Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a federal parliamentary republic in South Asia on the crossroads of Central Asia and Western Asia. It is the sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 200 million people, in terms of area, it is the 33rd-largest country in the world with an area covering 881,913 square kilometres. It is separated from Tajikistan by Afghanistans narrow Wakhan Corridor in the north, Pakistan is unique among Muslim countries in that it is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam. As a result of the Pakistan Movement led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and it is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a similarly diverse geography and wildlife. Initially a dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic, an ethnic civil war in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. The new constitution stipulated that all laws were to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran.
Pakistan has an economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector. The Pakistani economy is the 24th-largest in the world in terms of purchasing power and it is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, and is backed by one of the worlds largest and fastest-growing middle classes. The post-independence history of Pakistan has been characterised by periods of military rule, the country continues to face challenging problems such as illiteracy and corruption, but has substantially reduced poverty and terrorism and expanded per capita income. It is a member of CERN. Pakistan is a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol, the Paris Agreement, the name Pakistan literally means land of the pure in Urdu and Persian. It is a play on the word pāk meaning pure in Persian and Pashto, the letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation and form the linguistically correct and meaningful name. Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan, the earliest known inhabitants in the region were Soanian during the Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been found in the Soan Valley of Punjab.
The Vedic Civilization, characterised by Indo-Aryan culture, laid the foundations of Hinduism, Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre. The Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā, the Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander, prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture in the region. Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of education in the world. At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty of Sindh ruled this region, the Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, under Dharampala and Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through Northern India to Pakistan. The Arab conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim conquered the Indus valley from Sindh to Multan in southern Punjab in 711 AD, the Pakistan governments official chronology identifies this as the time when the foundation of Pakistan was laid
Flag of Pakistan
It was afterwards retained by the current-day Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The flag is a field with a white crescent moon and five-rayed star at its centre. Though the green colour is mandated only as dark green, its official and most consistent representation is Pakistan green, the flag was designed by Amiruddin Kidwai, and is based on the All-India Muslim League flag. The flag is referred to in the anthem as the Flag of the Crescent. It is flown on several important days of the year including Republic Day, Independence Day and it is often hoisted every morning at schools and government buildings to the sound of the national anthem and lowered again before sunset. A notable flag raising and lowering ceremony is carried out each day with great pomp, a designer named Amiruddin Kidwai studied the League’s flag, as he tried to design a flag for a new, independent nation. Finally he arrived at a design, and he presented it to the leadership of the Muslim League who subsequently adopted his design as the flag of the Dominion of Pakistan on 11 August,1947, the government of Pakistan has pronounced rules about the flying of the flag.
Before the Second World War and Hindus lived together under the British Raj, a number of the Muslims formed the All India Muslim League. After the Second World War, when the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the green represents Islam and the majority Muslims in Pakistan and the white stripe represents religious minorities and minority religions. In the centre, the crescent and star symbolizes progress and light respectively, the flag symbolizes Pakistans commitment to Islam and the rights of religious minorities. It is based on the flag of the Muslim League, which itself drew inspiration from the flag of the Sultanate of Delhi, the flag of Ottoman Empire. The official design of the flag was adopted by the Constituent Assembly together with a definition of the features. The width of the portion is one quarter the width of the flag, nearest the mast. The Interior Ministry of Pakistan provides dimensions for flags in different circumstances, For ceremonial occasions, 21′ × 14′, 18′ × 12′, for use over buildings, 6′ × 4′ or 3′ × 2′.
For tables, 10 1⁄4″ × 8 1⁄4″, no other flag must fly higher. When displayed or flown alongside other flags, the National Flag must be displayed or flown at the same height as the other national flags. When displayed alongside provincial, military or corporate flags, the National Flag must be higher, when tied to a mast, it must be tied only at the left and left to fly freely without any obstruction. Must not touch the ground, shoes or feet or anything unclean, must never be flown in darkness
Bangladesh, officially the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It shares land borders with India and Myanmar, Nepal and China are located near Bangladesh but do not share a border with it. The countrys maritime territory in the Bay of Bengal is roughly equal to the size of its land area, Bangladesh is the worlds eighth most populous country. Dhaka is its capital and largest city, followed by Chittagong which has the countrys largest port, Bangladesh forms the largest and eastern part of the Bengal region. Bangladeshis include people of different ethnic groups and religions, who speak the official Bengali, make up 98% of the population. The politically dominant Bengali Muslims make the nation the worlds third largest Muslim-majority country, most of Bangladesh is covered by the Bengal delta, the largest delta on Earth. The country has 700 rivers and 8,046 km of inland waterways, highlands with evergreen forests are found in the northeastern and southeastern regions of the country.
