Domenico Ghirlandaio spelled as Ghirlandajo, was an Italian Renaissance painter born in Florence. Ghirlandaio was part of the so-called "third generation" of the Florentine Renaissance, along with Verrocchio, the Pollaiolo brothers and Sandro Botticelli. Ghirlandaio led a large and efficient workshop that included his brothers Davide Ghirlandaio and Benedetto Ghirlandaio, his brother-in-law Bastiano Mainardi from San Gimignano, his son Ridolfo Ghirlandaio. Many apprentices passed including the famous Michelangelo. Ghirlandaio's particular talent lay in his ability to posit depictions of contemporary life and portraits of contemporary people within the context of religious narratives, bringing him great popularity and many large commissions. Ghirlandaio was born Domenico di Tommaso di Currado di Doffo Bigordi, he was the eldest of six children born to Tommaso Bigordi by his first wife Antonia di ser Paolo Paoli. Tommaso had two more children by his second wife named Antonia, whom he married in 1464.
Domenico's half-sister Alessandra married the painter Bastiano Mainardi in 1494. Both Ghirlandaio's father and his uncle, were setaiuolo a minuto. Giorgio Vasari reported that Domenico was at first apprenticed to his father, a goldsmith; the nickname "Il Ghirlandaio" came to Domenico from his father, famed for creating the metallic garland-like headdresses worn by Florentine women. According to Vasari, Domenico made portraits of the passers-by and visitors to the shop: "when he painted the country people or anyone who passed through his studio he captured their likeness", he was apprenticed to Alesso Baldovinetti to study painting and mosaic. According to the art historian Günter Passavent, he was apprenticed in Florence to Andrea del Verrocchio, he maintained a close association with other Florentine painters including Botticelli and with the Umbrian painter Perugino. Ghirlandaio excelled in the painting of frescos and it is for his fresco cycles that he is best known. An early commission came to him in the 1470s from the Commune of San Gimignano to decorate the Chapel of Santa Fina in the Collegiate Church of that city.
The frescos, executed from 1477 to 1478, depict two miraculous events associated with the death of Saint Fina. In 1480, Ghirlandaio painted St. Jerome in His Study as a companion piece to Botticelli's Saint Augustine in His Study in the Church of Ognissanti, Florence, he painted a life-sized Last Supper in its refectory. From 1481 to 1485, he was employed on frescoes at the Palazzo Vecchio, painting among other works an Apotheosis of St. Zenobius in the Sala del Giglio, an over-life-sized work with an elaborate architectural framework, figures of Roman heroes, other secular details, striking in its perspective and compositional skill. In 1481, Ghirlandaio was summoned to Rome by Pope Sixtus IV as one of a team of Florentine and Umbrian painters who he commissioned to create a series of frescos depicting popes and scenes from the Old and New Testaments on the walls of the Sistine Chapel. Ghirlandaio painted the Vocation of the Apostles, he painted the now lost Resurrection of Christ. The Crossing of the Red Sea has been attributed to him, but is consistent with the style of Cosimo Roselli, part of the commission.
Ghirlandaio is known to have created other works in Rome, now lost. His future brother-in-law, Sebastiano Mainardi, assisted him with these commissions and in the early frescoes at San Gimignano where Mainardi is now thought to have painted an Annunciation sometimes attributed to Ghirlandaio. In 1484, an agent of Ludovico il Moro wrote to his lord, describing the works of the individual artists whose works he had seen in Florence: "Domenico Ghirlandaio a good painter on panel and better in mural fresco. Between 1482 and 1485, Ghirlandaio painted a fresco cycle in the Sassetti Chapel of Santa Trinita for the banker Francesco Sassetti, the powerful director of the Medici bank, whose Rome branch was headed by Giovanni Tornabuoni, Ghirlandaio's future patron; the cycle was of six scenes from the life of Saint Francis of Assisi, including Saint Francis obtaining from Pope Honorius the Approval of the Rules of His Order, the saint's Death and Obsequies and a Resuscitation of a child of the Spini family, who had died as a result of a fall from a window.
