Doha is the capital and most populous city of the State of Qatar. It has a population of 956,460; the city is located on the coast of the Persian Gulf in the east of the country. It is Qatar's fastest growing city, with over 80% of the nation's population living in Doha or its surrounding suburbs, it is the economic centre of the country. Doha was founded in the 1820s as an offshoot of Al Bidda, it was declared as the country's capital in 1971, when Qatar gained independence from being a British Protectorate. As the commercial capital of Qatar and one of the emergent financial centres in the Middle East, Doha is considered a beta-level global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Doha accommodates an area devoted to research and education; the city was host to the first ministerial-level meeting of the Doha Development Round of World Trade Organization negotiations. It was selected as host city of a number of sporting events, including the 2006 Asian Games, the 2011 Pan Arab Games and most of the games at the 2011 AFC Asian Cup.

In December 2011, the World Petroleum Council held the 20th World Petroleum Conference in Doha. Additionally, the city hosted the 2012 UNFCCC Climate Negotiations and is set to host many of the venues for the 2022 FIFA World Cup; the city has hosted the 140th Inter-Parliamentary Union Assembly in April 2019. According to the Ministry of Municipality and Environment, the name "Doha" originated from the Arabic term dohat, meaning "roundness"—a reference to the rounded bays surrounding the area's coastline; the city of Doha was formed seceding from another local settlement known as Al Bidda. The earliest documented mention of Al Bidda was made in 1681, by the Carmelite Convent, in an account which chronicles several settlements in Qatar. In the record, the ruler and a fort in the confines of Al Bidda are alluded to. Carsten Niebuhr, a German explorer who visited the Arabian Peninsula, created one of the first maps to depict the settlement in 1765 in which he labelled it as'Guttur'. David Seaton, a British political resident in Muscat, wrote the first English record of Al Bidda in 1801.

He describes the geography and defensive structures in the area. He stated that the town had been settled by the Sudan tribe, whom he considered to be pirates. Seaton attempted to bombard the town with his warship, but returned to Muscat upon finding that the waters were too shallow to position his warship within striking distance. In 1820, British surveyor R. H. Colebrook, who visited Al Bidda, remarked on the recent depopulation of the town, he wrote: Guttur – Or Ul Budee, once a considerable town, is protected by two square Ghurries near the sea shore. This could contain two hundred men. There are remaining at Ul Budee about 250 men, but the original inhabitants, who may be expected to return from Bahrein, will augment them to 900 or 1,000 men, if the Doasir tribe, who frequent the place as divers, again settle in it, from 600 to 800 men; the same year, an agreement known as the General Maritime Treaty was signed between the East India Company and the sheikhs of several Persian Gulf settlements.

It sought to end piracy and the slave trade. Bahrain became a party to the treaty, it was assumed that Qatar, perceived as a dependency of Bahrain by the British, was a party to it. Qatar, was not asked to fly the prescribed Trucial flag; as punishment for alleged piracy committed by the inhabitants of Al Bidda and breach of treaty, an East India Company vessel bombarded the town in 1821. They razed the town, forcing between 300 and 400 natives to flee and temporarily take shelter on the islands between the Qatar and the Trucial Coast. Doha was founded in the vicinity of Al Bidda sometime during the 1820s. In January 1823, political resident John MacLeod visited Al Bidda to meet with the ruler and initial founder of Doha, Buhur bin Jubrun, the chief of the Al-Buainain tribe. MacLeod noted. Following the founding of Doha, written records conflated Al Bidda and Doha due to the close proximity of the two settlements; that year, Lt. Guy and Lt. Brucks mapped and wrote a description of the two settlements.

Despite being mapped as two separate entities, they were referred to under the collective name of Al Bidda in the written description. In 1828, Mohammed bin Khamis, a prominent member of the Al-Buainain tribe and successor of Buhur bin Jubrun as chief of Al Bidda, was embroiled in controversy, he had murdered a native of Bahrain. In response, the Al-Buainain tribe revolted, provoking the Al Khalifa to destroy the tribe's fort and evict them to Fuwayrit and Ar Ru'ays; this incident allowed the Al Khalifa additional jurisdiction over the town. With no effective ruler, Al Bidda and Doha became a sanctuary for pirates and outlaws. In November 1839, an outlaw from Abu Dhabi named Ghuleta took refuge in Al Bidda, evoking a harsh response from the British. A. H. Nott, a British naval commander, demanded that Salemin bin Nasir Al-Suwaidi, chief of the Sudan tribe in Al Bidda, take Ghuleta into custody and warned him of consequences in the case of non-compliance. Al-Suwaidi obliged the British request in February 1840 and arrested the pirate Jasim bin Jabir and his associates.

Despite the

International–Great Northern Railroad

The International – Great Northern Railroad was a railroad that operated in the U. S. state of Texas. It was created on September 30, 1873, when International Railroad and the Houston and Great Northern Railroad merged; the railroad was incorporated as the International & Great Northern Railroad Company. The I&GN operated 177 miles of track from Hearne to Longview, but at its peak it owned 1,106 miles of track; as the railroad expanded southwestwards from Hearne, it reached Rockdale in 1874 and Austin on December 28, 1876. The line extended to San Antonio in 1880 and to the US-Mexican border town of Laredo on December 1, 1881; the I&GN, like other railroads of its time, had many financial troubles and went into receivership on several occasions. Jay Gould acquired control of the I&GN in December 1880. Due to his control of the Missouri Pacific and the Texas and Pacific Railroad, the three were operated as one system, although they each retained their separate corporate identities and seniority districts.