Bangladesh has many islands and a coral reef and it is home to the Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest in the world. The countrys biodiversity includes a vast array of plant and wildlife, including critically endangered Bengal tigers, the Greeks and Romans identified the region as Gangaridai, a powerful kingdom of the historical subcontinent, in the 3rd century BCE. Archaeological research has unearthed several ancient cities in Bangladesh, which had trade links for millennia. The Bengal Sultanate and Mughal Bengal transformed the region into a cosmopolitan Islamic imperial power between the 14th and 18th centuries, the region was home to many principalities which had inland naval prowess. It was a center of the worldwide muslin and silk trade. As part of British India, the region was influenced by the Bengali renaissance, the Partition of British India made East Bengal a part of the Dominion of Pakistan, and was renamed as East Pakistan. The region witnessed the Bengali Language Movement in 1952 and the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, after independence, a parliamentary republic was established. A presidential government was in place between 1975 and 1990, followed by a return to parliamentary democracy, the country has been affected by poverty, natural disasters, dominant party systems and military coups.
Bangladesh is a power and a major developing nation. Listed as one of the Next Eleven, it has the 46th largest economy and it is one of the largest textile exporters in the world. Its major trading partners are the European Union, the United States, India, Malaysia, with its strategically vital location between Southern and Southeast Asia, Bangladesh is an important promoter of regional connectivity and cooperation
Karachi is the capital of Sindh, and is the largest and most populous city in Pakistan, as well as the 7th largest in the world and the worlds second most populous city proper. Ranked as a world city, the city is Pakistans premier industrial and financial centre. Karachi is Pakistans most cosmopolitan city, though the Karachi region has been inhabited for millennia, the city was founded as a village named Kolachi that was established as a fortified settlement in 1729. By the time of the Partition of British India, the city was the largest in Sindh with a population of 400,000. Immediately following the independence of Pakistan, the population increased dramatically with the arrival of hundreds of thousands of Muslim refugees from India. The city experienced economic growth following independence, attracting migrants from throughout Pakistan. Karachi is now Pakistans premier industrial and financial centre, the city has a formal economy estimated to be worth $113 billion as of 2014. Karachi collects over a third of Pakistans tax revenue, and generates approximately 20% of Pakistans GDP, approximately 30% of Pakistani industrial output is from Karachi, while Karachis ports handle approximately 95% of Pakistans foreign trade.
Approximately 90% of the corporations operating in Pakistan are headquartered in Karachi. Up to 70% of Karachis workforce is employed in the informal economy, Karachi is one of Pakistans most secular and socially liberal cities. It is the most linguistically and religiously diverse city in Pakistan, Karachi is considered to be one of the worlds fastest growing cities, and has communities representing almost every ethnic group in Pakistan. Karachi is home to over 2 million Bangladeshi migrants,1 million Afghans, the citys murder rate in 2015 had decreased by 75% compared to 2013, and kidnappings decreased by 90%, with the improved security environment triggering sharp increases in real-estate prices. Karachi was reputedly founded in 1729 as the settlement of Kolachi, the new settlement is said to have been named in honour of Mai Kolachi, whose son is said to have slayed a man-eating crocodile in the village after his elder brothers had already been killed by it. The citys inhabitants are referred to by the demonym Karachiite in English, the earliest inhabitants of the Karachi region are believed to have been hunter-gatherers, with ancient flint tools discovered at several sites.
