A necklace is an article of jewelry, worn around the neck. Necklaces may have been one of the earliest types of adornment worn by humans, they serve ceremonial, magical, or funerary purposes and are used as symbols of wealth and status, given that they are made of precious metals and stones. The main component of a necklace is the chain, or cord that wraps around the neck; these are most rendered in precious metals such as gold and platinum. Necklaces have additional attachments suspended or inset into the necklace itself; these attachments include pendants, amulets and precious and semi-precious materials such as diamond, rubies, emeralds and sapphires. Prehistoric peoples used natural materials such as feathers, bone and plant materials to create necklaces, but by the Bronze Age metallic jewelry had replaced pre-metallic adornments. Necklaces were first depicted in the statuary and art of the Ancient Near East, early necklaces made of precious metals with inset stones were created in Europe.
In Ancient Mesopotamia, cylinder seals were strung and worn as jewelry. In Ancient Babylon, necklaces were made of carnelian, lapis lazuli and gold, made into gold chains. Ancient Sumerians created necklaces and beads from gold, lapis lazuli and carnelian. In Ancient Egypt, a number of difference necklace types were worn. Upper-class Ancient Egyptians wore collars of organic or semi-precious and precious materials for religious and funerary purposes; these collars were ornamented with semi-precious, glass and hollow beads. Beads made from a variety of precious and semi-precious materials were commonly strung together to create necklaces. Gold, fashioned into stylized plant and insect shapes were common as well. Amulets were turned into necklaces. In Ancient Crete necklaces were worn by all classes. Pendants shaped into birds and humans were worn, in addition to paste beads. In Ancient Greece, delicately made gold necklaces created with repoussé and plaited gold wires were worn. Most these necklaces were ornamented with blue or green enameled rosettes, animal shapes, or vase-shaped pendants that were detailed with fringes.
It was common to wear long gold chains with suspended cameos and small containers of perfume. New elements were introduced in the Hellenistic period. Ancient Etruscans used granulation to create granulated gold beads which were strung with glass and faience beads to create colorful necklaces. In Ancient Rome necklaces were among the many types of jewelry worn by the Roman elite. Gold and silver necklaces were ornamented with foreign and semi-precious objects such as amber, amethyst and diamond. In addition, ropes of pearls, gold plates inset with enamel, lustrous stones set in gold filigree were worn. Many large necklaces and the materials that adorned the necklaces were imported from the Near East. In the empire, following barbarian invasions and gaudy jewelry became popular. In the Byzantine era, ropes of pearls and embossed gold chains were most worn, but new techniques such as the use of niello allowed for necklaces with brighter, more predominant gemstones; the Early Byzantine Era saw a shift to distinctly Christian jewelry which displayed the new Christian iconography.
2000 B. C. E. – 400 C. E: Bronze amulets embossed with coral were common. In Celtic and Gallic Europe, the most popular necklace was the heavy metal torc, made most out of bronze, but sometimes out of silver, gold, or glass or amber beads. 400 C. E. – 1300 C. E: Early European barbarian groups favored wide, intricate gold collars not unlike the torc. Germanic tribes wore gold and silver pieces with complex detailing and inlaid with colored glass and semi-precious stones garnet. Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian groups worked in silver, due to a deficit of gold, wrought patterns and animal forms into neck-rings. In the Gothic period necklaces were uncommon, though there are a few records of diamond and pearl necklaces, it was not until the adoption of lower necklines in the Middle Ages that necklaces became common. 1400 C. E. – 1500 C. E: During the Renaissance it was fashionable for men to wear a number of chains and pendants around their necks, by the end of the 15th century the wealthiest men would wear great, shoulder covering collars inlaid with gems.
