The Erie Canal is a canal in New York, United States, part of the east–west, cross-state route of the New York State Canal System. It ran 363 miles from where Albany meets the Hudson River to where Buffalo meets Lake Erie, it was built to create a navigable water route from New York City and the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes. When completed in 1825, it was the second longest canal in the world and affected the development and economy of New York, New York City, the United States; the canal was first proposed in the 1780s re-proposed in 1807. A survey was authorized and executed in 1808. Proponents of the project wore down opponents; the canal has 34 numbered locks starting with Black Rock Lock and ending downstream with the Troy Federal Lock. Both are owned by the federal government, it has an elevation difference of about 565 feet. It opened on October 26, 1825. In a time when bulk goods were limited to pack animals, there were no railways, water was the most cost-effective way to ship bulk goods.
The canal was denigrated by its political opponents as "Clinton's Folly" or "Clinton's Big Ditch". It was the first transportation system between the Eastern Seaboard and the western interior of the United States that did not require portage, it was faster than carts pulled by draft animals and cut transport costs by about 95%. The canal gave New York City's port an incomparable advantage over all other U. S. ushered in the state's 19th century political and cultural ascendancy. The canal fostered a population surge in western New York and opened regions farther west to settlement, it was enlarged between 1834 and 1862. The canal's peak year was 1855. In 1918, the western part of the canal was enlarged to become part of the New York State Barge Canal, which extended to the Hudson River running parallel to the eastern half of the Erie Canal. In 2000, the United States Congress designated the Erie Canalway National Heritage Corridor to recognize the national significance of the canal system as the most successful and influential human-built waterway and one of the most important works of civil engineering and construction in North America.
The canal has been used by recreational watercraft since the retirement of the last large commercial ship, Day Peckinpaugh, in 1994. The canal saw a recovery in commercial traffic in 2008. From the first days of the expansion of the British colonies from the coast of North America into the heartland of the continent, a recurring problem was that of transportation between the coastal ports and the interior; this was not unique to the Americas, the problem still exists in those parts of the world where muscle power provides a primary means of transportation within a region. An ancient solution was implemented in many cultures — floating vessels move more than land vehicles since friction becomes less. Close to the seacoast, rivers provided adequate waterways, but the Appalachian Mountains, 400 miles inland, running over 1,500 miles long as a barrier range with just five places where mule trains or wagon roads could be routed, presented a great challenge. Passengers and freight had to travel overland, a journey made more difficult by the rough condition of the roads.
In 1800, it took 2-1/2 weeks to travel overland from New York to Cleveland, Ohio. The principal exportable product of the Ohio Valley was grain, a high-volume, low-priced commodity, bolstered by supplies from the coast, it was not worth the cost of transporting it to far-away population centers. This was a factor leading to farmers in the west turning their grains into whiskey for easier transport and higher sales, the Whiskey Rebellion. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, it became clear to coastal residents that the city or state that succeeded in developing a cheap, reliable route to the West would enjoy economic success, the port at the seaward end of such a route would see business increase greatly. In time, projects were devised in Virginia, Maryland and deep into the coastal states; the successes of the Canal du Midi in France, Bridgewater Canal in Britain, Eider Canal in Denmark spurred on what was called in Britain "canal mania". The idea of a canal to tie the East Coast to the new western settlements was discussed as early as 1724: New York provincial official Cadwallader Colden made a passing reference to improving the natural waterways of western New York.
