faith and in autumn 2012 a Festival of Science and Religion. More information may be found here. In 2013 there was a Year of Pilgrimage, it is used as a venue during the Edinburgh Festival Fringe. List of Church of Scotland parishes Mayfield Salisbury Church Web Site Church of Scotland Official Web Site

Dominican Convent, Ilanz

The Dominican Convent, the motherhouse of the Congregation of the Ilanz Dominican Sisters, is located on a low hillside across the valley from the little town 30 km to the west of Chur in the canton of Graubünden, Switzerland. The striking convent buildings date from the early 1970s, but the community traces its origins back to St. Joseph's Institute, founded with an educational remit at Ilanz in 1865. Today the sisters at Ilanz are the core element of an international community comprising around 160 sisters, members of one of a number of congregations of Ilanz Dominican Sisters operating from addresses in Switzerland and Austria. Outside Europe there is one congregation in Brazil and another in Taiwan; the community recognises two founders, Johann Fidel Depuoz, born in Graubünden, Babette Gasteyer, born far to the north, in Wiesbaden. Johann Fidel Depuoz became a Jesuit in 1840, received an appropriate training in theology, was ordained. For twenty years he travelled abroad, visiting Savoy, Maryland, Liège, Münster, southern Germany, Solferino and Ragusa.

Church-state conflict was a feature of the pontificate of Pope Pius IX, in 1874, the Jesuits were banned across Switzerland, as part of a wider Kulturkampf which traditional English language history sometimes perceives as a purely German clash. Depuoz resigned from the Jesuits and returned to Surselva, his home district, keen to support education and attend to social deprivation in what was at that time a remote and under-developed part of Switzerland. Around this time he obtained a doctorate in theology from Rome. During the third quarter of the nineteenth century he ministered energetically in Chur, Schluein and in Ilanz as a pastor and educator. In 1865, Dr Depuoz opened the educational St Joseph's Institute in Ilanz, reflecting his particular concern for the education of the young; the other principal priority at the outset was provision of professional-level hospital services for the sick of the Surselva district. Babette Gasteyer received her training in Wiesbaden and started out as an educationalist, working at aristocratic houses in what are now Germany and Moravia at times working as a nurse.

In 1866 she was recruited as a teacher by Depuoz. As a nun she used the name "Sister Maria Theresia Gasteyer", it was she who led and sustained the congregation as its first mother superior, through the difficult early years. Adherence of the Ilanz community to the Dominican Order was subsequently discussed, formally implemented in 1894 when a Dominican took over leadership of the community, following mediation involving the Catholic-Conservative National Assembly member, Caspar Decurtins. Activities expanded during the first half of the twentieth century; as well as the Institute School and the hospital, from 1940 the sisters were running the Graubünden Academy for nursing as well as a school for farmers. They were working in the Ilanz kindergarten and primary school and conducting catechesis in the parish. In the cantonal capital to the east the sisters were running both a secondary school and a commercial school. In many of the little towns and villages of rural Graubünden they were working in the kindergartens, providing residential care homes for the frail and elderly in Sedrun and Davos.

The Ilanz Dominican Sisters were present in several of the big cities in Switzerland's central belt, running the Sanitasspital in Zürich and district kindergartens in several quarters of the city and additional operational centres further to the west in Basel and Fribourg. To the east, in Austria, they were active in Schruns with an agricultural college and a hospital and in Salzburg in providing care for the elderly. In Germany the Ilanz Dominican Sisters had daughter communities in Düsseldorf, Walberberg and Schwichteler. Closer to home, across the Bodensee in Lindau they ran another old people's home. In Vechta in Lower Saxony there was a missionary centre with its own printing shop and a Dominican boarding school. Outside Europe, in 1922 missionary centres were set up in Fujian in mainland China, in Taiwan across the water. There is another centre in Brazil. Societal changes in the second half of the twentieth century changed the focus of the Ilanz Dominican Sisters. Important community institutions came under public control, including in 1973 the hospital in Ilanz and the nursing academy.

