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Developed in the 1940s by black American youth in East Coast cities of the United States, then achieving mainstream popularity in the 1950s and 60s, doo-wop is a genre of rhythm and blues music that features group vocal harmony unfolding in simple music to a simple beat with no or little instrumentation to deliver a song with simple lyrics (usually about love), nonsense syllables, and often a melodramatically heartfelt recitative addressed to the beloved in the bridge.[1]


During the years before and after World War II, hit records by African-American vocal groups such as The Delta Rhythm Boys, The Cats and the Fiddle, the Ink Spots, The Mills Brothers, along with Negro spiritual groups, set important precedents for the genre. The Ink Spots had a string of record successes in the 1930s and 1940s, both in the United States and in Britain, with "If I Didn't Care," one of the best selling singles worldwide of all time, and "Address Unknown," with The Mills Brothers following suit in the 1940s until the mid 1950s with songs such as "Paper Doll," "You Always Hurt The One You Love." and "Glow Worm."[2] These were generally slow songs in swing time with simple instrumentation and close four-part harmony reminiscent of the barbershop quartet from which the Mills Brothers evolved. From the I-VI-II-V-loop that generated several American 1930s hits such as the Rodgers and Hart penned "Blue Moon" (1934), and Hoagy Carmichael and Frank Loesser's single "Heart and Soul" (1938), doo-wop would develop the slight but significant chord progression variation I–VI–IV–V so closely associated with the genre that it is sometimes referred to as the "50s progression." This characteristic harmonic layout was combined with the AABA chorus form typical of Tin Pan Alley songs.[3] A second stream of doo-wop oriented itself to the harmonic, formal and melodic means of jump blues; in general, doo-wop songs featured both fast and slow beats.

Randy & the Rainbows at the Benedum Center, Pittsburgh

Other aspects of the art had various origins. The Mills Brothers first came to fame in the 1930s with their mimicking of instrumental music, which early doo-wop singers picked up in singing a cappella arrangements using wordless onomatopeia to mimic instruments they did not have: the bass singing "bom-bom-bom," a guitar rendered as "shang-a-lang" and brass riffs as "dooooo -wop-wop." For instance, "Count Every Star" by The Ravens (1950) includes vocalizations imitating the "doomph, doomph" plucking of a double bass. Singer Bill Kenny is often called the "Godfather of Doo-wop" for introducing the "top and bottom" convention which featured a high tenor singing the lead and a bass singer delivering a recitative in the bridge.

In the beginning, doo-wop singers, generally in groups of three to six, gathered on street corners and on subway platforms to sing their a cappella songs to the eventual crowd that would form around them. Doo-wop groups took names from a few very popular sources: the late 1940s and early 1950s brought the so-called "bird groups"—The Swallows, the Ravens, The Orioles, The Penguins, The Crows, The Flamingos, The Blue Jays, The Cardinals, and The Larks.[4] A number of groups drew their names from cars—The Edsels, The Cadillacs, The Fleetwoods, The Impalas, and Little Anthony and the Imperials.

Groups lucky enough to get recording contracts enjoyed great success. The Orioles helped develop the doo-wop sound with their hits "It's Too Soon to Know" (1948) and "Crying in the Chapel" (1953). Doo-wop scored 1951 R&B chart hits such as "Sixty Minute Man" by Billy Ward and His Dominoes, "Where Are You?" by The Mello-Moods, "The Glory of Love" by The Five Keys, "Shouldn't I Know" by The Cardinals, "I Will Wait" by the Four Buddies, and "Will You Be Mine" by The Swallows.[citation needed] Radio, gramophone, and cinema inspired imitation in many U.S. cities.[citation needed]


The backing vocal "doo-wop" is heard in The Delta Rhythm Boys' 1945 recording of "Just A-Sittin' And A-Rockin." The phrase appears in The Clovers' 1953 release "Good Lovin'" (Atlantic Records 1000) and in the chorus of Carlyle Dundee & The Dundees' 1954 song "Never" (Space Records 201). The first hit record to use the syllables "doo-wop" was "When You Dance" (Herald Records H-458) by The Turbans in 1955.[5] Other early uses include the 1955 song "Mary Lee" by The Rainbows on Red Robin Records (also a Washington, D.C. regional hit on Pilgrim 703), which contains the background "do wop de wadda," and the 1956 smash "In the Still of the Night" by The Five Satins, which features a plaintive "doo-wop, doo-wah" refrain in the bridge.