Due to financial difficulties stemming in part from the Panic of 1907, the I-GN entered receivership in 1908 and was sold at foreclosure to a reorganized company, the International & Great Northern Railway Company on August 31, 1911. Less than four years the company entered receivership again, which lasted until it was sold at foreclosure in July 1922; the International-Great Northern Railroad was incorporated by the state of Texas on August 17, 1922, took over operation of the International & Great Northern Railway on December 31, 1922. In a bit of planned corporate maneuvering to keep the I-GN within the Mopac fold, the Gulf Coast Lines subsidiary, New Orleans and Mexico Railway, bought the I-GN in June 30, 1924. On March 1, 1956, all of the GCL subsidiaries were merged into the parent Missouri Pacific Railroad Company, the I-GN ceased its corporate existence. In the 1960s, many of the redundant out-of-the-way lines were abandoned, including Waco to Marlin and Bryan to Navasota; the latter route was subsequently traversed via trackage rights over the Southern Pacific Railroad between the same two points.

The Missouri Pacific was merged into the Union Pacific Railroad in 1997. International-Great Northern Railroad from the Handbook of Texas Online Zoomable system map of the I-GN from an 1877 promotional brochure

Scientology Missions International

Scientology Missions International is a Californian 501 non-profit corporation, located in Los Angeles, California. SMI is part of the Church of Scientology network. While being a corporation, SMI is a management entity, ecclesiastically integrated within the mother church of Scientology, the Church of Scientology International. SMI runs on a worldwide basis the so-called "Scientology Missions", which are beginner organizations within the Church of Scientology network; these Missions offer basic Dianetics and Scientology services to Scientology members and to the general public. The official website of SMI states the following about Scientology Missions and the functions of SMI:... Scientology Mission walks of life. Here, people become introduced to Dianetics and Scientology technology.... Scientology missions preside over naming ceremonies, officiate over marriages and funerals and are there to assists those in distress.... To assist missions in these endeavors, Scientology Missions International was formed to act as the mother church for all missions.

SMI's international offices provide guidance and direction for existing missions through a global network of continental offices. Through training manuals, direct consultation, newsletters, promotion and a wealth of other materials, SMI provides the wherewithal new and existing missions need to function and expand...." In a 1993 memorandum by the Church of Scientology International, the following information was provided to the Internal Revenue Service with regards to SMI's role, its personnel and its income:... Missions... nearly 100 in the United States alone and over 250 worldwide, minister the lowest levels of religious services to parishioners within their localities. Missions are under the ecclesiastical authority of SMI, which in turn is under the ecclesiastical authority of CSI. SMI itself has a staff of 26 individuals and an annual budget of $2.6 million, based on its annual disbursements for the most recent year for which financial statements are available...." SMI was incorporated on December 22, 1981 in Los Angeles, California by its Trustees William J. Duckhorn, Edward E. Brewer and Cecilia P. Murray.

On June 17, 1982 the Board of Trustees amended the Articles of Incorporation. The day after, on June 18, 1982, SMI's Board of Directors consisting of Roger C. Barnes, Karen Sue Campbell and Howard D. Becker, adopted the Bylaws of the newly created organization. On September 21, 1993 the following individuals held corporate positions at SMI: The Board of Trustees was composed of Jonathan Epstein, Jessica Pruitt and Pablo Lobato; the members of SMI's Board of Directors at that time were Jean Discher, Bernard Radburn and Claire Edwards. SMI's President was Jean Discher, its Secretary and Treasurer Beate Gordon and its Assistant Secretary Bernard Radburn; as of November 23, 2000, SMI's corporate officers were Richard Fear, Joi Marchant and Claire Edwards. On August 18, 1993, SMI filed an application for tax exemption under section 501 of the Internal Revenue Code and on September 3, 1993 a request for a "Group Exemption Ruling" for the affiliated Scientology Missions in the United States. In 1993, the Internal Revenue Service granted SMI's requests for exemption.

The current official address of SMI is 6331 Hollywood Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90028. SMI operates from the same address as the Church of Scientology International and other sub-entities of CSI. SMI's official agent is Jeanne Caugan, her official address is 3055 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 900, Los Angeles, CA 90010. Within the corporate structure of the Scientology network, the Religious Technology Center owns the right to license the Scientology trademarks and service marks through a so-called "assignment agreement" between RTC and the founder of Scientology, L. Ron Hubbard on May 16, 1982. RTC and CSI entered a license agreement on May 18, 1982, granting CSI, the new "Mother Church of Scientology," the right to use and sub-license certain of the trademarks and service marks; as a consequence, CSI entered a license agreement with SMI on May 19, 1982, which granted the right to SMI to further license the Scientology trademarks and service marks of the Scientology Missions. In the years following the signing of the agreement with CSI, SMI has entered various license agreements with Scientology Missions around the world over the use of the Scientology trademarks and service marks.

In addition to its corporate status, SMI is a part of the ecclesiastical command structure of the international Church of Scientology management. Integrated within the mother church of Scientology, the Church of Scientology International, SMI is one of 8 sub-units and networks, which form the so-called "Flag Command Bureaux"; the Scientology management booklet The Command Channels of Scientology states the following about the FCB:... The Flag Command Bureaux, so named from its origination aboard the Flag Ship Apollo, is the central point of tactical management for all the individual orgs and units of all the sectors of Scientology; the Flag Command Bureaux is the tactical level of management. It gets International Management plans and programs done in all the individual orgs and units...." Describing the purpose and functions of SMI, the "Command Channels" booklet sees SMI as a "tactical management unit, in charge of and responsible for the expansion of the mission network." Furthermore, it states:...

Its purpose is to get missions functioning as Scientology's spearhead into the society and to hold wide open the entrance gates of the Bridge. This is achieved by getting the missi