Pieve di Cadore
Pieve di Cadore is a comune in the province of Belluno in the Italian region of Veneto, about 110 kilometres north of Venice and about 35 km northeast of Belluno. It is the birthplace of the Italian painter Titian, with its strategic location, the town was a medieval stronghold with fortifications, called the walled city of the Veneto. The main sight is the Palazzo della Magnifica Comunità, built in 1447 by the council which ruled the city. It has a tower which was completed in 1491. A highway, SS51, connects the town with other communities in the Cadore Dolomite region, the town has a swimming pool, tennis club, ice hockey arena, a bocce stadium, soccer fields and a biking trail called Ciclabile delle Dolomiti with amazing views. The route of the 2013 Giro dItalia passed through Calalzo di Cadore during Stage 11, Titian - Italian Renaissance painter, born in Pieve di Cadore Official website Old postcards from Tai di Cadore
Trentino, officially the Autonomous Province of Trento, is an autonomous province of Italy, in the countrys far north. Trentino is, along with South Tyrol, one of the two provinces making up the region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, which is designated a region under the constitution. The province is divided into 178 comuni and its capital is the city of Trento. The province covers an area of more than 6,000 km2, Trentino is renowned for its mountains, such as the Dolomites, which are part of the Alps. The province is known as Trentino. The name derives from Trento, the city of the province. Originally, the term was used by the population only to refer to the city. In its wider sense, Trentino was first used around 1848 in an article by a member of the Frankfurt National Assembly, since the new 1972 autonomous status, the administrative name of the province is Autonomous Province of Trento. The history of Trentino begins in the mid-Stone Age, the valleys of what is now Trentino were already inhabited by man, the main settlements being in the valley of the Adige River, thanks to its milder climate.
In the early Middle Ages, this area was included within the Kingdom of Italy, in 1027, the Bishopric of Trent was established as a State of the Holy Roman Empire by Emperor Conrad II. It was a territory, roughly corresponding to the present-day Trentino. The Council of Trent, held in three sessions from 1545 to 1563, with the first at Trento, was one of the important councils in the history of the Roman Catholic Church. It was an articulation of Roman Catholic doctrine in response to the Protestant Reformation, and specified doctrine on salvation, the sacraments, after the Napoleonic Wars of the early 19th century, the bishopric was secularized and absorbed into the Austrian County of Tyrol. It was governed by the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, the region was the location of heavy fighting during World War I, as it was directly on the front lines between Austria-Hungary and Italy. Trentino remained a part of Austria-Hungary until after the end of the war in 1919, since this treaty, Trentino enjoys considerable autonomy from the Italian central government in Rome.
It has its own elected government and legislative assembly, in 1996, the Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino was formed between the Austrian state of Tyrol and the Italian provinces of South Tyrol and Trentino. The boundaries of the association correspond to the old County of Tyrol, the aim is to promote regional peace and cooperation in many areas. The regions assemblies meet together as one on various occasions and have set up a liaison office to the European Union in Brussels
Carbonate rocks are a class of sedimentary rocks composed primarily of carbonate minerals. The two major types are limestone, which is composed of calcite or aragonite and dolostone, which is composed of the mineral dolomite. Calcite can be dissolved by groundwater or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors including the water temperature, pH. Calcite exhibits a characteristic called retrograde solubility in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. When conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together or it can fill fractures, karst topography and caves develop in carbonate rocks because of their solubility in dilute acidic groundwater. Cooling groundwater or mixing of different groundwaters will create conditions suitable for cave formation, marble is the metamorphic carbonate rock. Rare igneous carbonate rocks exist as intrusive carbonatites and even rarer volcanic carbonate lava
Africa is the worlds second-largest and second-most-populous continent. At about 30.3 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earths total surface area and 20.4 % of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the human population. The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos and it contains 54 fully recognized sovereign states, nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition. Africas population is the youngest amongst all the continents, the age in 2012 was 19.7. Algeria is Africas largest country by area, and Nigeria by population, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster – with the earliest Homo sapiens found in Ethiopia being dated to circa 200,000 years ago. Africa straddles the equator and encompasses numerous climate areas, it is the continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones. Africa hosts a diversity of ethnicities and languages. In the late 19th century European countries colonized most of Africa, Africa varies greatly with regard to environments, historical ties and government systems.
