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Doo-wop is a genre of rhythm and blues music originated in the 1940s by African-American youth in the large cities of the United States, including New York, Chicago, Newark and Washington, DC. It features vocal group harmony that carries an engaging melodic line to a simple beat with little or no instrumentation. Lyrics are simple about love, sung by a lead vocal over background vocals of repeated nonsense syllables, featuring, in the bridge, a melodramatically heartfelt recitative addressed to the beloved. Gaining popularity in the 1950s, doo-wop enjoyed its peak successes in the early 1960s, but continued to influence performers in other genres. Doo-wop has complex musical and commercial origins. Doo-wop's style is a mixture of precedents in composition and vocals that figured in American popular music created by song writers and vocal groups, both black and white, from the 1930s to the 1940s; such composers as Rodgers and Hart, Hoagy Carmichael and Frank Loesser used a I-VI-II-V-loop chord progression in those hit songs.

This characteristic harmonic layout was combined with the AABA chorus form typical for Tin Pan Alley songs. Hit songs by black groups such as the Ink Spots and the Mills Brothers were slow songs in swing time with simple instrumentation. Doo-wop street singers performed without instrumentation, but made their musical style distinctive, whether using fast or slow tempos, by keeping time using a swing-like off-beat, while using the doo-wop syllables as a substitute for drums and a bass vocalist as a substitute for a bass instrument. Doo-wop's characteristic vocal style was influenced by groups such as the Mills Brothers, whose close four-part harmony derived from the earlier barbershop quartet. Bill Kenny, lead singer of the Ink Spots, is credited with introducing the "top and bottom" vocal arrangement featuring a high tenor singing the intro and a bass spoken chorus; the Mills Brothers, who were famous in part because in their vocals they sometimes mimicked instruments, were an additional influence on street vocal harmony groups, singing a cappella arrangements, used wordless onomatopoeia to mimic musical instruments.

For instance, "Count Every Star" by The Ravens includes vocalizations imitating the "doomph, doomph" plucking of a double bass. The Orioles helped develop the doo-wop sound with their hits "It's Too Soon to Know" and "Crying in the Chapel". Although the musical style originated in the late 1940s and was popular in the 1950s, the term "doo-wop" itself did not appear in print until 1961, in The Chicago Defender, just as the style's vogue was nearing its end. Though the name was attributed to radio disc jockey Gus Gossert, he did not accept credit, stating that "doo-wop" was in use in California to categorize the music."Doo-wop" is itself a nonsense expression. In The Delta Rhythm Boys' 1945 recording, "Just A-Sittin' And A-Rockin", it is heard in the backing vocal, it is heard in The Clovers' 1953 release "Good Lovin'", in the chorus of Carlyle Dundee & The Dundees' 1954 song "Never". The first record to use "doo-wop" in the refrain was The Turbans' 1955 hit, "When You Dance"; the Rainbows embellished the phrase as "do wop de wadda" in their 1955 "Mary Lee".

The vocal harmony group tradition that developed in the United States post-World War II was the most popular form of rhythm and blues music among black teenagers those living in the large urban centers of the eastern coast, in Chicago, in Detroit. Teenagers who could not afford musical instruments formed groups that sang songs a cappella, performing at high school dances and other social occasions, they rehearsed on street corners and apartment stoops, as well as under bridges, in high school washrooms, in hallways and other places with echoes: these provided the only spaces with suitable acoustics that were available to them. Thus they developed a form of group harmony based in the harmonies and emotive phrasing of black spirituals and gospel music. Doo-wop music allowed these youths not only a means of entertaining themselves and others, but a way of expressing their values and worldviews in a repressive white-dominated society through the use of innuendo and hidden messages in the lyrics.

