SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Dominion

Dominions were the semi-independent polities under the British Crown that constituted the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867. "Dominion status" was a constitutional term of art used to signify an independent Commonwealth realm. India and Pakistan were dominions for a short period of time, as was Ceylon; the Balfour Declaration of 1926 recognised the Dominions as "autonomous Communities within the British Empire", the 1931 Statute of Westminster confirmed their full legislative independence. Earlier usage of dominion to refer to a particular territory dates to the 16th century and was used to describe Wales from 1535 to 1801. A distinction must be made between a British "dominion" and British "Dominions"; the use of a capital "D" when referring to the'British Dominions' was required by the United Kingdom government in order to avoid confusion with the wider term "His Majesty's dominions" which referred to the British Empire as a whole. All territories forming part of the British Empire were British dominions but only some were British Dominions.

At the time of the adoption of the Statute of Westminster, there were six British Dominions: Canada, New Zealand, South Africa and the Irish Free State. At the same time there were many other jurisdictions that were British dominions, for example Cyprus; the Order in Council annexing the island of Cyprus in 1914 declared that, from 5 November, the island "shall be annexed to and form part of His Majesty's dominions". Use of dominion to refer to a particular territory dates back to the 16th century and was sometimes used to describe Wales from 1535 to around 1800: for instance, the Laws in Wales Act 1535 applies to "the Dominion and Country of Wales". Dominion, as an official title, was conferred on the Colony of Virginia about 1660 and on the Dominion of New England in 1686; these dominions never had full self-governing status. The creation of the short-lived Dominion of New England was designed—contrary to the purpose of dominions—to increase royal control and to reduce the colony's self-government.

Under the British North America Act 1867, Canada received the status of "Dominion" upon the Confederation of several British possessions in North America. However, it was at the Colonial Conference of 1907 when the self-governing colonies of Canada and the Commonwealth of Australia were referred to collectively as Dominions for the first time. Two other self-governing colonies—New Zealand and Newfoundland—were granted the status of Dominion in the same year; these were followed by the Union of South Africa in 1910 and the Irish Free State in 1922. At the time of the founding of the League of Nations in 1924, the League Covenant made provision for the admission of any "fully self-governing state, Dominion, or Colony", the implication being that "Dominion status was something between that of a colony and a state". Dominion status was formally defined in the Balfour Declaration of 1926, which recognised these countries as "autonomous Communities within the British Empire", thus acknowledging them as political equals of the United Kingdom.

The Statute of Westminster 1931 converted this status into legal reality, making them independent members of what was called the British Commonwealth. Following the Second World War, the decline of British colonialism led to Dominions being referred to as Commonwealth realms and the use of the word dominion diminished. Nonetheless, though disused, it remains Canada's legal title and the phrase Her Majesty's Dominions is still used in legal documents in the United Kingdom; the phrase His/Her Majesty's dominions is a legal and constitutional phrase that refers to all the realms and territories of the Sovereign, whether independent or not. Thus, for example, the British Ireland Act 1949, recognised that the Republic of Ireland had "ceased to be part of His Majesty's dominions"; when dependent territories that had never been annexed were granted independence, the United Kingdom act granting independence always declared that such and such a territory "shall form part of Her Majesty's dominions", so become part of the territory in which the Queen exercises sovereignty, not suzerainty.

The sense of "Dominion" was capitalised to distinguish it from the more general sense of "dominion". The word dominions referred to the possessions of the Kingdom of England. Oliver Cromwell's full title in the 1650s was "Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England and Ireland, the dominions thereto belonging". In 1660, King Charles II gave the Colony of Virginia the title of dominion in gratitude for Virginia's loyalty to the Crown during the English Civil War; the Commonwealth of Virginia, a State of the United States, still has "the Old Dominion" as one of its nicknames. Dominion occurred in the name of the short-lived Dominion of New England. In all of these cases, the word dominion implied no more than being subject to the English Crown; the foundation of "Dominion" status followed the achievement of internal self-rule in British Colonies, in the specific form of full responsible government. Colonial responsible government began to emerge during the mid-19th century; the legislatures of Colonies with responsible government were able to make laws in all matters other than foreign affairs and international trade, these being powers which remained with the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

Bermuda, was never defined as a Dominion, despite meeting

1946 New Year Honours (South Africa)

The 1946 New Year Honours were appointments by many of the Commonwealth Realms of King George VI to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by citizens of those countries, to celebrate the passing of 1945 and the beginning of 1946. They were announced on 1 January 1946 for the United Kingdom, Dominions, the Union of South Africa, New Zealand; the recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour, arranged by honour, with classes and divisions as appropriate. Military DivisionBrigadier Pieter de Waal, South African Staff Corps. Military DivisionTemporary Commodore James Dalgleish, South African Naval Forces. Colonel Frederick Collins, South African Staff Corps. Colonel George Harry Cotton, South African Staff Corps. Brigadier Johann Bosman Kriegler, South African Staff Corps. Colonel Ronald Campbell Ross, South African Staff Corps. Colonel William Thomas Beaumont Tasker, South African Air Force. Military DivisionColonel Thomas Bailey Clapham, South African Staff Corps.