However, most present states in Africa originate from a process of decolonization in the 20th century, afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of Africa, which in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean. This name seems to have referred to a native Libyan tribe. The name is connected with Hebrew or Phoenician ʿafar dust. The same word may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province of Africa Proconsularis, which included the coastal part of modern Libya. The Latin suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land, the Muslim kingdom of Ifriqiya, modern-day Tunisia, preserved a form of the name. According to the Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while Asia was used to refer to Anatolia, as Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of Africa expanded with their knowledge. 25,4, whose descendants, he claimed, had invaded Libya, isidore of Seville in Etymologiae XIV.5.2.
Suggests Africa comes from the Latin aprica, meaning sunny, massey, in 1881, stated that Africa is derived from the Egyptian af-rui-ka, meaning to turn toward the opening of the Ka. The Ka is the double of every person and the opening of the Ka refers to a womb or birthplace
The Langkofel Group is a massif in the Dolomites. It separates Gröden and the Fassa valley, as well as the Sella massif, northwest of the Langkofel is the Seiser Alm. The highest point in the range is the eponymous Langkofel with a height of 3,181 metres, taken together, the summits of the Langkofel form an arc which is only open towards the northwest. Within this arc there is one small mountain, the Langkofelkarspitze. The region was formed in the early Triassic period as a reef in a shallow tropical sea. Hard limestone was able to form on the outside of the reef and this left a garland of mountains which, in a clockwise direction, are the Langkofel, Langkofeleck, Fünffingerspitze, Innerkoflerturm and Plattkofel. From there both the Langkofel, as well as the Plattkofel may be circled on hiking trails, the Plattkofel may be reached from the Langkofelkar on the klettersteig route known as the Oskar Schuster Steig and from the Plattkofel Hut over the steep western flank. Between the Langkofel and the Sellajoch is the area of known as the Rocky Town.
In winter there are ski areas at the foot of the Langkofel Group, the famous Sella Ronda, a circuit of the Sella Group on ski pistes both clockwise and anticlockwise, runs over these pistes
The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies, and one region, the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown. It was ruled by the House of Habsburg, and constituted the last phase in the evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal, Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states. Austria-Hungary was a state and one of the worlds great powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2, the Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States and the United Kingdom. After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule until it was annexed in 1908. The annexation of Bosnia led to Islam being recognized as a state religion due to Bosnias Muslim population.
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I and it was already effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918. The realms full, official name was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, the division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship, one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both. This meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia. Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and it is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, which was under the control of both Austria and Hungary.
The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary, the administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary remained largely untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungarys central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government, the country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary – located in Pressburg and in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancellery in Vienna. The Hungarian government and Hungarian parliament were suspended after the Hungarian revolution of 1848, despite Austria and Hungary sharing a common currency, they were fiscally sovereign and independent entities. Since the beginnings of the union, the government of the Kingdom of Hungary could preserve its separated. After the revolution of 1848–1849, the Hungarian budget was amalgamated with the Austrian, from 1527 to 1851, the Kingdom of Hungary maintained its own customs controls, which separated her from the other parts of the Habsburg-ruled territories
Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts. Specific studies within mineralogy include the processes of mineral origin and formation, classification of minerals, their geographical distribution, the German Renaissance specialist Georgius Agricola wrote works such as De re metallica and De Natura Fossilium which began the scientific approach to the subject. Systematic scientific studies of minerals and rocks developed in post-Renaissance Europe, the modern study of mineralogy was founded on the principles of crystallography and to the microscopic study of rock sections with the invention of the microscope in the 17th century. Nicholas Steno first observed the law of constancy of interfacial angles in quartz crystals in 1669 and this was generalized and established experimentally by Jean-Baptiste L. Romé de lIslee in 1783. In 1814, Jöns Jacob Berzelius introduced a classification of minerals based on their chemistry rather than their crystal structure, james D.
Dana published his first edition of A System of Mineralogy in 1837, and in a edition introduced a chemical classification that is still the standard. It, retains a focus on the structures commonly encountered in rock-forming minerals. An initial step in identifying a mineral is to examine its physical properties and these can be classified into density, measures of mechanical cohesion, macroscopic visual properties and electric properties and solubility in hydrogen chloride. If the mineral is crystallized, it will have a distinctive crystal habit that reflects the crystal structure or internal arrangement of atoms. It is affected by crystal defects and twinning. Many crystals are polymorphic, having more than one crystal structure depending on factors such as pressure and temperature. ”Examples of polymorphs are calcite and aragonite - two minerals with identical chemical composition, distinguished by their crystallography, calcite is rhombohedral and aragonite is orthorhombic. The crystal structure is the arrangement of atoms in a crystal and it is represented by a lattice of points which repeats a basic pattern, called a unit cell, in three dimensions.