Among the first groups to perform songs in the vocal harmony group tradition were The Orioles, The Five Keys, The Spaniels. The nonsense string of syllables, "doo doo doo doo-wop", from which the name of the genre was derived, is used in the song "Just A Sittin' And A Rockin", recorded by the Delta Rhythm Boys in December 1945. By the mid-1950s, vocal harmony groups had transformed the smooth delivery of ballads into a performance style incorporating the nonsense phrase as vocalized by the bass singers, which provided rhythmic movement for a cappella songs. Productive doo-wop groups were formed by young Italian-American men who, like their black counterparts, lived in rough neighborhoods (e.g

Yeon Building

The Yeon Building is a historic 59.13 m, 15-story office building completed in 1911 in downtown Portland, Oregon. Clad in glazed terra-cotta, culminating in a colonnade on the top floors, the Yeon Building once was illuminated at night by light sockets built into the cornices, but removed; the building's namesake is Jean Baptiste Yeon, a self-made timber tycoon who financed the construction. At the time of completion, the Yeon Building was the tallest building in Oregon and it remained so for nearly two years. In 1994, the Yeon Building was added to the National Register of Historic Places; the building was repossessed by First Independent Bank in 2010 from Fountain Village Development and re-sold in March 2011 for $8.9 million. The 126,170-square-foot was purchased at that time by RGOF Yeon Building LLC. Architecture of Portland, Oregon National Register of Historic Places listings in Southwest Portland, Oregon Media related to Yeon Building at Wikimedia Commons

Shields Branch

The Shields Branch is a tributary of the Big Black River), flowing in: Quebec: in the administrative region of Chaudière-Appalaches, in L'Islet Regional County Municipality, in the municipalities of Sainte-Perpétue, Chaudière-Appalaches, Saint-Omer and Saint-Pamphile, Quebec. Its course is situated between the Gagnon River; this river is flowing in forest area in a valley encircled by Notre Dame Mountains. From its source, in L'Islet Regional County Municipality, the river runs south and southeast across the Canada–United States border in Maine Township 15, Range 15, WELS, to the Big Black River in T 14, R 15; the upper part of the "Saint Roch River" begins in Notre Dame Mountains, in the municipality of Sainte-Perpétue, Chaudière-Appalaches, Quebec in the L'Islet Regional County Municipality. This source is located at: 15.0 kilometres Northwest of the border between Quebec and Maine. St. Roch river flows on 44.0 kilometres according to the following segments: Upper river course From the source in the mountains, the Saint-Roch river flows: 8.1 kilometres to the South in Sainte-Perpétue, Chaudière-Appalaches, cutting the path of range Taché East, up to the boundary of the municipality of Saint-Omer.

Lower course of the river From the border between Quebec and Maine, the "Shields Branch" runs on: 2.0 kilometres to the Southeast in the Maine, up to the "Little Saint-Roch River". Note: This river takes its source in Quebec where it is designated Rochu River; the "Shields Branch" flows into a river curve on the North bank of the Big Black River, Township T14 R15 Wels, in the Aroostook County. This confluence is located: 8.5 kilometres Southeast of the border between Canada and US. The place name "Saint-Roch River" was formalized on December 5, 1968, at the Commission de toponymie du Québec (Quebec Places Names Board. "Shields Branch". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2016-07-17. "Shields Branch". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. 30 September 1980. Retrieved 2009-10-16. Maine Streamflow Data from the USGS Maine Watershed Data From Environmental Protection Agency Maine Streamflow USGS data Maine Watershed data from the Environmental Protection Agency Media related to Category: Shields Branch River at Wikimedia Commons Sainte-Perpétue, Chaudière-Appalaches, Quebec, a municipality of Quebec St Omer, a municipality of Quebec Saint-Pamphile, a municipality of Quebec L'Islet Regional County Municipality Aroostook County, a county of Maine Rochu River, a stream Gagnon River, a stream Little Saint Roch River, a stream Saint Roch River North, a stream Saint Roch River West, a stream List of rivers of Quebec List of rivers of Maine

Gene Taylor (pianist)

Gene Taylor is an American musician. He began his musical training as a drummer at age eight but two years he had picked up both the guitar and his initial piano skills from boogie-woogie pianist-neighbours. Around the age of 16 he began working with some of the big names in the West Coast blues scene including Big Joe Turner and T-Bone Walker. In the mid-seventies he joined the James Harman Band and had a stint as pianist for boogie group Canned Heat between November 1974 and May 1976. From 1981 to 1984 he toured with The Blasters, in 1986 recorded his first solo album, Handmade, his The Return of the Formerly Brothers, recorded with Amos Garrett and Doug Sahm in 1987, won a Juno Award the following year for Best Roots & Traditional Album. From 1993 to 2007, Taylor played with The Fabulous Thunderbirds amongst various other projects, he recorded an eponymous second solo album for Pacific Blues in 2003 accompanied by James Harman and Bill Bateman. This album included a version of "Pinetop's Boogie Woogie".