Gouverneur Morris and Elkanah Watson were early proponents of a canal along the Mohawk River. Their efforts led to the creation of the "Western and Northern Inland Lock Navigation Companies" in 1792, which took the first steps to improve navigation on the Mohawk and construct a canal between the Mohawk and Lake Ontario, but it was soon discovered that private financing was insufficient. Christopher Colles surveyed the Mohawk Valley, made a presentation to the New York state legislature in 1784, proposing a shorter canal from Lake Ontario; the proposal was never implemented. Jesse Hawley had envisioned encouraging the growing of large quantities of grain on the western New York plains for sale on the Eastern seaboard. However, he went bankrupt trying to ship grain to the coast. While in Canandaigua debtors' prison, Hawley began pressing for the construction of a canal along the 90-mile (140 km
Porte des Morts
Porte des Morts known as Porte des Mortes, the Door of Death, Death's Door is a strait linking Lake Michigan and Green Bay between the northern tip of the peninsula of Door County, Wisconsin and a group of islands known as the Potawatomi Islands and dominated by Washington Island. The name is French and means "the door of the dead". According to traditions given by the Native Americans to area fishermen in the 1840s and reported both by Captain Brink, a government engineer who surveyed the area in 1834, by Hjalmar R. Holand in his two-volume history of Door County, the ominous name is traced back to a battle between the Winnebago and Potawatomi tribes. Holand's report is as follows: The Winnebago, having migrated from the southwest, were not content to share the land with the gentle Potawatomi, who had arrived before them, they had pushed the latter from the peninsula to the islands and were preparing to attack the islands, too. The Potawatomi devised a desperate plan for defense, they sent three scouts to spy out the Winnebago positions.
The spies were to light a signal fire so the Potawatomi warriors could land safely and attack the Winnebago from behind. The spies, were discovered and captured. Two died with their secret. Knowing the plan, the Winnebago decided to use it to their advantage and devised a two pronged attack, they set a signal fire there. There they planned to intercept the war party, they sent a second group to attack the villages of the Potawatomi, which would be defenseless with their warriors gone. When the Potawatomi defenders left the islands, the weather was calm, but by the time they were mid channel, a stiff north wind set in, they pressed on, confident that they could land safely near the signal fire. When they arrived, the Winnebago attacked, they could not land, the strong north wind and waves prevented their fleeing to safety. Canoes were dashed against the rocks. A few Potawatomi managed to climb to a ledge a short distance above the waves; some of the Winnebago jumped down to the ledge and fighting continued there until a large wave took them all to their deaths in the lake.
After the battle at the bluff, the remaining Winnebago waited for the return of their second party. The wind and waves that had prevented the Potawatomi from fleeing also caught the Winnebago raiding party, they were never seen again. The Winnebago took it as a sign that they should not try to cross to the islands again, for it was, they concluded, a doorway to death; the report seems to be biased in favor of the Potawatomi. The Winnebago, or to use their own chosen name the Ho-Chunk, do not describe themselves as fierce. Various historical accounts indicate that it was the Potawatomi who were the newcomers to the area and that the Winnebago had suffered at the hands of the Illinois. If this account gives the origin of the name, the battle occurred in the mid seventeenth century, shortly after the Potawatomi settled in the area and before the French used the area enough to name the strait. Other explanations for the origin of the name have been offered. One account involving Native Americans has a tribe building a ring of campfires on thin ice to lure their enemies through the strait overnight.
The plan worked and the attackers perished. Another mentions no battle, it has been said that the French, not wanting the English to establish fur trade routes to Wisconsin and other surrounding areas, named the passage to discourage and scare sailors from sailing through the strait. Yet the strait had its name well, it is possible. The written history of the area between Jean Nicolet's visit to Green Bay in 1634 and the return of French trappers in the late 1650s is a blank page. Thus, the only reasons that can be found for the drastic reduction in the population of the Winnebago in that time period - from estimates of between ten and twenty thousand to five, six, or seven hundred - are those that can be gleaned from the natives' own oral traditions, which by the time they make it to a recorder's pen mix and confuse details of separate events. R. David Edmunds relates that after the Winnebago repulsed the first advance of the Potawatomi, they lost several hundred warriors in a storm on Lake Michigan.