The Karachi region is believed to have known to the ancient Greeks. The region may be the site of Krokola, where Alexander the Great once camped to prepare a fleet for Babylonia, in 711 C. E. Muhammad bin Qasim conquered the Sindh and Indus Valley. The Karachi region is believed to have known to the Arabs as Debal. Under Mirza Ghazi Beg the Mughal administrator of Sindh, development of coastal Sindh, under his rule, fortifications in the region acted as a bulwark against Portuguese incursions into Sindh
Partition of India
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions and Pakistan. The Dominion of India is today the Republic of India and Dominion of Pakistan, the partition involved the division of two provinces and the Punjab, based on district-wise Hindu or Muslim majorities. It involved the division of the British Indian Army, the Royal Indian Navy, the Indian Civil Service, the railways, and the central treasury, between the two new dominions. The partition was set forth in the Indian Independence Act 1947 and resulted in the dissolution of the British Raj, the two self-governing countries of India and Pakistan legally came into existence at midnight on 14–15 August 1947. The violent nature of the created an atmosphere of hostility. The term partition of India does not cover the secession of Bangladesh from Pakistan in 1971, nor the earlier separations of Burma and Ceylon from the administration of British India. It does not cover the incorporation of the enclaves of French India into India during the period 1947–1954, nor the annexation of Goa, other contemporaneous political entities in the region in 1947, Bhutan and The Maldives were unaffected by the partition.
The Hindu elite of Bengal, among many who owned land in East Bengal that was leased out to Muslim peasants. The pervasive protests against Curzons decision took the form predominantly of the Swadeshi campaign led by two-time Congress president, Surendranath Banerjee, sporadically—but flagrantly—the protesters took to political violence that involved attacks on civilians. The violence, was not effective, as most planned attacks were either preempted by the British or failed, the unrest spread from Calcutta to the surrounding regions of Bengal when Calcuttas English-educated students returned home to their villages and towns. Since Calcutta was the capital, both the outrage and the slogan soon became nationally known. In conjunction, they demanded proportional legislative representation reflecting both their status as rulers and their record of cooperating with the British. This led, in December 1906, to the founding of the All-India Muslim League in Dacca, although Curzon, by now, had resigned his position over a dispute with his military chief Lord Kitchener and returned to England, the League was in favour of his partition plan.
In the three decades since that census, Muslim leaders across northern India, had intermittently experienced public animosity from some of the new Hindu political and social groups. In 1905, when Tilak and Lajpat Rai attempted to rise to positions in the Congress. It was not lost on many Muslims, for example, that the rallying cry, World War I would prove to be a watershed in the imperial relationship between Britain and India. Indias international profile would thereby rise and would continue to rise during the 1920s, back in India, especially among the leaders of the Indian National Congress, it would lead to calls for greater self-government for Indians. Secretary of State for India and Viceroy Lord Chelmsford presented a report in July 1918 after a long fact-finding trip through India the previous winter
Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867. They included Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, and the Irish Free State, and from the late 1940s India and Ceylon. The Balfour Declaration of 1926 recognised the Dominions as autonomous Communities within the British Empire, earlier usage of dominion to refer to a particular territory dates to the 16th century and was used to describe Wales from 1535 to 1801 and New England between 1686 and 1689. At the outset, a distinction must be made between a British dominion and British Dominions, all territories forming part of the British Empire were British dominions but only some were British Dominions. At the time of the adoption of the Statute of Westminster, there were six British Dominions, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Newfoundland, at the same time there were many other jurisdictions that were British dominions, for example Cyprus. The Order in Council annexing the island of Cyprus in 1914 declared that, from 5 November, Dominion, as an official title, was conferred on the Colony of Virginia about 1660 and on the Dominion of New England in 1686.
These dominions never had full self-governing status, the creation of the short-lived Dominion of New England was designed—contrary to the purpose of dominions—to increase royal control and to reduce the colonys self-government. Under the British North America Act 1867, what is now eastern Canada received the status of Dominion upon the Confederation of several British possessions in North America. However, it was at the Colonial Conference of 1907 when the colonies of Canada. Two other self-governing colonies—New Zealand and Newfoundland—were granted the status of Dominion in the same year and these were followed by the Union of South Africa in 1910 and the Irish Free State in 1922. The Statute of Westminster 1931 converted this status into legal reality, following the Second World War, the decline of British colonialism led to Dominions generally being referred to as Commonwealth realms and the use of the word dominion gradually diminished. Nonetheless, though disused, it remains Canadas legal title and the phrase Her Majestys Dominions is still used occasionally in legal documents in the United Kingdom.