Since 2007, he has been based in Belgium and recording with Fried Bourbon, CC Jerome's Jet Setters, Dave Alvin and Jo' Buddy. He toured as the Gene Taylor Trio, with drummer Nico Vanhove, the guitarist Bart De Mulder, he played at the Brussels Boogie-Woogie Festival of 2012, which took place at the Théâtre St Michel on November 24. 2013: Roadhouse Memories 2010: Let Me Ride In Your Automobile 2009: Introducing... 2008: 605 Boogie! 2007: James Harman's Bamboo Porch 2007: Hell Can Wait 2007: Boogie Blend Blues 2005: Painted On 2005: Live 2004: Come On In, winner at the 2005 Maple Blues Awards 2003: Lonesome Moon Trance 2003: Going Home 2003: Gene Taylor 2002: Trouble Bound 2002: Testament 2002: Bogart's Bounce 2002: If I Had A Genie, Taylor plays on all but four tracks 2000: Mo Na'kins, Please! 1999: Kid Ramos 1998: Takin' Chances 1996: Icepick's Story 1995: That's Life 1995: Roll Of The Dice 1995: In My Time 1995: Black & White 1994: Tiger Man 1994: Cards On The Table 1993: Two Sides To Every Story 1992: King King 1992: Bluesology 1991: Do Not Disturb 1990: Live In Japan 1990: Collection 1989: Gone Fishing 1988: Extra Napkins 1987: Those Dangerous Gentlemen 1987: The Return Of The Formerly Brothers 1987: Pigus Drunkus Maximus 1987: Nobody But You 1987: It's Been So Long 1986: Handmade 1985: Hard Line 1983: Thank You Baby 1983: Non-Fiction 1982: Over There 1981: This Band Just Won't Behave 1981: The Blasters Gene Taylor's website Example of Gene's playing on YouTube, Gene Taylor singing as well as playing in a line-up approximating to the original Blasters on YouTube

90th Infantry Regiment (United States)

The 90th Infantry Regiment was a Regular Army infantry regiment of the United States Army, which existed during World War I and World War II. The regiment was organized in 1918 during World War I with the 20th Division, but the war ended before it could be deployed overseas. During World War II, the 90th Infantry was again activated with the 10th Light Division in mid-1943, but was transferred to become a nondivisional separate training unit in early 1944, inactivating in mid-1945; the 90th Infantry was constituted on 31 August 1918. It was organized during August and September at Camp Sevier, South Carolina, based on a cadre from the 50th Infantry Regiment, assigned to the 40th Infantry Brigade of the 20th Division; the regiment was commanded by Medal of Honor recipient Colonel Louis J. Van Schaick, replaced by Colonel Henry L. Wagner in early September after the former transferred to command the division trains. After the Armistice ended the war, the three battalions of the regiment were split in December, with one battalion moving to Camp Wadsworth, a second to Camp Hancock, a third to Camp Greene, where they were demobilized between 13 and 22 March 1919.

Following the Attack on Pearl Harbor, which resulted in the United States entry into World War II, the regiment was reconstituted on 10 July 1943, activated five days at Camp Hale, Colorado with the 10th Light Division, using a cadre from the 105th, 106th, 165th Infantry Regiments of the 27th Infantry Division in Hawaii. These men were reinforced by skiers and mountain climbers from the 86th Infantry Regiment, the regiment conducted ski and mountain warfare training for the next several months, it was successively commanded by Paul R. Goode, it was relieved from its assignment to the 10th on 13 or 22 February 1944, transferred to XVI Corps at Camp Carson as a separate unit. Most of its skiers from Camp Hale were used to reinforce the other regiments of the division before the transfer. At Camp Carson, the 611-man cadre of the regiment provided an accelerated six-week course of infantry training to 2,900 men, who were members of disbanded anti-aircraft and tank destroyer units or who had volunteered for transfer to the infantry from other branches of the Army, under the command of Colonel James E. Graham.