In time, aficionados began to use the term "doo-wop" to denote rhythm-and-blues vocal group harmony as a distinctive class or genre of music; still later, it was applied retroactively to include rhythm and blues groups from the mid-1950s, then eventually to groups from the 1940s. The term "doo-wop" first appeared in print in 1961 in The Chicago Defender.[6] The phrase was attributed to radio disc jockey Gus Gossert, but Gossert declared that "doo-wop(p) was already in use [before me] to categorize the music in California."[5]


The Cleftones during their participation in the doo-wop festival celebrated in May 2010 at the Benedum Center.

In 1954, doo-wop groups played a significant role in ushering in the rock and roll era when two big rhythm and blues hits by vocal harmony groups, "Gee" by The Crows and "Sh-Boom" by The Chords, crossed over onto the pop music charts.[7] Quickly, other R&B vocal groups entered the pop charts; 1955 saw such cross-over doo-wop hits as "Sincerely" by The Moonglows,[8] "Earth Angel" by The Penguins, and "Only You" and the number-one hit "The Great Pretender" by The Platters.[9] [10] In 1956, Frankie Lymon and The Teenagers appeared on the Frankie Laine show in New York, which was televised nationally, performing their hit "Why Do Fools Fall in Love?" Frankie Laine referred to it as "rock and roll"; Lymon's extreme youth appealed to a young and enthusiastic audience. His string of hits included: "I Promise to Remember," "The ABC's of Love," and "I'm Not a Juvenile Delinquent." In 1958, "Book of Love" by The Monotones became emblematic of the style.

1958 also saw the rise of Italian American doo-wop groups. Like African-Americans, Italian youth generally gained singing experience in church and, living in cities like New York, and in city sections or neighborhoods like the Bronx and Brooklyn, sang on street corners. Of these Italian groups, Dion and the Belmonts had hits with "I Wonder Why," "Teenager in Love," and "Where or When"; The Capris' "There's a Moon Out Tonight" shot to the top of the charts in 1960; and The Four Seasons had a string of hits, including "Sherry," "Big Girls Don't Cry," and "Walk Like A Man." The Earls, The Chimes, The Demensions, The Elegants, The Mystics, The Duprees, Vito & the Salutations, The Gaylords, Johnny Maestro & the Brooklyn Bridge, The Regents, Nino and the Ebb Tides, The Del-Satins, The Videls, The Passions, The Chaperones, and Randy & the Rainbows were other popular Italian doo-wop groups.

The contribution of Hispanics is often overlooked. Puerto Ricans were lead singers in some groups with black and white members, including The Crests, Frankie Lymon and the Teenagers, the Five Discs, and the Tune Weavers.[11] "Racially integrated" groups with both black and white performers included The Del-Vikings, who hit big in 1957 with "Come Go With Me"[12] and "Whispering Bells"; The Crests, whose "16 Candles" appeared in 1958, and The Impalas, whose "Sorry (I Ran All the Way Home)" was a hit in 1959. All-white doo-wop groups were also appearing: The Mello-Kings' 1956 "Tonight, Tonight" and The Diamonds' chart-topping "Little Darlin'" in 1957,[8] The Skyliners' 1959 "Since I Don't Have You," and 1960 "This I Swear," The Tokens' 1961 "Tonight I Fell In Love," and "I Love My Baby" all saw success.

Female doo wop singers were unusual in the early days. Lillian Leach, lead singer of the Mellows from 1953 to 1958, helped pave the way for women and is often cited as an influence by later performers.[13] . The peak of doo-wop might have been in the early 1960s, with the most notable hits being Dion's "Runaround Sue," "The Wanderer," "Lovers Who Wander," and "Ruby Baby," and The Marcels' "Blue Moon." A few years later, the genre reached the self-referential stage, with songs about the singers ("Mr. Bass Man" by Johnny Cymbal) and the songwriters ("Who Put the Bomp?" by Barry Mann). As with most American popular music genres of the time, doo-wop's mainstream popularity was decimated by the British Invasion of the mid-1960s.[citation needed]

After this peak, doo-wop continued to exercise its influence. Groups like The Coasters, The Drifters, The Midnighters, and The Platters, helped link the doo-wop style to the mainstream, and to the future sound of soul music. The style is heard in the music of The Miracles, particularly in early hits like "Got A Job" (an answer song to "Get a Job"),[14] "Bad Girl," "Who's Loving You," "(You Can) Depend on Me," and "Ooo Baby Baby." In the early days of The Famous Flames, led by James Brown, the group recorded several doo-wop hits, including "Please, Please, Please," "Bewildered," "I Don't Mind," and their hit cover of The "5" Royales' "Think all entering the Top#10, as well as R&B Number #1 Try Me.