The phrase His/Her Majestys dominions is a legal and constitutional phrase that refers to all the realms and territories of the Sovereign, for example, the British Ireland Act,1949, recognised that the Republic of Ireland had ceased to be part of His Majestys dominions. The sense of Dominion was capitalised to distinguish it from the general sense of dominion. The word dominions originally referred to the possessions of the Kingdom of England, oliver Cromwells full title in the 1650s was Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England and Ireland, and the dominions thereto belonging. In 1660, King Charles II gave the Colony of Virginia the title of dominion in gratitude for Virginias loyalty to the Crown during the English Civil War, the Commonwealth of Virginia, a State of the United States, still has the Old Dominion as one of its nicknames. Dominion occurred in the name of the short-lived Dominion of New England, in all of these cases, the word dominion implied no more than being subject to the English Crown.
The foundation of Dominion status followed the achievement of internal self-rule in British Colonies, Colonial responsible government began to emerge during the mid-19th century
Princely states of Pakistan
The princely states of Pakistan were former princely states of the British Indian Empire which acceded to the new Dominion of Pakistan between 1947 and 1948, following its independence. The rulers were left to decide whether to accede to one of the independent states of India or Pakistan or to remain independent outside both. The Wali of Swat commented that the states accession did not change very much, within a generation all of the princely states had lost their internal autonomy. The last to fall were Hunza and Nagar, in October 1974. The princely state of Junagadh had a mostly Hindu population but a Muslim ruler, Muhammad Mahabat Khan III, and in August 1947 he decided to accede to Pakistan, the first ruler of a state to do so. The Nawabs dewan, Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto, delivered the Instrument of Accession to Jinnah in person, and on 13 September Jinnah accepted the accession. However, some of the Hindu subjects who formed the majority of the population revolted, the Government of India installed a new governor and arranged a referendum on the status of the state, which took place on 20 February 1948 and voted overwhelmingly for union with India.
This led to the integration of Junagadh into India, Manavadar Ghulam Moinuddin, the Khan of Bantva Manavadar, a state subordinate to Junagadh, signed an accession to Pakistan on 24 September 1947. The Indian police invaded Manavadar on 22 October, and the Khan was arrested, following a plebiscite, the state was merged with the newly federated state of Saurashtra on 20 February 1949. The Khan was released as a result of the Liaquat–Nehru Pact of 8 April 1950 and he lived in Karachi from 1951, where he was recognized as a prince until his death in 2003. Also on 3 October 1947, after delay, the Nawab of Bahawalpur, Sadeq Mohammad Khan V, acceded his state to Pakistan. As tens of thousands of Muslim refugees flooded into the state from the new India, in 1953, the Ameer of Bahawalpur represented Pakistan at the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II. The state of Khairpur acceded to Pakistan on 3 October 1947, in 1950 the Amir introduced a form of democracy, with universal adult franchise. In 1955 the Pakistan Army took control of the state and annexed it to Pakistan, the royal privileges of the Amir were abolished in 1972.
The Mehtar of Chitral, Muzaffar-ul-Mulk, stated his intention to accede to Pakistan on 15 August 1947, his formal accession was delayed until 6 October. His son, Saif-ur-Rahman, had been exiled by the Government of Pakistan, the Wāli of Swat, Miangul Abdul Wadud, acceded his state to Pakistan on 3 November 1947. Hunza, known as Kanjut, was a princely state to the north of Jammu and Kashmir. In 1931 its population was reported as 13,241, however, on 3 November 1947, the Mir of Hunza, Mohammad Jamal Khan, who had been ruler only since 1946, sent a telegram to Jinnah stating that he wished to accede his state to Pakistan
Monarchy of the United Kingdom
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories. The monarchs title is King or Queen, the current monarch and head of state, Queen Elizabeth II, ascended the throne on the death of her father, King George VI, on 6 February 1952. The monarch and his or her immediate family undertake various official, diplomatic, as the monarchy is constitutional, the monarch is limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the Prime Minister. The monarch is, by tradition, commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces, from 1603, when the Scottish monarch King James VI inherited the English throne as James I, both the English and Scottish kingdoms were ruled by a single sovereign. From 1649 to 1660, the tradition of monarchy was broken by the republican Commonwealth of England, the Act of Settlement 1701 excluded Roman Catholics, or those who married Catholics, from succession to the English throne.
