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Donation of Constantine

The Donation of Constantine is a forged Roman imperial decree by which the 4th-century emperor Constantine the Great transferred authority over Rome and the western part of the Roman Empire to the Pope. Composed in the 8th century, it was used in the 13th century, in support of claims of political authority by the papacy. Lorenzo Valla, an Italian Catholic priest and Renaissance humanist, is credited with first exposing the forgery with solid philological arguments in 1439–1440, although the document's authenticity had been contested since 1001. In many of the existing manuscripts, including the oldest one, the document bears the title Constitutum domini Constantini imperatoris; the Donation of Constantine was included in the 9th-century Pseudo-Isidorean Decretals collection. The text, purportedly a decree of Roman Emperor Constantine I's dated 30 March, in a year mistakenly said to be both that of his fourth consulate and that of the consulate of Gallicanus, contains a detailed profession of Christian faith and a recounting of how the emperor, seeking a cure for his leprosy, was converted and baptized by Pope Sylvester I.

In gratitude, he determined to bestow on the seat of Peter "power, dignity of glory and imperial honor," and "supremacy as well over the four principal sees: Alexandria, Antioch and Constantinople, as over all the churches of God in the whole earth". For the upkeep of the church of Saint Peter and that of Saint Paul, he gave landed estates "in Judea, Asia, Africa and the various islands". To Sylvester and his successors he granted imperial insignia, the tiara, "the city of Rome, all the provinces and cities of Italy and the western regions". What may be the earliest known allusion to the Donation is in a letter of 778, in which Pope Hadrian I exhorts Charlemagne, whose father, Pepin the Younger, had made the Donation of Pepin granting the Popes sovereignty over the Papal States, to follow Constantine's example and endow the Roman Catholic church; the first pope to directly invoke the decree was Pope Leo IX, in a letter sent in 1054 to Michael I Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople. He cited a large portion of the document, believing it genuine, furthering the debate that would lead to the East–West Schism.

In the 11th and 12th centuries, the Donation was cited in the investiture conflicts between the papacy and the secular powers in the West. In his Divine Comedy, written in the early 14th century, the poet Dante Alighieri wrote: "Ahi, Costantin, di quanto mal fu matre, / non la tua conversion, ma quella dote / che da te prese il primo ricco patre!". During the Middle Ages, the Donation was accepted as authentic, although Emperor Otto III did raise suspicions of the document "in letters of gold" as a forgery, in making a gift to the See of Rome, it was not until the mid-15th century, with the revival of Classical scholarship and textual criticism, that humanists, the papal bureaucracy, began to realize that the document could not be genuine. Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa spoke of it as an apocryphal work; the Catholic priest Lorenzo Valla argued in his philological study of the text that the language used in manuscript could not be dated to the 4th century. The language of the text suggests that the manuscript can most be dated to the 8th century.

Valla believed the forgery to be so obvious that he leaned toward believing that the Church had knowledge that the document was inauthentic. Valla further argued that papal usurpation of temporal power had corrupted the church, caused the wars of Italy, reinforced the "overbearing, tyrannical priestly domination."This was the first instance of modern, scientific diplomatics. Independently of both Cusa and Valla, Reginald Pecocke, Bishop of Chichester, reached a similar conclusion. Among the indications that the Donation must be a fake are its language and the fact that, while certain imperial-era formulas are used in the text, some of the Latin in the document could not have been written in the 4th century; the purported date of the document is inconsistent with the content of the document itself, as it refers both to the fourth consulate of Constantine as well as the consulate of Gallicanus. Pope Pius II wrote a tract in 1453, five years before becoming pope, to show that, though the Donation was a forgery, the papacy owed its lands to Charlemagne and its powers of the keys to Peter.

Contemporary opponents of papal powers in Italy emphasized the primacy of civil law and civil jurisdiction, now embodied once again in the Justinian Corpus Juris Civilis. The Florentine chronicler Giovanni Cavalcanti reported that, in the year of Valla's treatise, Filippo Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan, made diplomatic overtures toward Cosimo de' Medici in Florence, proposing an alliance against the pope. In reference to the Donation, Visconti wrote: "It so happens that if Constantine consigned to Sylvester so many and such rich gifts –, doubtful, because such a privilege can nowhere be found – he could only have granted them for his lifetime: the empire takes precedence over any lordship." Scholars further demonstrated that other elements, such as Sylvester's curing of Constantine, are legends which originated at a time. Wolfram Setz, a recent editor of Valla's work, has affirmed that at the time of Valla's refutation, Constantine's alleged "