The lattice can be characterized by its symmetries and by the dimensions of the unit cell and these dimensions are represented by three Miller indices. The lattice remains unchanged by certain symmetry operations about any point in the lattice, rotation and rotary inversion. Together, they make up an object called a crystallographic point group or crystal class. There are 32 possible crystal classes, in addition, there are operations that displace all the points, screw axis, and glide plane. In combination with the point symmetries, they form 230 possible space groups, most geology departments have X-ray powder diffraction equipment to analyze the crystal structures of minerals. X-rays have wavelengths that are the order of magnitude as the distances between atoms. In a sample that is ground to a powder, the X-rays sample a random distribution of all crystal orientations, powder diffraction can distinguish between minerals that may appear the same in a hand sample, for example quartz and its polymorphs tridymite and cristobalite
The Brenta Group or Brenta Dolomites is a mountain range, and a subrange of the Rhaetian Alps in the Southern Limestone Alps mountain group. They are located in the Province of Trentino, in northeastern Italy and it is the only dolomitic group west of river Adige. Therefore, they have not always considered a part of the Dolomites mountain ranges. Geologically, they definitely are - and therefore called the Western Dolomites. As part of the Dolomites, the Brenta Group has been recognized as UNESCO World Heritage Site under the World Heritage Convention. Geologically, the Brenta Group is very different from the neighboring mountain groups like Ortles. The main peaks are formed of hard compact dolomite, while the peripheral subgroups often are made up of more calcareous dolomite or limestone, the hard dolomite was originally formed during the Mesozoic era, under the surface of the shallow Tethys Ocean, some 200 million years ago. The hard compact dolomite with a high magnesium content was formed during the Upper Triassic period, the softer, more calcareous material was deposited later, in the late Triassic and early Jurassic period.
The difference is noticeable for the climber who gets a much more compact. Subsequent erosion carved out the landscape with its steep vertical pinnacles. Traditionally, the Brenta glaciers were relatively small and called vedrette, over the last hundred years their size has been reduced to often smaller than half of their original size around 1900. Climate change appears to be the main reason, the Brenta Group covers a relatively large area. Northern Sector comprising the Northern chain and the subgroup of La Campa, the Brenta Group counts a number of lakes of which the Molveno Lake and the Tovèl Lake are the most significant. Notable peaks of the Brenta Group are, Recent research has suggested that Cima Tosa is not as high as 3173 metres and is lower than Cima Brenta. A year he reached the summit of the Cima Tosa, only to find out that a few days earlier, on July 20,1865, ball wrote about his endeavors in the Alpine Journal and attracted other British explorers to the Brenta Group. Douglas Freshfield, a chairman of the prestigious Alpine Club arrived in 1871.
He and his companions Francis Fox Tuckett and the French guide François Devouassoud from Chamonix and these men, who all would become main figures of the Golden Age of Alpinism were active in the Brenta Group and Presanella in 1871 and 1872. In 1871 they reached the summit of the Cima Brenta, other British mountaineers of that era that would add to the exploration of the Brenta Group were Arthur John Butler, Albert de Falkner and Edward Theodore Compton
Province of Belluno
The Province of Belluno is a province in the Veneto region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Belluno and it has an area of 3,678 square kilometres and a total population of about 200,000. The province of Belluno is rather wide, and almost entirely occupied by mountain areas and it encompasses the natural and historical regions of Cadore, Alpago, Val di Zoldo, Agordino and Ampezzano. The eastern part of the features the Dolomites, including the famous Tofane, Tre Cime di Lavaredo. The province is rich in water, with the presence of the wide Piave River, with its affluents Boite, the southern part is called Valbelluna, the widest and most populous valley of the province, which is bordered by the Venetian Prealps. The National Park of Belluno Dolomites is located in the province, the province of Bellunos climate is among the most severe in the Alps. It is mostly influenced by the continentally, provided by the Dolomites and it is similar to the eastern Tyrols climate. The summers are hot but not as hot as the valleys of the rivers Po, the hottest month’s average temperature is between 18 °C and 21 °C.