In the Beach Boys' case, the doo-wop influence is evident in early hits such as "Surfin'" and "Surfer Girl," and in albums recorded in the psychedelic era, during which the group experimented with the human voice as an instrument in a self-described effort to "expand modern vocal harmony."[15] [16]


Kathy Young with The Earth Angels performing Kathy's hit A Thousand Stars during the festival of this genre celebrated at the Benedum Center for the Performing Arts in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in May 2010

At various times in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, the genre saw revivals. Main artists are concentrated in urban areas (e.g., New York City, Chicago, Philadelphia, Newark, and Los Angeles). Revival television shows and boxed CD sets (e.g., DooWop Box 1–3) have kindled interest in the music, the artists, and their stories. In December 1968, Frank Zappa's band The Mothers of Invention released a doo-wop parody/tribute album called Cruising with Ruben & the Jets.[8] An early notable revival of "pure" doo-wop occurred when Sha Na Na appeared at the Woodstock Festival.

Over the years groups have remade doo-wop songs, with great success. Part of the regional beach music or shag music scene, centered in the Carolinas and surrounding states, includes both the original classic recordings, and numerous remakes. Britain chimed in with notable contributions, in the mid-late 1970s, by the group Darts, who successfully (and with some authenticity) revived revered doo-wop standards such as "Daddy Cool", "Come Back My Love" and "Zing! Went the Strings of My Heart".[citation needed]

Other artists had doo-wop or doo-wop-influenced hits in later years, such as Robert John's 1972 version of "The Lion Sleeps Tonight", Toby Beau's 1978 hit "My Angel Baby", and Billy Joel's 1984 hit "The Longest Time". Rock, punk and new wave musicians such as The Velvet Underground ("Candy Says"), Blondie ("In the Flesh"), The Ramones, Nick Lowe, Elvis Costello and The Pretenders included a healthy amount of doo-wop in their songs. Soul and funk bands such as Zapp ("Doo Wa Ditty (Blow That Thing)") released New style Doo Wop. The last doo-wop record to reach the top ten on the U.S. pop charts was "It's Alright" by Huey Lewis and the News, a cover of The Impressions' 1963 Top 5 smash. It reached number 6 on the U.S. Billboard Adult contemporary chart in June 1993. D.R.S "Gangsta Lean" and After 7 "Nights like This", Coming of Age "Coming Home to Love" have some doo-wop elements as well. "Someone", a B-side from the Red Hot Chili Peppers' album By The Way (2002), is an example of 2000s doo-wop style. Much of the album contained a doo-wop flavor. Another song from the By The Way sessions to feature a doo-wop influence was a cover of "Teenager In Love", originally recorded by Dion and The Belmonts. Mr. Bungle also displayed doo-wop influences on their final album, California, particularly on the song "Vanity Fair".[citation needed]

Doo-wop is popular among barbershoppers and collegiate a cappella groups due to its easy adaptation to an all-vocal form. Doo-wop, at the turn of the millennium, experienced a resurgence in popularity, with PBS's doo-wop concert programs: Doo Wop 50, Doo Wop 51, and Rock, Rhythm, and Doo Wop. These programs brought back, live on stage, some of the better known doo-wop groups of the past. In addition to The Earth Angels, doo-wop acts in vogue in the second decade of the 21st century range from The Four Quarters[17] to Street Corner Renaissance.[18] The ultimate longevity of doo-wop has been disputed.[19][20]

