Qatar the State of Qatar, is a country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. Whether the sovereign state should be regarded as a constitutional monarchy or an absolute monarchy is disputed, its sole land border is with neighbouring Gulf Cooperation Council monarchy Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its territory surrounded by the Persian Gulf. The Gulf of Bahrain, an inlet of the Persian Gulf, separates Qatar from nearby Bahrain. In early 2017, Qatar's total population was 2.6 million: 313,000 Qatari citizens and 2.3 million expatriates. Islam is the official religion of Qatar; the country has the highest per capita income in the world. Qatar is classified by the UN as a country of high human development and is regarded as the most advanced Arab state for human development. Qatar is a high-income economy, backed by the world's third-largest natural gas reserves and oil reserves. Qatar has been ruled by the House of Thani since Mohammed bin Thani signed a treaty with the British in 1868 that recognised its separate status.

Following Ottoman rule, Qatar became a British protectorate in the early 20th century until gaining independence in 1971. In 2003, the constitution was overwhelmingly approved in a referendum, with 98% in favour. In the 21st century, Qatar emerged as a significant power in the Arab world both through its globally expanding media group, Al Jazeera Media Network, supporting several rebel groups financially during the Arab Spring. For its size, Qatar wields disproportionate influence in the world, has been identified as a middle power. Qatar is the subject of a diplomatic and economic embargo by Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Egypt, which began in June 2017. Saudi Arabia has proposed the construction of the Salwa Canal, which would run along the Saudi-Qatar border turning Qatar into an island. Pliny the Elder, a Roman writer, documented the earliest account pertaining to the inhabitants of the peninsula around the mid-first century AD, referring to them as the Catharrei, a designation which may have derived from the name of a prominent local settlement.

A century Ptolemy produced the first known map to depict the peninsula, referring to it as Catara. The map referenced a town named "Cadara" to the east of the peninsula; the term'Catara' was used until the 18th century, after which'Katara' emerged as the most recognised spelling. After several variations –'Katr','Kattar' and'Guttur' – the modern derivative Qatar was adopted as the country's name. In Standard Arabic, the name is pronounced. Human habitation of Qatar dates back to 50,000 years ago. Settlements and tools dating back to the Stone Age have been unearthed in the peninsula. Mesopotamian artifacts originating from the Ubaid period have been discovered in abandoned coastal settlements. Al Da'asa, a settlement located on the western coast of Qatar, is the most important Ubaid site in the country and is believed to have accommodated a small seasonal encampment. Kassite Babylonian material dating back to the second millennium BC found in Al Khor Islands attests to trade relations between the inhabitants of Qatar and the Kassites in modern-day Bahrain.

Among the findings were 3,000,000 crushed snail shells and Kassite potsherds. It has been suggested that Qatar is the earliest known site of shellfish dye production, owing to a Kassite purple dye industry which existed on the coast. In 224 AD, the Sasanian Empire gained control over the territories surrounding the Persian Gulf. Qatar played a role in the commercial activity of the Sasanids, contributing at least two commodities: precious pearls and purple dye. Under the Sasanid reign, many of the inhabitants in Eastern Arabia were introduced to Christianity following the eastward dispersal of the religion by Mesopotamian Christians. Monasteries were constructed and further settlements were founded during this era. During the latter part of the Christian era, Qatar comprised a region known as'Beth Qatraye'; the region was not limited to Qatar. In 628, Muhammad sent a Muslim envoy to a ruler in Eastern Arabia named Munzir ibn Sawa Al Tamimi and requested that he and his subjects accept Islam. Munzir obliged his request, accordingly, most of the Arab tribes in the region converted to Islam.

After the adoption of Islam, the Arabs led the Muslim conquest of Persia which resulted in the fall of the Sasanian Empire. Qatar was described as a famous camel breeding centre during the Umayyad period. In the 8th century, it started benefiting from its commercially strategic position in the Persian Gulf and went on to become a centre of pearl trading. Substantial development in the pearling industry around the Qatari Peninsula occurred during the Abbasid era. Ships voyaging from Basra to India and China would make stops in Qatar's ports during this period. Chinese porcelain, West African coins and artefacts from Thailand have been discovered in Qatar. Archaeological remains from the 9th century suggest that Qatar's inhabitants used greater wealth to construct higher quality homes and public buildings. Over 100 stone-built houses, two mosques, an Abbasid fort were constructed in Murwab during this period; when the caliphate's prosperity declined in Iraq, so too did it in Qatar. Qatar is mentioned in 13th-century Muslim scholar Yaqut al-Hamawi's book, Mu'jam Al-Buldan, which alludes to the Qataris' fine stripe

Denis Vieru

Denis Vieru is a Moldovan judoka who competes in the men's half-lightweight category. He first rose to prominence after winning a gold medal at the European U-23 Judo Championships in 2016, the first Moldovan to do so since Marcel Trudov in 2005. Vieru won medals at a number of IJF Grand Prix and Grand Slam events in 2019, including Moldova's first Judo Grand Prix gold medal at the Antalya Grand Prix, another gold at the Baku Grand Slam, defeated 2016 European champion Vazha Margvelashvili to win gold at the Grand Slam Paris, he defeated Ranto Katsura of Japan to win a gold medal at the 2019 Summer Universiade in Naples, where he was the flag bearer for the Moldovan delegation in the opening ceremony, won a bronze medal at the 2019 World Judo Championships. As of February 2020, he was ranked third in the world in the men's half-lightweight category. Denis Vieru at the International Judo Federation Denis Vieru at