The first of these paintings contains portraits of Lorenzo de' Medici and Lorenzo's children with their tutor, Agnolo Poliziano. The Resuscitation shows the painter's own likeness. In 1483, there arrived in Florence a masterpiece of the Flemish painter. Now known as the Portinari Altarpiece, it was an Adoration of the Shepherds, commissioned by Tommaso Portinari, an employee of the Medici Bank; the painting was in oil paint, not the tempera employed in Florence, demonstrated the flexibility of that medium in the painting of textures and intensity of light and shade. The aspect of the painting that had a profound effect on Ghirlandaio was the naturalism with which the shepherds were depicted. Ghirlandaio painted the altarpiece of the Sassetti chapel, an Adoration of the Shepherds, in 1485, it is in this painting that he shows his indebtedness to the Portinari Altarpiece. The shepherds, among whom is a portrait of the artist himself
Stanley Carr Boulter was a British lawyer and businessman, who established The Law Debenture Corporation. In 1902, he married Helen Carte, widow of Richard D'Oyly Carte, he assisted in the financing of the Savoy hotel group. Boulter was educated at Clare College, Cambridge before being called to the Bar in 1879. During his legal career, he was at one point editor of the Law Reports in The Times; as a barrister he concentrated on financial civil cases. Such criminal cases as he took were concerned with fraud and breaches of bankruptcy laws. From 1885 onwards he was sufficiently eminent to appear before the Court of Appeal. In 1889, Boulter turned his energies to finance, he was one of the founders of the Law Debenture Corporation, of which he remained the chairman until his death. He was chairman of the Imperial Colonial Finance and Agency Corporation, the New Investment Company; the Times called him "one of the leading representatives of the great Trust Companies.... Nobody was better than Mr. Boulter at handling a difficult meeting of shareholders... and restoring confidence."In politics, Boulter began as a Liberal, but disagreed with his party leader, W. E. Gladstone, over Irish home rule.
Boulter stood unsuccessfully as a "Liberal Unionist" in the general election of 1886, his political views came to be aligned with those of the Conservative party on any matters affecting the integrity of the British empire. In social politics he remained more liberal, advocating public assistance for working men to buy homes. In his years, he was a Justice of the Peace for Surrey; the son of John Boulter of Frimley, Boulter first married Edith née Anderson. There were four daughters of the marriage. Edith died in 1896. In 1902, he married Helen Carte, her first husband, Richard D'Oyly Carte, had built and operated both the Savoy Theatre and Savoy Hotel. Boulter used the Law Debenture Corporation to assist in raising funds for expansion of the hotel and was appointed vice-chairman of the Savoy hotel group. After his wife's death in 1913, he continued as vice-chairman and assisted the new chairman, her stepson Rupert D'Oyly Carte, with matters related to the D'Oyly Carte businesses. Boulter died in London in 1917 at the age of 64.
D'Oyly Carte Opera Company Gilbert and Sullivan
John P. Scott was an American Republican Party politician who served in the New Jersey Senate from 1992 to 1998 where he represented the 36th Legislative District, which covered Passaic and portions of southern Bergen County. Scott was born in Pennsylvania, he grew up in Jersey City and graduated from William L. Dickinson High School in June 1951, he graduated from Montclair State University before serving in the United States Army. During the 1980s, Scott served as chairman of the New Jersey Conservative Caucus. Scott was campaign manager for Arthur F. Jones in his 1986 bid to unseat Congressman Robert Torricelli. A resident of Lyndhurst, Scott was elected to the State Senate in 1991, when he defeated incumbent Gabriel Ambrosio in the wake of widespread voter dissatisfaction with then-Governor of New Jersey James Florio; the feared loss of state aid to local communities under the 1990 Quality Education Act played a role in Scott's win. The two faced off again with Scott winning re-election by a 53 % -47 % margin.
While serving in the Senate, Scott pushed for the elimination of wasteful spending and was an advocate for smaller government. In 1993, Scott and Senator Louis F. Kosco co-sponsored legislation to impose a commuter tax on New York residents who worked in the Garden State based on their total family income, which Kosco described as "retaliatory legislation" on behalf of the 230,000 New Jersey residents who worked in New York and were assessed taxes by that state on their income. Scott lost his seat in November 1997 to Democrat Garry Furnari. Furnari won with 55% of the vote, taking the seat of what The New York Times described as "one of the most conservative Republicans in the Legislature", he worked for New Jersey Transit after leaving elected office. Scott and his wife moved to Dingman Township, Pike County, Pennsylvania in August 2001. There he was a founder of the Dingman Township Republican Club and served on the Pike County Republican Committee, he ran in May 2007 in the Republican Party primary for the part-time position of Pike County Auditor.
While in Pennsylvania, he served as an advisor to the political campaigns of several Republican candidates. Scott died at age 76 on May 21, 2010