Carol Mason refers to the loss of 600 warriors, but does not indicate on which body of water they were lost and questions the credibility of the report. Lee Sultzman says Lake Winnebago was the location and that 500 warriors were lost in a failed attack against the Fox. James Clifton says more than 500 were lost in a battle with the Sauk, who entered northeast Wisconsin about the same time as the Potawatomi. Others say that the Winnebago were allied with both the Sauk. Edmunds opines that such a loss could not by itself result in the near decimation of the whole people, offers that two other causes should be included; the Winnebago during this time also suffered from a disease one of the European plagues like smallpox. It appears that a sizeable contingent of their historic enemies, the Illinois, came on a mission of mercy to help the Winnebago at time of suffering and famine - what one might expect after the loss of 600 men who were their hunters. Remembering former hostilities, the Winnebago repaid t
Lake Nipissing is a lake in the Canadian province of Ontario. It has a surface area of 873.3 km2, a mean elevation of 196 m above sea level, is located between the Ottawa River and Georgian Bay. Lake Nipissing is the third-largest lake in Ontario, it is shallow for a large lake, with an average depth of only 4.5 m. The shallowness of the lake makes for many sandbars along the lake's irregular shoreline; the lake reaches a maximum depth of 64 m near the mouth of the French River, off the shore of Blueberry Island. The lake has many islands most of which are protected under the Protection of Significant Wetlands scheme, controlled by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry; the largest population centre on the lake's shoreline is the city of North Bay. North Bay sits along the lake's northeastern shoreline. Other notable towns include Callander; the larger towns toward the western end of the lake are Sturgeon Falls, Garden Village, Cache Bay and Lavigne. Lake Nipissing drains into Georgian Bay, a part of Lake Huron, via the French River.
Lake Nipissing lies about 25 km northwest of Algonquin Provincial Park. The French fur trader Étienne Brûlé was the first European to visit the lake in 1610. Jean Nicolet, another French trader and explorer had a "cabin and trading-house" for eight or nine years living among the Indians on the shores of Lake Nipissing until 1633 when he was recalled to Quebec to become Commissary and Indian Interpreter for the "Company of the Hundred Associates." In a map dated 1776, the lake is still referred to with its French name "Lac des Sorcieres". During the American Revolutionary War, Lake Nipissing was proposed as the boundary in the instructions of the Continental Congress to John Adams, the Commissioner appointed to negotiate a treaty of Peace with Great Britain; the first permanent European settlement on the lake dates from around 1874 with a trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company on the northwest corner in what is now Sturgeon Falls. In 1882 the North-West Mounted Police established their presence on the north east shore.
The lake contains over 40 different species of fish. Numerous sport fishing lodges dot the main shoreline and can be found on several of Nipissing's many islands. Most anglers target walleye, smallmouth bass and northern pike. For various reasons social, numerous stocking associations are engaged in attempts to manage the lake's walleye population; the lake's name means "big water" in the Algonquin language. The name Nipissing was given to many places in the area, notably the Township of Nipissing, Nipissing District, Nipissing University. In the days of fur trade, coureur des bois and voyageurs travelled through the lake by canoe via the Mattawa and French rivers; when the fur trade started to decline in the 1880s, logging became the main economic activity. After World War I, the primary economic activity became tourism and recreation, although logging still contributes a significant economic stimulus to the area. Unlike most lakes in Ontario, Lake Nipissing contains two volcanic pipes, which are the Manitou Islands and Callander Bay.
The volcanic pipes formed by the supersonic eruption of deep-origin volcanoes. Lake Nipissing lies in the Ottawa-Bonnechere Graben, a Mesozoic era rift valley that formed 175 million years ago; the lake is home to an abundance of flora and fauna: white pine is significant, broadleaf trees such as aspen, birch and oak predominate some of the larger islands. Juniper, scrub oak, oak ferns and poison ivy can be found; as well as much prized fish species, Nipissing wildlife includes moose, bald eagle and turtles. The lakeshore and islands are densely covered with broadleaved trees; some of the larger islands on the lake such as Garden Island are exclusively broadleaf with maple and dogwood. Many trees species can be found on and around the lake including: White pine which dominates the smaller rocky islands on the lake. Ash Aspen Beech Birch Dogwood Elm Ironwood Maple Oak Fish - the lake is famous for the plethora of fish and the sport they provide. Of the 44 fish species to be found in Lake Nipissing, the significant include: Northern pike Muskie Walleye Gar Smallmouth bass Yellow perch Cisco or lake herring Whitefish two species deemed to be'at risk' by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry.