Women wore simpler pieces, such as gold chains, or strung beads or pearls. By the end of the period, more adorned pieces were common among the wealthy in Italy.1500–1600 C. E: Long pearl ropes and chains with precious stones were worn. In the latter half of the century, natural adornments, such as coral and pearl, were joined with enamel and metals to create intricate pendants. Jeweled, delicately framed cameo pendants were popular as well. Chokers, last worn in antiquity made a resurgence at this time.1600–1700: Few men in the Baroque period wore jewelry, for women necklaces were unsophisticated a simple strand of pearls or delicately linked and embellished strands of metal with small stones. In the century, after the invention of new diamond cutting techniques, priority was for the first time given to the jewels themselves, not their settings. Miniatures grew in popularity, were ofte
Portugal the Portuguese Republic, is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain, its territory includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Portugal is the oldest state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled and fought over since prehistoric times; the pre-Celtic people, Celts and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128; the Kingdom of Portugal was proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique in 1139, independence from León was recognised by the Treaty of Zamora in 1143.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India and the European discovery of Brazil. During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil, a late industrialization compared to other European powers, erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime.
Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to all its overseas territories; the handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire. Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe, a legacy of around 250 million Portuguese speakers, many Portuguese-based creoles, it is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy and high living standards. Additionally, it is placed in rankings of moral freedom, democracy, press freedom, social progress, LGBT rights. A member of the United Nations and the European Union, Portugal was one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; the word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale. Portus, the Latin word for port or harbour, Cala or Cailleach was the name of a Celtic goddess – in Scotland she is known as Beira – and the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River which flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the north of what is now Portugal.
At the time the land of a specific people was named after its deity. Those names are the origins of the - gal in Galicia. Incidentally, the meaning of Cale or Calle is a derivation of the Celtic word for port which would confirm old links to pre-Roman, Celtic languages which compare to today's Irish caladh or Scottish cala, both meaning port; some French scholars believe it may have come from ` Portus Gallus', the port of the Celts. Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, in the process conquered Cale and renamed it Portus Cale incorporating it to the province of Gaellicia with capital in Bracara Augusta. During the Middle Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale; the name Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho. By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugallia or Portvgalliae was referred to as Portugal.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe. The name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale; the region was settled by Pre-Celts and Celts, giving origin to peoples like the Gallaeci, Lusitanians and Cynetes, visited by Phoenicians, Ancient Greeks and Carthaginians, incorporated in the Roman Republic dominions as Lusitania and part of Gallaecia, after 45 BC until 298 AD. The region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula; these were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, did form organized societies. Neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing, it is believed by some scholars that early in the first millennium BC, several waves of Celts invaded Portugal from Central Europe and inter-married with the local populations, forming differe
Ek Duuje Ke Liye
Ek Duuje Ke Liye is a 1981 Hindi romantic tragedy movie directed by K. Balachander, starring Kamal Haasan and Rati Agnihotri, it was a remake of the director's own Telugu movie Maro Charitra, which had Kamal Haasan playing the lead role. The film was labelled a "blockbuster" at the box office in 1981, earning a total of ₹100 million in receipts; the film featured lyrics penned by music by Laxmikant-Pyarelal. It received critical acclaim upon release, winning a National Film Award and 13 Filmfare nominations winning three; the movie is about the love between a Tamil man, a North Indian woman, who are neighbours in Goa. They come from different backgrounds and can hardly speak the other's language, their parents despise each other and they have regular skirmishes. When Vasu and Sapna admit their love, there is chaos in their homes, their parents reject the idea; as a ploy to separate the lovers, their parents impose a condition that Vasu and Sapna should stay away from each other for a year. After such a period, if they still want to be together, they can get married.