Shivaji Park

Shivaji Park is a public park situated in Dadar, Mumbai. It is the largest park in the island city. Like the Azad Maidan and August Kranti Maidan, it is of historical and cultural value because of the political and social gatherings it has witnessed, both in pre- and post-independence Mumbai; the 113,000 square metres open. Shivaji park is considered as a platform of opportunities for athletes and sportsperson to excel in their sports career. Shivaji park has nets for cricket, court for tennis, ground for Mallakhamba and many more; the open ground or Maidan is flanked around its edge by a katta, a simple continuous low kerb edging that forms a makeshift seat, a popular hangout for young and old alike. The paved walkway around this perimeter is crowded with people taking walks; the inner circumference of the park is 1.17 kilometres. The maidan covers 112,937 square metres, more than half of, occupied by 31 tenants, the largest being clubs like the Shivaji Park Gymkhana, the Bengal Club; the remaining part of the ground and open spaces are available to the public for sports and other activities.

Other structures dotting the periphery of the grounds include the Samarth Vyayam Mandir, Shivaji Park Nagarik Sangh, a children's Park, Nana-Nani Park, Scout's Pavilion, a Ganesh temple and a library. The walkway is lined with huge rain trees; the most prominent entrance to the park is the one on the east side, intended only for pedestrians. A bust of Meenatai Thackeray, late wife of Shiv Sena leader Bal Thackeray, has been placed at this entrance. A bust of Ram Ganesh Gadkari was present at the same spot. Bal Thackeray himself was cremated here; the park was created in 1925 during the British Rule. The ground was known as the Mahim Park till 1927, when it was named after the legendary 17th century warrior king of the region, Chhatrapati Shivaji at the behest of a municipal councillor, Avantika Gohkale; the Shivaji Park Gymkhana known as the Dadar Hindu Gymkhana, opened its first Tennis court on the grounds in 1927 and inaugurated its pavilion in November 1931. Besides being a venue for gatherings of freedom fighters in British India, after independence in 1947, Shivaji Park was the focal point of the Samyukta Maharashtra Chalval that led to the present Maharashtra state being formed in 1960.

During this period, the legendary writer, playwright and social leader Acharya Prahlad Keshav Atre led this movement, addressing crowds of lakhs at this ground, earning him the title of "Lord of Shivaji Park". Shivaji Park has been integral to the political gatherings of the local party Shiv Sena, has witnessed numerous other political rallies. In May 2010, the Bombay High Court declared the ground as a silence zone after residents filed a Public Interest Litigation in September 2009, complaining about the sound pollution in the area on account of the political rallies; the statue of Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, place on the western side of the park is one of the few statues in which Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj is depicted without having drawn out his sword. Instead, Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj is shown leading the way with his arm outstretched. Created in 1966 using donations from the local population, the statue is a rare example of the pacifist policies of the state government of Maharashtra.

It was considered a sensitive issue by the government to let this statue depict the usual confrontational posture of Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, who had fought many battles against the Mughal Empire. Shivaji Park maidan is renowned as the cradle of Indian cricket, it is home to eight cricket clubs like those of the late Anna Vaidya and Ramakant Acharekar, which have produced several international cricketers for India. Some famous names who have trained here are Sachin Tendulkar, Sunil Gavaskar, Ajit Wadekar, Suhas Gupte, Vijay Manjrekar, Ramakant Desai, Balu Gupte, M. S. Patil, Dilip Sardesai, Ashok Wadekar, Padmakar Shivalkar, Eknath Solkar, Dilip Vengsarkar, Chandrakant Pandit, Lalchand Rajput, Sandeep Patil, Ajit Agarkar, Pravin Amre, Vinod Kambli and Sanjay Manjrekar, it is a feeder park to Ramnarain Ruia Poddar College in nearby Matunga. Cricket may be the reason Shivaji Park is famous for, but few of the city's budding talent practice their football here including teams like Adarsh FC, Dadar XI, Dias united Sports Club, Kenkre, BEARS FC, VAKYPPS FC, etc.

The area surrounding the park has many buildings dating back to the mid-1900s, the Shivaji Park Residential Zone is some of the more sought-after and expensive real estate in Mumbai. This predominantly Marathi neighbourhood is home to many well-known personalities from literature, theatre and sports; some of its prominent residents are Manohar Joshi - Prominent Shiv Sena leader, former Chief Minister of Maharashtra and Lok Sabha Speaker Raj Thackeray - Maharashtra Navnirman Sena supremo Anup Jalota - Bhajan singer Milind Soman - Super model Sunil Prabhu - Mayor of Mumbai Ajit Agarkar - former Indian cricketer Ajit Wadekar - former Indian cricketer and captain Sandeep Patil - former Indian cricketer Dada Kondke - Film producer Shivaji Park Residential Zone Satellite view of Shivaji Park