Bald eagle Osprey Great blue heron Common loon Great horned owland a huge variety of ducks and geese List of lakes of Ontario Media related to Lake Nipissing at Wikimedia Commons Greater Nipissing Stewardship Council
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe and the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with both Europe and Africa. Asia covers an area of 44,579,000 square kilometres, about 30% of Earth's total land area and 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area. The continent, which has long been home to the majority of the human population, was the site of many of the first civilizations. Asia is notable for not only its overall large size and population, but dense and large settlements, as well as vast populated regions, its 4.5 billion people constitute 60% of the world's population. In general terms, Asia is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean, on the north by the Arctic Ocean; the border of Asia with Europe is a historical and cultural construct, as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. It has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity.
The division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East–West cultural and ethnic differences, some of which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The most accepted boundaries place Asia to the east of the Suez Canal separating it from Africa. China and India alternated in being the largest economies in the world from 1 to 1800 CE. China was a major economic power and attracted many to the east, for many the legendary wealth and prosperity of the ancient culture of India personified Asia, attracting European commerce and colonialism; the accidental discovery of a trans-Atlantic route from Europe to America by Columbus while in search for a route to India demonstrates this deep fascination. The Silk Road became the main east–west trading route in the Asian hinterlands while the Straits of Malacca stood as a major sea route. Asia has exhibited economic dynamism as well as robust population growth during the 20th century, but overall population growth has since fallen. Asia was the birthplace of most of the world's mainstream religions including Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Sikhism, as well as many other religions.
Given its size and diversity, the concept of Asia—a name dating back to classical antiquity—may have more to do with human geography than physical geography. Asia varies across and within its regions with regard to ethnic groups, environments, historical ties and government systems, it has a mix of many different climates ranging from the equatorial south via the hot desert in the Middle East, temperate areas in the east and the continental centre to vast subarctic and polar areas in Siberia. The boundary between Asia and Africa is the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez, the Suez Canal; this makes Egypt a transcontinental country, with the Sinai peninsula in Asia and the remainder of the country in Africa. The border between Asia and Europe was defined by European academics; the Don River became unsatisfactory to northern Europeans when Peter the Great, king of the Tsardom of Russia, defeating rival claims of Sweden and the Ottoman Empire to the eastern lands, armed resistance by the tribes of Siberia, synthesized a new Russian Empire extending to the Ural Mountains and beyond, founded in 1721.
The major geographical theorist of the empire was a former Swedish prisoner-of-war, taken at the Battle of Poltava in 1709 and assigned to Tobolsk, where he associated with Peter's Siberian official, Vasily Tatishchev, was allowed freedom to conduct geographical and anthropological studies in preparation for a future book. In Sweden, five years after Peter's death, in 1730 Philip Johan von Strahlenberg published a new atlas proposing the Urals as the border of Asia. Tatishchev announced; the latter had suggested the Emba River as the lower boundary. Over the next century various proposals were made until the Ural River prevailed in the mid-19th century; the border had been moved perforce from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea into which the Ural River projects. The border between the Black Sea and the Caspian is placed along the crest of the Caucasus Mountains, although it is sometimes placed further north; the border between Asia and the region of Oceania is placed somewhere in the Malay Archipelago.