Oaklands Park, South Australia

Oaklands Park is a southern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia in the City of Marion. The Marion Shopping Centre is a major feature of the suburb. On 14 December 1906, Oaklands was bought by Thomas Currie Tait for £15,000. In 1923 Tait offered'The Park' to the South Australian Government for £100 an acre; when the offer was not accepted, Hamiltons acquired the vineyard and in September 1923, W. Pethick " Sons and orchardists, bought the homestead; the remaining land, about 132 acres, was secured by T. M. Burke Pty Ltd, for £23,000, for building allotments; the portion of Oaklands which became the site of the Warradale Army Camp in both World Wars, was acquired from the State on 26 July 1945 for £24,020. The Barracks comprise 56 acres bounded on the north by Oaklands Road and on the west by Morphett Road. In 1940 the area was occupied by 9 Infantry Brigade as a mobilization centre and brigade camp and on 10 February 1942 the site was taken over under National Security Regulations. In 1952 when a number of Oaklands Estate gum-trees were being uprooted to make way for Housing Trust homes a local group formed the Oaklands Estate Residents' Association in the hope of preserving some of the remaining trees.

In a triangle bounded by Oaklands Road, Sturt River and the Marino railway line, they volunteered to plant and care for 1,200 native street trees including a shrubbery around Marion Railway Station. They helped to initiate the gazetting of a sizeable portion of land adjacent to Sturt River for recreational use; the Council has now taken responsibility for that area. Oaklands Park Post Office opened on 10 February 1969. In 1971 the South Australian Government set aside 7 ha of land in Oaklands Park for its Road Safety Centre and on 17 October 1972 the Centre was opened. After the Open Day on 22 October the Centre began operating complete with traffic lights and road signs. Oaklands Park is best known as the location of the Westfield Marion shopping centre, the largest shopping complex in Adelaide, it includes over 300 speciality stores and includes a bowling alley, several department and discount stores, three supermarkets, a food court. The Marion Cultural Centre is adjacent to the Marion Shopping Centre that contains an Art Gallery, Café, Library and a Theatre.

Events are held there all through the year with Art Exhibits, Theatre Performances and Blue Light Disco's being held. Opposite the Marion Cultural Centre is the South Australia Aquatic and Leisure Centre known as the State Aquatic Centre; the Seaford railway line stops at Oaklands railway station. The station has been redeveloped as a transport exchange by the South Australian Government and Marion Council to improve access to surrounding facilities. There is a bus interchange at the Westfield Marion with connections to Adelaide city, Flinders University, Hallett Cove, Noarlunga Centre and Port Adelaide. In the 2001 Australian Bureau of Statistics Census, the population was 3,029 with the females outnumbering the males 53.6% against 46.4%, 1.0% of the population of Oaklands Park Indigenous Australians. With most people in Oaklands Park born in Australia, 6.8% of the suburb's population was born in England the other origins of the people in the suburb being: Scotland, New Zealand and Germany.

List of Adelaide suburbs

George H. Large

George Hall Large was an American lawyer and Republican Party politician who served as President of the New Jersey Senate. He was the longest surviving participant in the first-ever college football game in 1869. Large was born in 1850 in the Whitehouse Station section of Readington Township, Hunterdon County, New Jersey, the son of John K. and Eliza Large. He was tutored at local schools before attending Rutgers College. On November 6, 1869, Large was one of 25 Rutgers players to face The College of New Jersey in the first intercollegiate football game played, at College Field in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Midway through the game, Large collided with Princeton player J. E. Michael, known as "Big Mike." Large was revived after several minutes. Rutgers went on to win the game by a score of 6-4. At Rutgers, Large was associate editor of The Targum, he graduated in 1872. After graduating from Rutgers, Large read law and was admitted to the New Jersey bar in 1875, he first practiced law with his brother-in-law John N. Voorhees in Flemington and opened his own law office in 1882.

In 1885, Large ran for the New Jersey Senate on the Republican ticket. He was the first Republican elected to the State Senate from traditionally Democratic Hunterdon County. In 1888, he was selected as Senate President, he served as acting governor when Governor Robert S. Green was out of the state. In 1889, President Benjamin Harrison appointed Large the Collector of Internal Revenue for New Jersey's Fifth District, he served in this position for five years before returning to private practice. Large joined with George K. Large, to establish the Flemington law firm of Large & Large. From 1900, he owned the Greek Revival mansion located at 117 Main Street in Flemington, designed in 1847 for James N. Reading; the historic Reading-Large house is occupied by the law firm of Large, Scammell & Danziger LLC and other businesses. Large married the former Josephine Ramsey on November 15, 1877, she died not long before their sixtieth anniversary, on January 5, 1937, they had three children: George Knowles, Edwin Kirk, Helen Brokaw.