Graham was replaced by Colonel Winfield R. McKay on 26 August. After XVI Corps was sent to Europe the 90th was assigned to XXXVI Corps on 17 July before it moved to Camp Gruber, Oklahoma on 1 December. There, the regiment joined the Replacement and School Command on 9 February 1945, relocating to Camp Rucker, Alabama, on 17 February, where it inactivated on 10 August after training replacements for the remainder of the war; the regiment published a newspaper, beginning at Camp Carson. The 90th Infantry was never authorized a distinctive unit coat of arms. Beardwood, Jack B.. History of the Fourth Army. Army Ground Forces Study No. 14. Washington, D. C.: Historical Section, Army Ground Forces. Govan, Thomas P.. History of the Tenth Light Division. Army Ground Forces Study No. 28. Washington, D. C.: Historical Section, Army Ground Forces. McGrath, John J.. The Brigade: A History: Its Organization and Employment in the US Army. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: Combat Studies Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-4404-4915-4.

Stanton, Shelby L.. Order of Battle: U. S. Army, World War II. Novato, California: Presidio Press. ISBN 9780891411956. United States Department of the Army; the Army Lineage Book. Volume II: Infantry. Washington: GPO. Walthall, Melvin C.. We Can't All Be Heroes: A History of the Separate Infantry Regiments in World War II. Exposition Press. ISBN 978-0-682-48209-7

Oral History of American Music

Oral History of American Music, founded in 1969, is an oral history project and archive of audio and video recordings consisting of interviews with American classical and jazz musicians. It is a special collection of the Irving S. Gilmore Music Library at Yale University and housed within the Sterling Memorial Library building in New Haven, Connecticut, it holds over 2,000 interviews with more than 900 subjects and is considered the definitive collection of its kind. The creation of Oral History of American Music was a result of musicologist Vivian Perlis's research on the life of American composer Charles Ives, for which she interviewed sixty individuals who had known him personally. During the course of the interviews, Perlis recognized the need for a larger project that would collect and preserve the oral history of American composers, began the OHAM project in 1969 with that intent. Perlis's interviews with friends and colleagues of Ives became OHAM's initial collection, were used in her 1974 book, Charles Ives Remembered: An Oral History, for which she received the American Musicological Society's Otto Kinkeldey Award—the first time it had been awarded either to a woman or for work on American music.

In addition to Perlis's biography of Ives, the project's collection played an instrumental role in a number of other historical works: A Good Dissonance Like a Man, a documentary film about Ives. Perlis served as the project's director until she retired in 2010 and was succeeded by its current director, Van Cleve. OHAM expanded through interviews conducted by Perlis, Van Cleve and others, as well as by acquisitions of recordings from scholars, radio producers, concert presenters, its largest component today is the Major Figures in American Music series, which documents classical composers at varying stages in their careers. OHAM holds five series of extensive interviews centered around specific persons and topics. Grants to preserve and digitize OHAM's recordings have come from the Grammy Foundation, Gladys Krieble Delmas Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Save America's Treasures initiative. In 2009, the Aaron Copland Fund for Music donated $500,000 to establish an endowment fund for the organization.

In January 2019, OHAM announce a new research guide entitled An African American Studies Critical Guide to Oral History of American Music. This guide was created by Clara Wilson-Hawkins, it highlights the voices of people of color represented in OHAM’s oral histories, with a focus on African American figures and music, as well as those whose work has been influenced by and/or shaped African American music from the early twentieth century through today. Oral History of American Music's collection consists of audio and video interviews which are digitized and transcribed; the collection is split into six major components in addition to its acquired materials: Major Figures in American Music: audio and video interviews with about 1,000 composers and other significant musicians The Ives Project The Paul Hindemith Project The Duke Ellington Oral History The Steinway Project: an oral history of the Steinway & Sons company The Yale Student Composers Project: video interviews with graduate student composers at the Yale School of MusicNotable subjects who have received significant attention from Oral History of American Music include: John Adams Anthony Braxton Martin Bresnick Dave Brubeck John Cage Aaron Copland Henry Cowell Lukas Foss George Gershwin Ezra Laderman David Lang Alvin Lucier Pauline Oliveros Leo Ornstein Steve Reich Arnold Schoenberg Wadada Leo Smith Virgil Thomson OHAM provides access to interview recordings and text transcripts for personal research use and educational purposes.

Free online streaming access to most interview recordings is available for a limited period of 30 days. Digital copies of most transcripts are available at no charge. To request online streaming access and copies of transcripts, please complete a Reproduction Request Form. Not all interviews have been transcribed. A staff member will contact you. Oral History of American Music's Website, which includes a list of interviewees