Located up a gentle hillside on the left bank of the Rhine, the present convent complex was built to a design produced in 1969 by Walter Moser, the Zürich-based architect responsible for the design of 17 monasteries built across Switzerland in the modern style since 1960. The four principal elements of the complex are the convent itself, the convent church, the meeting hall and a school that now accommodates the Surselva Handelsschule; the Haus der Begegnung itself includes a single- and double-sized class room, its own kitchen, a meditation room and an auditorium able to accommodate up to 200 people. The convent church is positioned at the heart of the complex, it has seating for 300. The architect Walter Moser has produced a contemplative white-walled interior, reminiscent in some of its elements of the work of Le Corbusier. Daylight enters through window apertures of varying sizes; the altar area, set one step above the rest of the church, is surrounded on three sides by benches. T

Knight's tour

A knight's tour is a sequence of moves of a knight on a chessboard such that the knight visits every square once. If the knight ends on a square, one knight's move from the beginning square, the tour is closed; the knight's tour problem is the mathematical problem of finding a knight's tour. Creating a program to find a knight's tour is a common problem given to computer science students. Variations of the knight's tour problem involve chessboards of different sizes than the usual 8 × 8, as well as irregular boards; the knight's tour problem is an instance of the more general Hamiltonian path problem in graph theory. The problem of finding a closed knight's tour is an instance of the Hamiltonian cycle problem. Unlike the general Hamiltonian path problem, the knight's tour problem can be solved in linear time; the earliest known reference to the knight's tour problem dates back to the 9th century AD. In Rudraṭa's Kavyalankara, a Sanskrit work on Poetics, the pattern of a knight's tour on a half-board has been presented as an elaborate poetic figure called the turagapadabandha or'arrangement in the steps of a horse'.

The same verse in four lines of eight syllables each can be read from left to right or by following the path of the knight on tour. Since the Indic writing systems used for Sanskrit are syllabic, each syllable can be thought of as representing a square on a chessboard. Rudrata's example is as follows: transliterated: For example, the first line can be read from left to right or by moving from the first square to the second line, third syllable and to 1.5 to 2.7 to 4.8 to 3.6 to 4.4 to 3.2. The Sri Vaishnava poet and philosopher Vedanta Desika during 14th century in his 1,008-verse magnum opus praising Lord Ranganatha's divine sandals of Srirangam, i.e. Paduka Sahasram has composed two consecutive Sanskrit verses containing 32 letters each where the second verse can be derived from the first verse by performing Knight's tour on a 4 × 8 board, starting from the top-left corner; the transliterated 19th verse is as follows: The 20th verse that can be obtained by performing Knight's tour on the above verse is as follows: sThi thA sa ma ya rA ja thpA ga tha rA mA dha kE ga vi | dhu ran ha sAm sa nna thA dhA sA dhyA thA pa ka rA sa rA || It is believed that Desika composed all 1008 verses in a single night as a challenge.

A tour reported in the fifth book of Bhagavantabaskaraby by Bhat Nilakantha, a cyclopedic work in Sanskrit on ritual and politics, written either about 1600 or about 1700 describes three knight's tours. The tours are not only reentrant but symmetrical, the verses are based on the same tour, starting from different squares; the work by Bhat Nilakantha is an extraordinary achievement being a symmetric closed tour, predating the work of Euler by at least 60 years. One of the first mathematicians to investigate the knight's tour was Leonhard Euler; the first procedure for completing the knight's tour was Warnsdorf's rule, first described in 1823 by H. C. von Warnsdorf. In the 20th century, the Oulipo group of writers used it, among many others; the most notable example is the 10 × 10 knight's tour which sets the order of the chapters in Georges Perec's novel Life a User's Manual. The sixth game of the World Chess Championship 2010 between Viswanathan Anand and Veselin Topalov saw Anand making 13 consecutive knight moves.

Schwenk proved that for any m × n board with m ≤ n, a closed knight's tour is always possible unless one or more of these three conditions are met: m and n are both odd m = 1, 2, or 4 m = 3 and n = 4, 6, or 8. Cull et al. and Conrad et al. proved that on any rectangular board whose smaller dimension is at least 5, there is a knight's tour. On an 8 × 8 board, there are 26,534,728,821,064 directed closed tours; the number of undirected closed tours is half this number, since every tour can be traced in reverse. There are 9,862 undirected closed tours on a 6 × 6 board. There are several ways to find a knight's tour on a given board with a computer; some of these methods are algorithms. A brute-force search for a knight's tour is impractical on all but the smallest boards. For example, there are 4×1051 possible move sequences on an 8 × 8 board, it is well beyond the capacity of modern computers to perform operations on such a large set. However, the size of this number is not indicative of the difficulty of the problem, which can be solved "by using human insight and ingenuity... without much difficulty."