The Maluku Islands in Indonesia are considered to lie on the border of southeast Asia, with New Guinea, to the east of the islands, being wholly part of Oceania. The terms Southeast Asia and Oceania, devised in the 19th century, have had several vastly different geographic meanings since their inception; the chief factor in determining which islands of the Malay Archipelago are Asian has been the location of the colonial possessions of the various empires there. Lewis and Wigen assert, "The narrowing of'Southeast Asia' to its present boundaries was thus a gradual process." Geographical Asia is a cultural artifact of European conceptions of the world, beginning with the Ancient Greeks, being imposed onto other cultures, an imprecise concept causing endemic contention about what it means. Asia does not correspond to the cultural borders of its various types of constituents. From the time of Herodotus a minority of geographers have rejected the three-continent system on the grounds that there is no substantial physical separation between
Door County, Wisconsin
Door County is a county in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 27,785, its county seat is Sturgeon Bay. The county was created in 1851 and organized in 1861, it is named after the strait between the Door Washington Island. The dangerous passage, known as Death's Door, is now scattered with shipwrecks, was known to early French explorers and local Native Americans. Door County is a popular vacation and tourist destination for residents of Wisconsin and Illinois; the Door County peninsula has been inhabited for about 11,000 years. Artifacts from an ancient village site at Nicolet Bay Beach have been dated to about 400 BC; this site was occupied by various cultures until about 1300 AD. Door County's name came from Porte des Morts, anglicized as "Death's Door," or the passage between the tip of the Door County Peninsula and Washington Island, it is a common misconception that the name "Death's Door," or "Porte des Morts", arose from the number of shipwrecks associated with the passage.
It was instead the result of Native American tales, heard by early French explorers and embellished by Hjalmar Holand that related to a failed raid by the Ho-Chunk tribe to capture Washington Island from the rival Pottawatomie tribe in the early 1600s. Prior to and during the 19th century, various groups of Native Americans occupied the area that would become Door County and its islands. 17th century French explorers made contact with various tribes, including Potawatomi living in the Door Peninsula, but by the end of the French rule over the area in 1763, the Potawatomi had begun a move to the Detroit area, leaving the large communities in Wisconsin. Some Potawatomi moved back from the lower peninsula of Michigan to northern Wisconsin. Some, but not all Potawatomi left northern Wisconsin and settled into northern Indiana and central Illinois; the Menominee ceded their claim to the Door Peninsula to the United States in the 1836 Treaty of the Cedars following years of negotiations with the Ho-Chunk and the United States government over how to accommodate the incoming populations of Oneida, Stockbridge-Munsee, Brothertown peoples, removed from New York.
At the same time, the more decentralized Potawatomi were divested of their land without compensation. Many emigrated to Canada. Reasons for emigrating included an invitation from other Native Americans in Canada, favorable treaty arrangements, a desire to avoid the harsh terms of the 1833 Treaty of Chicago. Although not all Potawatomi participated in the Treaty of Chicago, at the time it was Federal policy that any who did not relocate westwards as the treaty stipulated would not be compensated for their land. Potawatomi Chief Simon Kahquados traveled to Washington, D. C. multiple times in an attempt to get the land back. In 1906, Congress passed a law to establish a census of all Potawatomi living in Wisconsin and Michigan as a first step towards compensation; the 1907 "Wooster" roll, named after the clerk who compiled it, documented 457 Potawatomi living in Wisconsin and Michigan and 1423 living in Ontario. Instead of returning the land, a meager monthly payment was issued. Although Chief Simon Kahquados was unsuccessful he was able to increase public consciousness of Potawatomi history.
In 1931, 15,000 people attended his burial in Peninsula State Park. The 18th and 19th centuries saw the immigration and settlement of pioneers, fishermen and farmers, with the first white settler being Increase Claflin. In the 19th century, a large-scale immigration of Belgian Walloons populated a small region in southern portion of the county, they built some still in use today. Eagle Bluff Lighthouse was constructed in Peninsula State Park in 1868 on orders from President Andrew Johnson, at a cost of $12,000, it was restored by the Door County Historical Society in 1964, opened to the public. When the 1871 Peshtigo Fire burned the town of Williamsonville, 60 people were killed; the area of this disaster is now Tornado Memorial County Park, named for the whirlwinds of fire. In 1941, the Sturgeon Bay Vocation School opened, now it is the Sturgeon Bay campus of Northeast Wisconsin Technical College. A Civilian Conservation Corps camp was established at Peninsula State Park during the Great Depression.