Chaplain Arie Gerhardus Oberholster Coertse, General Services Corps. Lieutenant-Colonel David Barrable Hodges Special Signals Services, South African Corps of Signals. Lieutenant-Colonel Herbert Sheridan Mockford, General Services Corps, Non-European Army Services. Temporary Colonel Henry Alford Moffat, South African Medical Corps. Colonel Hendrik Johannes Zinn, South African Staff Corps. Acting Colonel Jacobus Adriaan De Vos, South African Air Force. Major Silas Machin Coxon, South African Air Force. Military DivisionSouth African ArmyLieutenant-Colonel John Gamble Knox Agnew, "Q" Services Corps. Lieutenant John Brook, South African Engineers Corps. Temporary Major Alice Cox, Women's Auxiliary Army Services, attached South African Medical Corps. Major John Findlay Davidson, South African Medical Corp. Attached Union Defence Force Repatriation Unit. Major Francis Dawson, South African Staff Corps. Lieutenant-Colonel Edgar Francis Edwards, Technical Services Corps. Temporary Warrant Officer Harold William Harris, General Services Corps.

Captain William Fred Hobbs, General Services Corps. Temporary Captain George William Ings, South African Engineers Corps. Captain Alexander Leopold Kowarsky, General Services Corps. Temporary Captain Johanna Aletta Mentz, Women's Auxiliary Army Services. Captain Bernard Notcutt, Army Educational Services. Temporary Lieutenant Ralph Ackerman Polkinghorne, General Services Corps. Temporary Captain Ernest Samuel Pearson Shirley and Harbours Brigade. Major Robert Miller Strachan, South African Pay Corps. Major Harold Evelyn Watts, South African Army Postal Corps. Major John Nicol Williamson, South African Intelligence Corps. Temporary Chaplain 3rd Class Hugh Falconer Yule, General Services Corps Attached U. D. F. Repatriation Unit. Major Eric Sydney Evans, South African Forces. South African Air ForceMajor John Blamire. Major Arthur Dallas Coetzee. Major Oscar Egenes. Major Allan Hildred Fish. Major Muriel Agatha Horrell, South African Women's Auxiliary Air Force. Major James Ireland-Low. Temporary Major Harold Cartwright Robinson.

Captain Vernon Percival Field. Captain Neville Colin Edward Wimble. Temporary Captain Sylvia Gordon Sprigg, South African Women's Auxiliary Air Force. Lieutenant Victor Tetlow Kilburn. Temporary Warrant Officer Class II, Adram Kesler. Military DivisionSouth African Naval Forces Chief Petty Officer Thomas Vincent. Chief Petty Officer Swan Margaret Olive Forbes. South African Army1428077 Temporary Sergeant Paul Johannes Bunce, South African Army Postal Corps. Attached U. D. F. Repatriation Unit. 206538VE Temporary Sergeant Thomas Rolande Claude Worthington-Cooper, South African Veterinary Corps. 13052181 Sergeant Harold Victor Counsell, Armoured Corps Commando. Attached U. D. F. Repatriation Unit. 11068V Staff Sergeant Melville Ivanhoe Fisher, South African Pay Corps. Attached U. D. F. Repatriation Unit. W.154207V Staff Sergeant Martha Helena Geldard, Women's Auxiliary Army Service. Attached Entertainment Unit. 579V Temporary Staff Sergeant Hugh Thomson Rose-Innes, "Q" Services Corps. 58871V Staff Sergeant Alfred James Martin, General Services Corps.

W. 57338 Corporal Women's Auxiliary Army Services. Attached "Q" Services Corps. 76126V Temporary Corporal Albert Reitz, General Services Corps. Attached U. D. F. Repatriation Unit. SR.5986257 Temporary Staff Sergeant Alexander Elios Slutzkin, General Services Corps. Attached U. D. F. Repatriation Unit. 22906V Temporary Sergeant Louis George Stanbridge, South African Medical Corps. Attached U. D. F. Repatriation Unit. SR.598681V Temporary Staff Sergeant Reginald Nelson Tomlinson, General Services Corps. Attached U. D. F. Repatriation Unit. 185981V Staff Sergeant Raymond Ward, "Q" Services Corps. South African Air Force47263V Flight Sergeant Henry Daniel Ferguson. F.264697V Flight Sergeant Rose Fowles, South African Women's Auxiliary Air Force. F.46752V Temporary Flight Sergeant Margaret Duncan, South African Women's Auxiliary Air Force. 208345V Temporary Flight Sergeant Leslie John Fra