In 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland were merged to create the Kingdom of Great Britain, and in 1801, the British monarch became nominal head of the vast British Empire, which covered a quarter of the worlds surface at its greatest extent in 1921. After the Second World War, the vast majority of British colonies and territories became independent, George VI and his successor, Elizabeth II, adopted the title Head of the Commonwealth as a symbol of the free association of its independent member states. The United Kingdom and fifteen other Commonwealth monarchies that share the person as their monarch are called Commonwealth realms. In the uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom, the Monarch is the Head of State, oaths of allegiance are made to the Queen and her lawful successors. God Save the Queen is the British national anthem, and the monarch appears on postage stamps, the Monarch takes little direct part in Government. Executive power is exercised by Her Majestys Government, which comprises Ministers, primarily the Prime Minister and the Cabinet and they have the direction of the Armed Forces of the Crown, the Civil Service and other Crown Servants such as the Diplomatic and Secret Services.
Judicial power is vested in the Judiciary, who by constitution, the Church of England, of which the Monarch is the head, has its own legislative and executive structures. Powers independent of government are legally granted to public bodies by statute or Statutory Instrument such as an Order in Council. The Sovereigns role as a monarch is largely limited to non-partisan functions. This role has been recognised since the 19th century, the constitutional writer Walter Bagehot identified the monarchy in 1867 as the dignified part rather than the efficient part of government. Whenever necessary, the Monarch is responsible for appointing a new Prime Minister, the Prime Minister takes office by attending the Monarch in private audience, and after kissing hands that appointment is immediately effective without any other formality or instrument. Since 1945, there have only been two hung parliaments, the first followed the February 1974 general election when Harold Wilson was appointed Prime Minister after Edward Heath resigned following his failure to form a coalition.
Although Wilsons Labour Party did not have a majority, they were the largest party, the second followed the May 2010 general election, in which the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats agreed to form the first coalition government since World War II
Prime Minister of Pakistan
The Prime Minister of Pakistan, is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the chief executive of the Republic. This position places its holder in leadership of the nation and in control all matters of internal. The incumbent Prime Minister is Nawaz Sharif–a presiding figure of the conservative Pakistan Muslim League, the Prime Minister is elected by the members of the National Assembly and therefore is usually the leader of the majority party in the parliament. Powers of the Prime Minister have significantly grown with a system of the check. The position was absent during years of 1960–73 and 1977-85 due to imposed martial law, in each of these periods, the military junta led by the President had the powers of the Prime Minister. The Constitution envisages a scheme of affairs in which the President of Pakistan is the head of state who represents the unity of the Republic, the system of government in Pakistan is based on codified constitution which sees the Prime Minister as chief executive of the Republic.
As in most of the democracies, a head of states duties are mostly ceremonial. The Prime Minister of Pakistan is the head of government and has the responsibility for executive power, the Prime minister, in common with all other ministers, either has to be a current member of National Assembly, or be elected within six months of being appointed. The official residence and principal workplace of the Prime Minister is the Prime Ministers Secretariat— the cabinet secretariat located in the northeast Islamabad, the Prime Minister is the Chief Executive who heads and exercise authority of the Government of Pakistan. After gaining the vote of confidence, the Prime Minister is invited by the President to take oath, in practice, the Prime Minister nominates to form the Cabinet as in-charge of the important functions and ministries of the Government of Pakistan. In addition, the Prime Minister thoroughly communicates with the President all decisions of the Cabinet relating to the administration of the affairs of the state, some specific ministries/department are not allocated to anyone in the cabinet but the prime minister himself.