During the year there should be no contact between them whatsoever. Vasu and Sapna reluctantly decide to separate. Vasu moves to Hyderabad, they both suffer due to the separation. Vasu meets Sandhya, a widow who teaches him Hindi. Meanwhile, Sapna's mother brings a family friend's son, Chakram, to Goa to distract Sapna from to Vasu, but she is not impressed. At a chance meeting in Mangalore, Chakram lies to Vasu. Vasu decides to marry Sandhya on the rebound. However, Sandhya comes to know of Vasu's real love and goes to Goa to know the exact situation and to clear the misunderstanding between the lovers. Vasu returns to Goa and impresses Sapna's parents with his Hindi; when Vasu goes to meet Sapna he is attacked by a group of goons hired by Sandhya's brother. Meanwhile, Sapna is left to die; the movie ends tragically when Sapna commit suicide by jumping off a cliff. Ek Duuje Ke Liye marked the debut of three actors from South India in Hindi films: leading lad Kamal Haasan, leading lady Rati Agnihotri and supporting heroine Madhavi.
Three of them received Filmfare nominations. The only person, missing in the Hindi remake, in the original Telugu film Maro Charitra was leading lady Sarita, as her role was now played by Rati Agnihotri. Director K. Balachander, Kamal Haasan, S. P. Balasubrahmanyam all repeated their artistry in the Hindi version; the music was composed by Laxmikant-Pyarelal and the lyrics were written by Anand Bakshi. It was the first Hindi film for South Indian singer S. P. Balasubrahmanyam. "Tere Mere Beech Mein" – Lata Mangeshkar, S. P. Balasubrahmanyam "Hum Tum Dono Jab Mil Jayen" – Lata Mangeshkar, S. P. Balasubrahmanyam "Mere Jeevan Saathi" – S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Anuradha Paudwal "Hum Bane Tum Bane" – Lata Mangeshkar, S. P. Balasubrahmanyam "Tere Mere Beech Mein" – S. P. Balasubrahmanyam "Solah Baras Ki Bali Umar" – by Lata Mangeshkar, Anup JalotaTwo portions of "Tere Mere Beech Mein" were sampled in the hit 2004 Britney Spears song "Toxic" as part of its hook. National Film AwardsBest Male Playback Singer – S. P. BalasubrahmanyamFilmfare AwardsWinsBest Editing – N.
R. Kitoo Best Lyricist – Anand Bakshi for the song "Tere Mere Beech" Best Screenplay – K. BalachanderNominationsBest Film Best Director – K. Balachander Best Actor – Kamal Haasan Best Actress – Rati Agnihotri Best Supporting Actress – Madhavi Best Performance in a Comic Role – Asrani Best Story – K. Balachander Best Music Director – Laxmikant-Pyarelal Best Lyricist – Anand Bakshi for the song "Solah Baras Ki Bali Umar" Best Male Playback Singer – S. P. Balasubrahmanyam for the song "Tere Mere Beech" Ek Duuje Ke Liye on IMDb
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
National Institute of Oceanography, India
The National Institute of Oceanography, founded on 1 January 1966 as one of 37 constituent laboratories of the CSIR, is an autonomous research organization in India to undertake scientific research and studies of special oceanographic features of the Northern Indian Ocean. Headquartered in Goa, it has regional centres in Kochi and Vizag. NIO as well as ASI, BSI, FSI, FiSI, GSI, IIEE, RGCCI, SI and ZSI are key national survey organisations of India. By the 1950s the community of oceanographers around the world had realized that while progress had been made in describing and in understanding the observed features of the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans, the Indian Ocean had remained unexplored, it was important to address the fundamental oceanographic problems linked to monsoonal cycles experienced by the northern Indian Ocean. Areas such as these are important not only to the global community of researchers, but to the large population that lives in the countries around the Indian Ocean in general and the North Indian Ocean in particular.
As a consequence, the global community of oceanographers organized the International Indian Ocean Expedition during 1959-65 to describe and understand the basic features of the Indian Ocean. The Government of India was an enthusiastic participant in this expedition; as the IIOE approached its concluding phase, the government decided that the Indians who participated in the expedition needed to have an institution where they could build on the oceanographic research skills they picked up during the expedition. It is out of such considerations. Padma Shri Dr. N. K. Panikkar was appointed Director of this Institute, a post which he held till he retired in May 1973. From humble beginnings, NIO has grown in size. Today, the institute is home to about 170 scientists of whom about 120 are Ph. D. holders, about 210 technical and supporting staff, close to 120 administrative staff. The staff is spread across four campuses; the main campus is at Goa. About 80% of the staff work here. NIO has three Regional Centres, which are located in Mumbai and Visakhapatnam.