Lady Madcap

Lady Madcap is an Edwardian musical comedy in two acts, composed by Paul Rubens with a book by Paul Rubens and Nathaniel Newnham-Davis, lyrics by Paul Rubens and Percy Greenbank. The story concerns a mischievous Earl's daughter who holds a ball at her father's castle without permission, pretends to be her own maid, causes general confusion; the musical was first performed at the Prince of Wales Theatre, London, on 17 December 1904, under the management of George Edwardes, garnering favourable reviews. It ran for 354 performances, nearly a year, closing in November 1905, it starred Adrienne Augarde in the title role, G. P. Huntley as Trouper Smith. Various changes were made to the cast during the run. Among those who appeared in the piece were Zena Dare, Lily Elsie, Gabrielle Ray and Marie Studholme, it toured in the British provinces, starring Studholme. In 1906 it ran on Broadway at the Casino Theatre as My Lady's Maid with Madge Crichton in the title role, it received an Australian production.

Lady Betty, the daughter of an Earl, Lord Framlingham, is an mischievous girl. Without her father's knowledge, she has invited the officers of the East Anglian Hussars to their home, Egbert Castle, for a day and night of entertainment, she forges two telegrams that send her father into town on some urgent political pretext and his butler to follow him. Her father wisely locks her in her room during his absence, but her friend and lady's maid, secures a ladder to help her to escape from the window. Although she detests wealth, Lady Betty is interested in a rich, eccentric young trooper, who calls himself Smith, whose prowess at cricket have caught her eye, she disguises herself as a servant, has Gwenny impersonate her, so that she can get close to Smith. Meanwhile, two men from the village, attracted by the Earl's advertisement for a rich man to court his daughter, arrive at the castle and mistake each of Gwenny and Susan for Lady Betty. Betty flirts with Smith and persuades him to pretend to be the butler, which he does, donning the butler's uniform.

That evening at the servants' ball, class distinctions disappear, as the officers enjoy the entertainment and company of servants and gentry alike. Betty continues her flirtations with Smith and is well-pleased with the progress of her elaborate mischief. Lord Framingham is soothed that his daughter's suitor is, at least, rich; the impostors are discovered, all ends happily. Count de St. HubertMaurice Farkoa Bill StratfordAubrey Fitzgerald Posh Jenkins – Fred Emney Colonel Layton – Leedham Bantock Major Blatherswaite – Dennis Eadie Captain Harrington – J. Edward Fraser Lieutenant SomersetSpencer Trevor Lord Framlingham – Herbert Sparling Corporal Ham – George Carroll Palmer – Roy St. George Old Huntsman – Richard Kavanagh Trooper Smith – G. P. Huntley Gwenny Holden – Delia Mason. Wearing and the original vocal score by Co.. Act I – Garden at Egbert Castle. No. 1. Chorus – "We're simple rustic folk, we are" No. 2. OctetFootmen and Housemaids – "We're flunkeys high and haughty" No. 3. Gwenny – "Pretty Primrose" No. 4.

Lady Betty and Gwenny – "Grace and Disgrace" No. 5. Entrance of Yeomanry – "Here they are, don't you see?" No. 6. Harrington and Chorus – "A way we have in the Army" No. 7. Chorus – "Can this be true? We're fill'd with consternation" No. 8. Bill and Posh – "Ow do you do, if you please?" No. 9. Susan – "Nerves" No. 10. Comte – "Do I like love?" No. 11. Lady Betty and Girls – "My lady's maid" No. 12. Chorus of Girls – "Archery" No. 13. Comte and Gwenny – "My Comtesse" No. 14. Finale Act I – "Oh! I am the pet of Mayfair"Act II – Hall at Egbert Castle. No. 15. Gwenny – "Who? Who? Who?" No. 16. Chorus of Page-Boys – "We're pert little, plump little page-boys" No. 17. Betty – "Her little dog" No. 18. Susan – "I don't seem to want you when you're with me" No. 19. Comte – "I like you in velvet" No. 20. Susan and Chorus – "The Missis" No. 21. Octet – "Leap Year" No. 22. Betty and Chorus – "In Scarlet Uniform" No. 23. Colonel and Chorus – "The beetle and the Boot" No. 24. Comte and Smith – "I loved her" No. 25. Finale Act II – "See me in a scarlet uniform, as I go marching down the street"AddendumSusan and Ham – "Two Little Pigs" Reviewing the first night, the critic in The Observer commented that the piece was "a conspicuous success" and "fully up to the high standard we have been led to expect" from musical comedies presented by George Edwardes.

There was praise for Rubens's music – "a high level of excellence" above the normal standard for the genre. The reviewer for The Times praised all the cast, singling out Adrienne Augarde as "a bright and mischievous Madcap", but commented that the main attraction for audiences was G. P. Huntley, for his comic performance in various disguises; the lyric of the song "I like you in velvet" was used by Malcolm McLaren in his song on his album Waltz Darling. Wearing, J. P; the London Stage 1900–1909: A Calendar of Productions and Personnel, Rowman & Littlefield ISBN 0-8108-9293-6 Song list and links to Midi files and cast list Musical score