The Constitution of Pakistan requires that the Prime Minister be a Muslim member of the National Assembly, in addition to these requirements to be a member of the National Assembly one must be, a citizen of Pakistan. Usually, the leader of the majority party in the parliament retains the office of minister who forms the government either by coalition or by simple majority. The candidate must retain the vote of confidence be the members of the parliament before being invited by the President to form the government, the Prime Minister can be removed before the expiry of the term through the vote of no confidence in the parliament. If the vote of no confidence is passed by the National Assembly by not less than 20%, the prime minister is elected by the National Assembly. The National Assembly meets on the twenty-first day after an election unless the President calls for a vote of no confidence. Whichever member of the National assembly is chosen serves as the Prime Minister until the election or until he fails to maintain the confidence of the National Assembly.
The first Prime Minister, Liaquat Ali Khan, exercised central executive powers until his assassination in 1951, the powers slowly began to reduced as a result of constant intervention by the Governor-General
Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin, KCIE, CIE, was an East Pakistani politician, conservative figure, and one the leading founding fathers of Pakistan. He is noted as being the first Bengali leader of Pakistan who led the country as the second Prime Minister, and briefly served as the second Governor-General. Born into an aristocrat Nawab family in Bengal in 1894, he was educated at the Aligarh Muslim University before pursuing his education at the Cambridge University to secure his graduation. From 1943–45, he served as the Prime Minister of Bengal, in 1951, he took over the control of the government as Prime Minister of Pakistan upon the assassination of Liaquat Ali Khan, and relinquished the post of Governor-General to Sir Malik Ghulam. As Prime Minister, he struggled to run the government effectively at internal and foreign fronts and he faced populist language movement in his native Bengal that eventually led shutdown of Government of East Pakistan. Foreign relations with the United States, Soviet Union, eventually, he was forced to step down in favor of diplomat Mohammad Ali Bogra by his own appointed Governor-General Sir Malik Ghulam and conceded defeat in elections held in 1954.
Upon retiring from politics, he fought with a brief illness and passed away in 1964. Nazimuddin was born into an aristocratic and wealthy family of the Nawabs of Dhaka, Bengal and he was the grandson of the Khwaja Ahsanullah and his mother, Bilquis Bano, was notable for her own statue. Nazimuddin had a brother, who would played a vital role in national politics onwards. His family spoke Urdu despite being hailed as the Nawab of Dacca and they were the first cousin of Nawab Khwaja Habibullah son of Nawab Sir Khwaja Salimullah Bahadur who helped laid foundation of Muslim League in 1906. Nazimuddin secured his graduation with a BA degree from AMU and was sent back to England to pursue higher education, during his time at the AMU, he was known to be an avid Tennis player and excelled in this sport when he represented his university in collegiate games. After AMU, Nazimuddin went to England and attended the Trinity College of the Cambridge University and he was granted MA degree from the Cambridge University.
His training in England enabled him to practice law and became Barrister-at-Law in England, in 1947–49, Nazimuddin was granted the Doctor of Laws by the Vice-Chancellor of the Dhaka University, Dr. Mahmud Hasan. Nazimuddin returned to India to join his brother Shahbuddin from England, taking interest in civil, both brother joined the Muslim League, and Nazimuddin successfully ran for the municipality election and elected as Chairman of Dhaka Municipality from 1922 until 1929. During this time, he was appointed as Education minister and secured an appointment in Viceroys Executive Council in 1934 which he served until 1937. Upon the formation of the government in a agreement facilitated between Muslim League and the Krishak Praja Party, Nazimuddin was appointed as the home minister under Haqs premiership. In 1943, Nazimuddin took over the government from Premier Haq when the latter was dismissed by the Governor John Herbert amid controversies surrounding in his political campaigns, during this time, Nazimuddin played a crucial political role for the cause for the separate Muslim homeland, Pakistan.