About 20% of NIO staff is located at these centres. An example of the dual role is a project on polymetallic nodules, sponsored by the Government of India at the institute for well over 25 years. By the late 1970s the government had decided that the country needed to enhance its resources of minerals of strategic interest. NIO was given the responsibility of exploring the oceans for this purpose. On 26 January 1981, NIO hauled up polymetallic nodules from a depth of 4,800 m in the western Indian Ocean using its first research vessel, RV Gaveshani, acquired in 1976. Subsequently, work by NIO researchers helped India to gain the status of "Pioneer Investor" from the International Sea Bed Authority. While this research was aimed at placing the country in a strategically enhanced position, it provided the Institute an opportunity to study the marine geology and geophysics of the Indian Ocean; some of the issues they addressed are the following: Evolution of the Indian tectonic plates and its implications.
During the first decade and a half of its founding, besides developing its main campus at Goa, a major project taken up by the Institute was organizing the first Indian Expedition to Antarctica in 1981. This project, together with exploration for polymetallic nodules, established close ties between NIO and the Department of Ocean Development and subsequently the Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India; these ties helped the institute to grow while the government expanded the infrastructure for ocean research and services in the country. Since the early 1980s, an important theme for basic research in the Institute has been, continues to be, understanding oceanographic implications of the special characteristics of the North Indian basin, which has some unique features: the basin is tropical, with the Asian landmass restricting it south of about 25 degrees N. In the figure above red areas represent areas with elevation of a few kilometers; the presence of the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas influences the monsoons.
NIO's scientists have made handsome contributions to understanding the implications of these special features through observations and analyses. The former have included ship-based observations, time-series data collected with moored instruments and satellite data. ORV Sagar Kanya, acquired by the Government of India for use by oceanographic research institutions in India, has been playing a major role in these observations; as noted earlier, an important theme of research at NIO has been understanding the oceanography of the North Indian Ocean – a tropical and small basin driven by seasonal winds. The uppermost 200 m form the most active portion of the ocean. Here, major curre
The Arabian Sea is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, on the southeast by the Laccadive Sea, on the southwest by the Somali Sea, on the east by India. Its total area is 3,862,000 km2 and its maximum depth is 4,652 metres; the Gulf of Aden in the west, connects the Arabian Sea to the Red Sea through the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, the Gulf of Oman is in the northwest, connecting it to the Persian Gulf. The Arabian Sea has been crossed by many important marine trade routes since the third or second millennium BCE. Major seaports include Kandla Port, Okha Port, Mumbai Port, Nhava Sheva Port, Mormugão Port, New Mangalore Port and Kochi Port in India, the Port of Karachi, Port Qasim, the Gwadar Port in Pakistan, Chabahar Port in Iran and the Port of Salalah in Salalah, Oman; the largest islands in the Arabian Sea include Socotra, Masirah Island and Astola Island. The Arabian Sea's surface area is about 3,862,000 km2.
The maximum width of the Sea is 2,400 km, its maximum depth is 4,652 metres. The biggest river flowing into the Sea is the Indus River; the Arabian Sea has two important branches — the Gulf of Aden in the southwest, connecting with the Red Sea through the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb. There are the gulfs of Khambhat and Kutch on the Indian Coast; the countries with coastlines on the Arabian Sea are Somalia, Oman, Pakistan and the Maldives. There are several large cities on the sea's coast including Male, Cape Comorin, Kovalam, Thiruvananthapuram, Alappuzha, Kozhikode, Kasaragod, Bhatkal, Vasco, Malvan, Alibag, Daman, Surat, Khambhat, Diu, Mangrol, Dwarka, Jamnagar, Gandhidham, Koteshwar, Keti Bandar, Ormara, Gwadar, Muscat, Salalah, Al Ghaydah, Aden and Hafun; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Arabian Sea as follows: On the west: the eastern limit of the Gulf of Aden. On the north: a line joining Ràs al Hadd, east point of the Arabian Peninsula and Ràs Jiyùni on the coast of Pakistan.