By dividing the board into smaller pieces, constructing tours on each piece, patching the pieces together, one can construct tours on most rectangular boards in linear time – that is, in a time proportional to the number of squares on the board. Warnsdorff's rule is a heuristic for finding a single knight's tour; the knight is moved so that it always proceeds to the square from which the knight will have the fewest onward moves. When calculating the number of onward moves for each candidate square, we do not count moves that revisit any square visited, it is possible to have two or more choices. This rule may mor

Believe (Cher song)

"Believe" is a song recorded by American singer Cher for her twenty-second album, released by Warner Bros. Records, it was released as the lead single from the album on October 19, 1998. It was written by Brian Higgins, Stuart McLennen, Paul Barry, Steven Torch, Matthew Gray and Timothy Powell, with Cher contributing, was produced by Mark Taylor and Brian Rawling. "Believe" departed from Cher's pop rock style of the time for an upbeat dance-pop style. It featured a pioneering use of the audio processing software Auto-Tune to create a deliberate vocal distortion, which became known as the "Cher effect"; the lyrics describe self-sufficiency after a painful breakup. "Believe" reached number one in the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Canada, Scotland, New Zealand, Italy, Norway, Denmark, Hungary, Switzerland and the Netherlands. It earned Cher a place in the Guinness Book of World Records as the oldest female solo artist to top the Billboard Hot 100 chart, became the highest-selling single by a solo female artist in the United Kingdom.

It is one of the bestselling singles, with sales of over 11 million copies worldwide. Reviewers named it one of Cher's most important releases, it won Best Dance Recording. The music video, directed by Nigel Dick, has Cher performing in a nightclub. Cher has performed the song a number of times, including four of her concert tours, most the Here We Go Again Tour in 2018, it has been covered by a number of artists, has been featured in several elements of popular culture. Scholars and academics noted the way in which Cher was able to re-invent herself and remain fresh and contemporary amidst the more teen pop-based music of the period, they credited "Believe" for restoring Cher's popularity and cementing her position as a pop culture icon. A demo of "Believe", written by Brian Higgins, Matthew Gray, Stuart McLennen and Timothy Powell, circulated at Warner for months. Producer Mark Taylor said "everyone loved the chorus but not the rest of the song". Warner chairman Rob Dickins asked the production house Dreamhouse to work on the song.

Taylor said. According to Taylor, "Two of our writers, Steve Torch and Paul Barry, got involved and came up with a complete song that Rob and Cher were happy with."Though she is not credited as a songwriter, Cher said she contributed some lyrics: "I was singing in the bathtub, it seemed to me the second verse was too whiny. It kind of pissed me off. I toughened it up a bit. I wrote the lyrics,'It takes time to move on, it takes love to be strong / I've had time to think it through and maybe I'm too good for you.'"The track was assembled with Cubase VST on an early model Power Macintosh G3 computer, with synthesizers including a Clavia Nord Rack and an Oberheim Matrix 1000, while Cher's vocals were recorded on three TASCAM DA88 digital audio recorders with a Neumann U67 vacuum tube-amplified microphone. The song was recorded in ten days in August 1998 in London, United Kingdom. Cher's voice is altered by a pitch correction speed, "set too fast for the audio that it is processing." Producer Mark Taylor added the effect to Cher's vocal as a kind of mischievous experiment.

In interviews at the time, he claimed to be testing out his purchased DigiTech Talker. It emerged that the effect was not created by a vocoder, but by using extreme settings on Antares Auto-Tune. Taylor said about the effect that "this was the most nerve-wracking part of the project, because I wasn't sure what Cher would say when she heard what I'd done to her voice", but that when she heard it she said, "It sounds great." When her record company requested that the effect be removed, she responded, "Over my dead body!" After the success of the song, use of Auto-Tune in order to produce a distorted vocal effect became popular and many other artists imitated the technique, which would become known as the "Cher effect" in the official Auto-Tune manual. "Believe" is a dance-pop song. The song contains uncredited samples, it is recorded in the key of F♯ major with a tempo of 133 beats per minute. The song follows a chord progression of F♯–C♯–G♯m–B–F♯–A♯m7–G♯m–D♯m, Cher's vocals span from F♯3 to C♯5.

Billboard gave the song a positive review, saying that the song is "the best darn thing that Cher has recorded in years". AllMusic editor Michael Gallucci gave a lukewarm review, writing that the Believe album is an "endless, personality-free, thump session". Joe Viglione called the song "pop masterpiece, one of the few songs to be able to break through the impenetrable wall of late 1990's fragmented radio to permeate the consciousness of the world at large."Entertainment Weekly called this song "poptronica glaze, the soon-to-be club fave..." and called Cher's voice "unmistakable." Robert Christgau highlighted "Believe" as the best song on the album. Damon Albarn, frontman of the bands Blur and Gorillaz, called the song "brilliant", it was voted as the world's eighth favourite song in a poll released by BBC. The song and released in 1998, peaked at number one in 21 countries worldwide. On January 23, 1999, it reached the Top 40 on the Billboard Hot 100 and reached number one on the chart on March 13, making Cher the oldest female artist to perform this feat.

Cher set the record for a solo artist with the longest span of time between number one hits, since "Dark Lady" reached number one in 1974. She set a mark f