His premiership lasted until 1945 when a motion of no confidence, from 1945-47, Sir Nazimuddin continued to be served as the chairman of the Muslim League in East Bengal, ardently supporting the political cause for Pakistan against the Congress Party
Balochistan, is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, located in the southwestern region of the country. Its provincial capital and largest city is Quetta and it shares borders with Punjab and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas to the northeast, Sindh to the southeast, the Arabian Sea to the south, Iran to the west, and Afghanistan to the north. The name Balochistan means the land of the Baloch in many regional languages, although largely underdeveloped, the provincial economy is dominated by natural resources, especially its natural gas fields, which supply the entire country. Gwadar Port plays a significant role in the development of the province. Balochistan is noted for its culture and extremely dry desert climate. Baloch people practice Islam and are predominantly Sunni, similar to the rest of Pakistan, Balochistan marked the westernmost extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation. Centuries before the arrival of Islam in the 7th Century, parts of Balochistan was ruled by the Paratarajas, at certain times, the Kushans held political sway in parts of Balochistan.
With time, Baloch tribes linguistically absorbed all the people in Makran, southern Sistan. By 654, the whole of what is now Balochistan was controlled by the Rashidun Caliphate, this town was conquered during the reign of Caliph Ali. Abdulrehman ibn Samrah made Zaranj his provincial capital and remained governor of these areas from 654 to 656. During the Caliphate of Ali, revolt broke out in southern Balochistans Makran region. Due to civil war in the Rashidun Caliphate, Ali was unable to deal with these areas until 660, Haris ibn Marah Abdi arrived in Makran and conquered it by force, and moved northward to north-eastern Balochistan and reconquered Qandabil. Finally, he moved south and conquered Kalat after a fierce battle, Muslim forces regained control of the area during the Umayyad reign. It remained a part of the Abbasid Caliphate, ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the Afghan Empire, won the allegiance of that areas rulers. Most of the area would revert to local Baloch control, after Afghan rule.
During the period of the British Raj, there were four Princely States in Balochistan, Kharan, Las Bela and Kalat. After the Second Afghan War was ended by the Treaty of Gandamak in May 1879, on 1 April 1883, the British took control of the Bolan Pass, south-east of Quetta, from the Khan of Kalat. In 1887, small areas of Balochistan were declared British territory
The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947. The rule is called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India, the resulting political union was called the Indian Empire and after 1876 issued passports under that name. It lasted until 1947, when the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two sovereign states, the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. The British Raj extended over almost all present-day India and this area is very diverse, containing the Himalayan mountains, fertile floodplains, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a long coastline, tropical dry forests, arid uplands, and the Thar desert. In addition, at times, it included Aden, Lower Burma, Upper Burma, British Somaliland. Burma was separated from India and directly administered by the British Crown from 1937 until its independence in 1948, among other countries in the region, Ceylon was ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens. Ceylon was part of Madras Presidency between 1793 and 1798, the kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan, having fought wars with the British, subsequently signed treaties with them and were recognised by the British as independent states.
The Kingdom of Sikkim was established as a state after the Anglo-Sikkimese Treaty of 1861, however. The Maldive Islands were a British protectorate from 1887 to 1965, India during the British Raj was made up of two types of territory, British India and the Native States. In general, the term British India had been used to to the regions under the rule of the British East India Company in India from 1600 to 1858. The term has used to refer to the British in India. The terms Indian Empire and Empire of India were not used in legislation, the monarch was known as Empress or Emperor of India and the term was often used in Queen Victorias Queens Speeches and Prorogation Speeches. The passports issued by the British Indian government had the words Indian Empire on the cover, in addition, an order of knighthood, the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, was set up in 1878. At the turn of the 20th century, British India consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a Governor or a Lieutenant-Governor, during the partition of Bengal the new provinces of Assam and East Bengal were created as a Lieutenant-Governorship.
In 1911, East Bengal was reunited with Bengal, and the new provinces in the east became, Bengal, there were 565 princely states when India and Pakistan became independent from Britain in August 1947. The princely states did not form a part of British India, the larger ones had treaties with Britain that specified which rights the princes had, in the smaller ones the princes had few rights. Within the princely states external affairs and most communications were under British control, the British exercised a general influence over the states internal politics, in part through the granting or withholding of recognition of individual rulers. Although there were nearly 600 princely states, the majority were very small