On the south: a line running from the southern extremity of Addu Atoll in the Maldives, to the eastern extremity of Ràs Hafun. On the east: the western limit of the Laccadive Sea a line running from Sadashivgad on the west coast of India to Cora Divh and thence down the west side of the Laccadive and Maldive archipelagos to the most southerly point of Addu Atoll in the Maldives; the Arabian Sea and geographically has been referred to by many different names by Arabian and European geographers and travellers, including Indian Sea, Persian Sea, Sindhu Sagar, Arabbi Samudra, Erythraean Sea, Sindh Sea, Akhzar Sea. The Arabian Sea has been an important marine trade route since the era of the coastal sailing vessels from as early as the 3rd millennium BCE the late 2nd millennium BCE through the days known as the Age of Sail. By the time of Julius Caesar, several well-established combined land-sea trade routes depended upon water transport through the Sea around the rough inland terrain features to its north.
These routes began in the Far East or down river from Madhya Pradesh with transshipment via historic Bharuch, traversed past the inhospitable coast of today's Iran split around Hadhramaut into two streams north into the Gulf of Aden and thence into the Levant, or south into Alexandria via Red Sea ports such as Axum. Each major route involved transhipping to pack animal caravan, travel through desert country and risk of bandits and extortionate tolls by local potentates; this southern coastal route past the rough country in the southern Arabian Peninsula was significant, the Egyptian Pharaohs built several shallow canals to service the trade, one more or less along the route of today's Suez canal, another from the Red Sea to the Nile River, both shallow works that were swallowed up by huge sand storms in antiquity. The kingdom of Axum arose in Ethiopia to rule a mercantile empire rooted in the trade with Europe via Alexandria; the Port of Karachi is Pakistan's busiest seaport. It is located between the Karachi towns of Saddar.
The Gwadar Port is a warm-water, deep-sea port situated at Gwadar in Balochistan, Pakistan at the apex of the Arabian Sea and at the entrance of the Persian Gulf, about 460 km west of Karachi and 75 km east of Pakistan's border with Iran. The port is located on the eastern bay of a natural hammerhead-shaped peninsula jutting out into the Arabian Sea from the coastline. Port of Salalah in Salalah, Oman is a major port in the area; the International Task Force uses the port as a base. There is a significant number of warships of all nations coming in and out of the port, which makes it a safe bubble; the port handled just under 3.5m teu in 2009. Jawaharlal Nehru Port in Mumbai is the largest port in the Arabian Sea, the largest container port in India. Major Indian ports in the Arabian Sea are Mundra Port, Kandla Port, Nava Sheva, Kochi Port, Mumbai Port, Mormugão. There are several islands in the Arabian Sea, with the most important ones being Lakshadweep
The Zuari River is the largest river in the state of Goa, India. It is a tidal river; the Zuari originates at Hemad-Barshem in the Western Ghats. The Zuari is referred to as the Aghanashani in the interior regions, it flows in the southern-western direction through the talukas of Tiswadi, Mormugao, Salcete and Quepem. Zuari is 92 km long, but is connected to other rivers and canals such as Mandovi river and Cumbarjua Canal; the other rivers in Goa are shorter such as Terekhol, Baga, Sal and Galgibag. Their lengths and widths vary with other seasonal flooding; the Zuari and Mandovi Rivers form an estuarine system. They are the backbone of Goa's agricultural industry; the Cumbarjuem Canal linking the two rivers has enabled ships navigate to the interior regions to the iron ore mines. The waters of the Mandovi and Zuari both flush out into the Arabian Sea at Cabo Aguada, a common point forming the Mormugao harbour; the port city of lies on the mouth of the Zuari River