This area, as most of the oriental Alps, is very wet, belluno’s precipitation average is above 1300 mm per year, snow is usual during all the winter months, and may occur even in March or November. Some years the winter may be due to the humidity, with averages around the freezing point. Main cities in area, Feltre, Seren del Grappa. The midland’s valleys, between 700 m and 1500 m, which have a humid continental climate Dfb. This climate is severe in the extreme northern or southwestern regions of the province. Winter’s average temperature is between −7 °C and −5 °C in the North and Southwest during January, and between −5 °C and −3 °C around the central region. The coldest town, Santo Stefano di Cadore, at an elevation of only 900 meters, has temperature averages in January between −7 °C and −6 °C. Other towns of relatively low elevations have really low averages, which would be found only above 1700 meters in other Italians provinces, the snow season depends on the altitude. Between 700 and 1200 meters, from early November until the middle of March, the summer is usually wet and mild, but hotter than areas at the same altitude in the occidental valleys.
In the lower lands temperature average around 16 °C or 17 °C, in higher lands average around 14 °C
South Tyrol, known by its alternative Italian name Alto Adige, is an autonomous province in northern Italy. It is one of the two provinces that make up the autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. The province has an area of 7,400 square kilometres and its capital is the city of Bolzano. As of 2011, South Tyrol is among the wealthiest regions in Italy, South Tyrol is the term most commonly used in English for the province, and its usage reflects that it was created from a portion of the southern part of the historic County of Tyrol. German and Ladin speakers usually refer to the area as Südtirol, Alto Adige, one of the Italian names for the province, is used in English. The term had been the name of political subdivisions along the Adige River in the time of Napoleon Bonaparte and it was reused as the Italian name of the current province after its post-World War I creation, and was a symbol of the subsequent forced Italianization of South Tyrol. The official name of the today in German is Autonome Provinz Bozen — Südtirol.
German speakers usually refer to it not as a Provinz, provincial institutions are referred to using the prefix Landes-, such as Landesregierung and Landeshauptmann. The official name in Italian is Provincia autonoma di Bolzano — Alto Adige, South Tyrol as an administrative entity originated during the First World War. The Allies promised the area to Italy in the Treaty of London of 1915 as an incentive to enter the war on their side, with the rise of Fascism, the new regime made efforts to bring forward the Italianization of South Tyrol. The German language was banished from public service, German teaching was officially forbidden, the regime favored immigration from other Italian regions. The subsequent alliance between Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini declared that South Tyrol would not follow the destiny of Austria, the region was de facto annexed to the German Reich until the end of the war. This status ended along with the Nazi regime, and Italian rule was restored in 1945, after the war the Allies decided that the province would remain a part of Italy, under the condition that the German-speaking population be granted a significant level of self-government.
Italy and Austria negotiated an agreement in 1946, recognizing the rights of the German minority, alcide De Gasperi, Italys prime minister, a native of Trentino, wanted to extend the autonomy to his fellow citizens. This led to the creation of the region called Trentino-Alto Adige/Tiroler Etschland and Italian were both made official languages, and German-language education was permitted once more. Still Italians were the majority in the combined region, in a first phase, only public edifices and fascist monuments were targeted. The second phase was bloodier, costing 21 lives, the South Tyrolean question became an international issue. A fresh round of negotiations took place in 1961 but proved unsuccessful, the issue was resolved in 1971, when a new Austro-Italian treaty was signed and ratified
Province of Vicenza
The Province of Vicenza is a province in the Veneto region of northern Italy. The province has an area of 2,723 km², there are 121 comuni in the province. Important towns in the province include Bassano del Grappa, Montecchio Maggiore, Torri di Quartesolo, Noventa Vicentina, Marostica, Arzignano, the provinces president, since 2014, is Achille Variati of the Democratic Party. The provinces president, from 2007 to 2014, was Attilio Schneck of the Liga Veneta party, Liga Veneta is a member of the Lega Nord. group of political parties that, in turn, is part of the center-right coalition. Before him, the president was Manuela Dal Lago, a member of the Liga Veneta, population is unevenly spread throughout the province. More than 60% of the populace resides in densely industrialised areas in the eastern, the remaining 40% reside in predominantly rural ares in the southern part of the province or the Asiago plateau. Economic development in areas is hindered by industrial and agricultural depression.
The heavily industrial Alto Vicentino area alone accounts for half of the provinces GDP, indias most influential woman, Sonia Gandhi, the widow of former prime minister Rajiv Gandhi, was born in the province of Vicenza. She currently resides in New Delhi and she was named the third-most powerful woman in the world by Forbes magazine in the year 2004 and currently ranks sixth. She was named among Time magazines 100 Most Influential People in the World for the years 2007 and 2008, the famous inventor Federico Faggin, an Italian physicist/electrical engineer principally responsible for the design of the first microprocessor, was born in Vicenza. Calà del Sasso Strada delle 52 Gallerie Provincia di Vicenza homepage Guide to Outdoor Activities in the Vicenza Province