The Union of India called the Dominion of India, was an independent dominion in the British Commonwealth of Nations between 15 August 1947 and 26 January 1950. It was created by the Indian Independence Act 1947 and was transformed into the Republic of India by the promulgation of the Constitution of India in 1950; the King was represented by the Governor-General of India. However, the Governor-General was not designated Viceroy, as had been customary under the British Raj; the office of Viceroy was abolished on independence. Two governors-general held office between independence and India's transformation into a republic: Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma and Chakravarti Rajagopalachari. Jawaharlal Nehru was Prime Minister of India throughout; the Partition of British India on 15 August 1947 led to the creation of two sovereign states, both dominions: Pakistan and India. Since the late 1920s the Indian independence movement had been demanding Pūrṇa Swarāj for the Indian nation and the establishment of the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan was a major victory for the Swarajis.
The Partition was controversial among the people, resulted in significant political instability and displacement. Most of the 565 princely states within Indian territory acceded to the Dominion of India; the Hindu-majority Junagadh State located in modern-day Gujarat attempted to accede to Pakistan under Nawab Sir Muhammad Mahabat Khanji III, a Muslim. It was annexed militarily by the Indian government; the State of Hyderabad sought to remain independent and was annexed by India in 1948. The newly created states of Pakistan and India both joined the Commonwealth, a platform for cooperation between the countries, part of the British Empire, they soon found themselves at war beginning in October 1947, over the contested princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistani militants entered the state, alarming Maharaja Hari Singh who appealed to India for military intervention, in exchange for the signing of the Instrument of Accession and annexation into India; the region is contested to this day and two other Indo-Pakistan wars occurred as part of the Kashmir conflict.
The Dominion of India began working towards a constitution based on liberal democracy after independence. The Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution of India, drafted by a committee headed by B. R. Ambedkar, on 26 November 1949. India abolished the role of the constitutional monarchy and became a federal, democratic republic after its constitution came into effect on 26 January 1950; the governmental structure was similar to that of the United Kingdom but within a federal system. Rajendra Prasad became the first President of India. Interim Government of India History of the Republic of India Indian independence movement
Wispers School was a British independent boarding school for girls aged between 11 and 18, founded in 1947 and which closed in 2008 after 61 years' operation. For the first part of its life it was based at Wispers, a large country house in Midhurst, West Sussex, UK. In 1946 Helen Brown, the wife of a vicar, bought Herries School in Cookham Dean in Berkshire. In 1947 her husband needed to be confined to a TB clinic near the south coast, accordingly the school was to move to Wispers, a large country house designed by the architect Richard Norman Shaw, near Midhurst in West Sussex. For the start of the autumn term 1947 Herries School was split, with the local children remaining at the non-boarding junior school part of Herries in Cookham Dean, the boarding contingent moving to Wispers. Herries School at Wispers was renamed Wispers School for the start of the autumn term 1949. Writer Angela Lambert and actress Susannah York both attended Wispers School in the early 1950s, while it was based at Wispers.
In 1956 the school moved to West Dean House in West Dean, West Sussex, owned at the time by Edward James. In 1964 James gave the House to a charitable trust, The Edward James Foundation, but the school was able to remain at West Dean until 1968. In 1969 the school moved to a new site in Haslemere in Surrey when the Wispers School Trust purchased Oak Hall, in High Lane; the house had housed another school, Oak Hall School, so was suitable for Wispers to take over without too much modification being needed. The house and 26 acre site was found for the school by Ken Wood, a businessman, Chairman of the Governors of Wispers School; the decision to close the school was made unanimously by the Board of Governors, for the twin reasons of a falling roll of pupils due to a drop in demand for all-girls' boarding education, rising costs. The May 2008 announcement of the closure of the school was unexpected as the School had received a glowing Ofsted report and had been given the award for "the most pro-active business in the community" in Haslemere Chamber of Trade and Commerce's 2008 awards.
At the time the school had 72 pupils. 46 staff were made redundant: 14 full-time and 15 part-time teaching staff, 17 support staff involved in the running of the school and its site. The site and its buildings were sold, with the school's estimated £4 million-worth of assets used to establish a Wispers Education Trust, which provides bursaries for girls who would otherwise be unable to benefit from independent education. Novelist Angela Lambert attended Wispers in the early 1950s and a fictionalised version of the school and its pupils and staff is presented in her 1990 novel, No Talking After Lights. Angela Lambert Susannah York Wispers Trust Limited, the educational charity set up after the sale of the school
Gander Lake is located in the central part of the island of Newfoundland in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It is the third-largest lake in Newfoundland. Measuring 56 km in length and several kilometres in width, the lake is oriented northwest–southeast; the town of Gander is located on the Northern shore at its midpoint, the towns of Appleton and Glenwood are situated on the Western extremity of the lake, on the banks of the Gander River. Gander Lake has been measured to a depth of 351 m in some areas, it is the main source of water for the towns of Gander and Glenwood. Near the southeastern end of the lake, just over 12 km outside of the town of Gander, there is a small, quarry-cut, artificial harbour known as "Little Harbour"; this area contains is a fire pit area for day trips. Camping is frowned upon, if not outright forbidden in the immediate area of the boat launch; however there are two pebble beaches which are used by tenters, accessible from the dirt roads surrounding the cove.
Boaters have much better access to both pebble and sand beaches that run along both sides of the lake, such as one known as the "fifteen mile brook", which are excellent for camping. Other well known areas throughout the lake include "Hunt's Cove", "Southwest", "Gander River" and "Denty's Pit"