George K. Large served as judge of the Hunterdon County Court of Common Pleas and was an assistant prosecutor in the Lindbergh kidnapping trial. Edwin K. Large served as postmaster of Georgia. Large outlived all of the other participants in the 1869 Rutgers-Princeton game. On November 5, 1938, when Rutgers defeated Princeton for the first time since the original game, Large was on hand for the victory. Coincidentally, William Preston Lane, the last surviving Princeton player, had died that morning. In 1939, Large died at his Flemington home at the age of 88. George H. Large at The Political Graveyard


Sundair is a German leisure charter airline headquartered in Stralsund and based at Berlin Tegel Airport, Dresden Airport and Kassel Airport. In September 2017, the airline received its air operator's certificate and commenced operations on 1 July 2017 with flights to Heraklion and Hurghada. After the demise of Germania - an airline for which Sundair had operated Wet Leases - in early 2019, Sundair announced it would base aircraft at Dresden Airport and Bremen Airport and take over several of Germania's routes. Sundair operates flights from Germany to holiday destinations in The Mediterranean and North Africa from Berlin Tegel Airport and Kassel Airport; as of November 2018, the airline serves the following charter destinations: EgyptHurghada - Hurghada International AirportGermanyBerlin - Berlin Tegel Airport base Bremen - Bremen Airport base Dresden - Dresden Airport base Kassel - Kassel Airport baseGreeceCorfu - Corfu Airport Kos - Kos Airport Rhodes - Rhodes AirportLebanonBeirut - Rafic Hariri International AirportSpainFuerteventura - Fuerteventura Airport Lanzarote - Lanzarote Airport Gran Canaria - Gran Canaria Airport Tenerife - Tenerife South AirportTurkeyAntalya - Antalya Airport As of August 2019, Sundair operates the following aircraft: Media related to Sundair at Wikimedia Commons Official website

The Fire Inside

The Fire Inside is the fourteenth studio album by American singer-songwriter Bob Seger. The album was released in mid 1991 on Capitol, it was Seger's first album of new music since Like a Rock in 1986. It features contributions from Joe Walsh, Bruce Hornsby, Roy Bittan, Steve Lukather, Don Was, Waddy Wachtel, Rick Vito, Mike Campbell, Patty Smyth, Lisa Germano, Kenny Aronoff. On release, The Fire Inside received a mixed critical reception, but was still a commercial success peaking at number 7 on the US Billboard album chart, achieved Platinum status from the R. I. A. A. Reviewing for AllMusic, critic Bret Adams wrote of the album "Overall, the 12-track album is a disappointing piecemeal effort with five different production credits, Seger uses two Tom Waits covers and one other outside song to pad it." All tracks are written except where noted. Producers: Punch Andrews, Barry Beckett, Bob Seger, Don Was Engineers: Allen Abrahamson, Bryant Arnett, Craig Brock, Ed Cherney, Denis Forbes, Ed Goodreau, John Kunz, Michael Mason, Justin Niebank, Thom Panunzio, Gerard Smerek, Randy Wine Assistant engineers: Greg Fogie, Tom Banghart, Dan Bosworth, Buzz Burrowes, Jim DeMain, John Hurley, Marnie Riley, Don Smith, Brett Swain, Don Was Mixing: Punch Andrews, Ed Cherney, David N. Cole, Bob Seger Photography: John Abeyla Album - Billboard Singles - Billboard

Mark Holzemer

Mark Harold Holzemer is a former Major League Baseball pitcher. Drafted by the California Angels in the 4th round of the 1987 Major League Baseball Draft, Holzemer made his Major League Baseball debut with the California Angels on August 21, 1993, appeared in his final game on August 13, 2000. In 2001, he played for the Yokohama BayStars Mark and his wife, Liz Holzemer, a meningioma survivor, appeared on an episode of Mystery Diagnosis on the Discovery Health Channel. Mark is the owner of Slammers Baseball in Lakewood, where he works as an instructor, he is currently employed as an Associate Scout for the Kansas City Royals organization. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball Reference, or Retrosheet, or Pelota Binaria Slammers Baseball - Company owned by Mark Holzemer Liz Holzemer's Homepage