Bruno Mars and Meghan Trainor are two examples of current artists who incorporate doo-wop music into their records and live performances. Mars says he has "a special place in [his] heart for old-school music".[21] The doo-wop scene of the 1950s strongly parallels that of the formation of the hip-hop scene beginning in the late 1970s, but particularly mirroring the emergence of the culture of the 1990s in that "it is (in its authentic form) a non-commercial street music pursued by the group, for the group (African Americans). In a broader context, it involves a male-competitive form of dancing (breaking), its own private slang and dress code, as well as other related emotive forms, such as graffiti art."[22]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Hoffmann, F. Roots of Rock: Doo-Wop. In Survey of American Popular Music, modified for the web by Robert Birkline. Retrieved September 17, 2011.
  2. ^ Whitburn, Joel, Joel Whitburn’s Top Pop Records: 1940-1955, Record Research, Menomanee, Wisconsin, 1973 p.37
  3. ^ Appen/Frei-Hauenschild 2015
  4. ^ "Harmony, Teenagers And 'The Complete Story Of Doo-Wop'". Retrieved 2017-09-25. 
  5. ^ a b "Where'd we get the name doo-wop". Retrieved August 18, 2007. 
  6. ^ "Doo Wop Music, Doo Wop Records and Doo Wop CDs". Retrieved April 9, 2010. 
  7. ^ Gilliland, John (1969). "Show 4 – The Tribal Drum: The rise of rhythm and blues. [Part 2]" (audio). Pop Chronicles. University of North Texas Libraries. 
  8. ^ a b c Gilliland, John (1969). "Show 11 – Big Rock Candy Mountain: Early rock 'n' roll vocal groups & Frank Zappa" (audio). Pop Chronicles. University of North Texas Libraries.  Track 5.
  9. ^ Holden, Stephen (1994-05-29). "POP VIEW; 'The Deep Forbidden Music': How Doo-Wop Casts Its Spell". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-09-26. 
  10. ^ Buck Ram (manager of Penguins and Platters) interviewed on the Pop Chronicles (1969)
  11. ^ "Hispanic contribution to doo-wop". Abraham J. Santiago, Steven J. Dunham. Retrieved 12 June 2010. 
  12. ^ Gilliland, John (1969). "Show 14 – Big Rock Candy Mountain: Rock 'n' roll in the late fifties. [Part 4]" (audio). Pop Chronicles. University of North Texas Libraries. 
  13. ^ Hinckley, David (April 29, 2013). "Lillian Leach Boyd, singer for The Mellows, dead at 76". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on May 3, 2013. 
  14. ^ Gilliland, John (1969). "Show 25 – The Soul Reformation: Phase two, the Motown story. [Part 4]" (audio). Pop Chronicles. University of North Texas Libraries. 
  15. ^ Toop, David (November 2011). "The SMiLE Sessions". The Wire (333). 
  16. ^ "Brian Pop Genius!". Melody Maker. May 21, 1966. 
  17. ^ Newman, Steve (January 13, 2010). "Four Quarters on a roll". Retrieved April 29, 2012. 
  18. ^ McNeir, D. Kevin (April 26, 2012). "Street Corner Renaissance takes 'doo-wop' to new levels". The Miami Times. Archived from the original on January 28, 2013. Retrieved April 29, 2012. 
  19. ^ Applebome, Peter (February 29, 2012). "A Doo-Wop Shop Prepares to Close, Signaling the End of a Fading Genre". The New York Times. Retrieved March 5, 2012. 
  20. ^ Levinson, Paul (March 4, 2012). "Doo Wop Forever". Infinite Regress. Retrieved March 21, 2012. 
  21. ^ Mikael Wood (2013-07-28). "Review: Bruno Mars brings Moonshine Jungle to Staples Center". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 4, 2014. 
  22. ^ Blum,, Joseph (1986). "Review: The Rap Attack: African Jive to New York Hip Hop by David Toop". Ethnomusicology (30.2): 340–341. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Appen, Ralf von / Frei-Hauenschild, Markus (2015). "AABA, Refrain, Chorus, Bridge, Prechorus — Song Forms and their Historical Development". In: Samples. Online Publikationen der Gesellschaft für Popularmusikforschung/German Society for Popular Music Studies e.V. Ed. by Ralf von Appen, André Doehring and Thomas Phleps. Vol. 13, p. 43-48, 61-63.
  • Baptista, Todd R (1996). Group Harmony: Behind the Rhythm and Blues. New Bedford, Massachusetts: TRB Enterprises. ISBN 0-9631722-5-5.
  • Baptista, Todd R (2000). Group Harmony: Echoes of the Rhythm and Blues Era. New Bedford, Massachusetts: TRB Enterprises. ISBN 0-9706852-0-3.
  • Cummings, Tony (1975). The Sound of Philadelphia. London: Eyre Methuen.
  • Engel, Ed (1977). White and Still All Right. Scarsdale, New York: Crackerjack Press.
  • Goosman, Stuart L (2005). Group Harmony: The Black Urban Roots of Rhythm and Blues. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania. ISBN 0-8122-3886-9.
  • Gribin, Anthony J., and Matthew M. Shiff (1992). Doo-Wop: The Forgotten Third of Rock 'n. Roll. Iola, Wisconsin: Krause Publications.
  • Gribin, Anthony J., and Matthew M. Shiff (2000). The Complete Book of Doo-Wop. Iola, Wisconsin: Krause Publications.
  • Groia, Phil (1983). They All Sang on the Corner. West Hempstead, New York: Phillie Dee Enterprises.
  • Keyes, Johnny (1987). Du-Wop. Chicago: Vesti Press.
  • Lepri, Paul (1977). The New Haven Sound 1946–1976. New Haven, Connecticut: [self published].
  • McCutcheon, Lynn Ellis (1971). Rhythm and Blues. Arlington, Virginia.
  • Pruter, Robert (1996). Doowop: the Chicago Scene. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-02208-4.
  • Rosalsky, Mitch (2000). Encyclopedia of Rhythm & Blues and Doo Wop Vocal Groups. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow.
  • Warner, Jay (1992). The Da Capo Book of American Singing Groups. New York: Da Capo Press.