In the summer of 1945, Fish Creek was the site of a POW camp under an affiliation with a base camp at Fort Sheridan, Illinois. The German prisoners engaged in construction projects, cut wood, picked cherries in Peninsula State Park and the surrounding area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,370 square miles, of which 482 square miles is land and 1,888 square miles is water, it is the largest county in Wisconsin by total area. The county has 298 miles of shoreline. Locals and tourists alike refer to the area as the "Cape Cod of the Midwest"; the county covers the majority of the Door Peninsula. With the completion of the Sturgeon Bay Shipping Canal in 1881, the northern half of the peninsula, technically became an island; the 45th parallel north bisects this "island," and this is commemorated by Meridian County Park. Limestone outcroppings of the Niagara Escarpment are visible on both shores of the peninsula, but the karst formations are larger and more prominent on the Green Bay side as seen at the Bayshore Blufflands.
Progressions of dunes have created much of the rest of the shoreline on the easterly side. Flora along the shore provides clear evidence of plant succession; the middle of the peninsula is flat or rolling cultivated land. The height of the escarpment made it attractive to development. At the time of its completion in 1999, the 30.5 acre Rosière Wind Fa
Lake Simcoe is a lake in southern Ontario, the fourth-largest lake wholly in the province, after Lake Nipigon, Lac Seul, Lake Nipissing. At the time of the first European contact in the 17th century the lake was called Ouentironk by the Wyandot people, it was known as Lake Taronto until it was renamed by John Graves Simcoe, the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada, in memory of his father, Captain John Simcoe, Royal Navy. The lake is bordered by Simcoe County, Durham Region, York Region; the city of Barrie is located on Kempenfelt Bay, Orillia is located at the entrance to Lake Couchiching. The watershed draining into the lake contains a population of half a million people, including the northern portion of the Greater Toronto Area; the town of Georgina lies along the entire south shore of Lake Simcoe and consists of smaller residential towns and communities, including Keswick on Cook's Bay, Jackson's Point and Udora. The town of Innisfil occupies north of Bradford. Eastside Simcoe includes the towns of Beaverton and Lagoon City.
Lake Simcoe is a remnant of a much bigger, prehistoric lake known as Lake Algonquin. This lake's basin included Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, Lake Superior, Lake Nipigon, Lake Nipissing; the melting of an ice dam at the close of the last ice age reduced water levels in the region, leaving the lakes of today. At the time of the first European contact in the 17th century, the lake was called Ouentironk by the Wyandot natives. A 1675 map by Pierre Raffeix referred to the lake with the French term Lac Taronto and a 1687 map by Lahontan called it Lake Taronto, while the name Tarontos Lac appeared on a 1678 map of New France by cartographer Jean-Baptiste-Louis Franquelin; the term Taranto refers to an Iroquoian expression meaning pass. Taronto had referred to The Narrows, a channel of water through which Lake Simcoe discharges into Lake Couchiching. Since many subsequent mapmakers adopted this name for it, though cartographer Vincenzo Coronelli is thought to have introduced the more used spelling of Toronto in a map he created in 1695.
The name'Toronto' found its way to the current city through its use in the name for the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, a portage running between Lake Ontario and Georgian Bay, that passed through Lake Toronto, which in turn was used as the name for an early French fort located at the foot of the Toronto Passage, on Lake Ontario. The Severn River, its outlet stream, was once called'Rivière de Toronto' which flows into Georgian Bay's Severn Sound called the'Baie de Toronto'. French traders referred to it as Lac aux Claies, meaning "Lake of Grids" in reference to the Huron fishing weirs in the lake, it was renamed by John Graves Simcoe in 1793 in memory of Captain John Simcoe. Captain Simcoe was born on 28 November 1710, in Staindrop, in County Durham, northeast England and served as an officer in the Royal Navy, dying of pneumonia aboard his ship, HMS Pembroke, on 15 May 1759; the lake is 25 kilometres wide and 722 square kilometres in area. It is shaped somewhat like a fist with the index thumb extended.
The thumb forms Kempenfelt Bay on the west, the wrist Lake Couchiching to the north, the extended finger is Cook's Bay on the south. Couchiching was at one time thought of as a third bay of Simcoe, known as the Bristol Channel; the narrows, known as "where trees stand in the water", an interpretation of the word'Toronto', was an important fishing point for the First Nations peoples who lived in the area, the Mohawk term toran-ten gave its name to Toronto by way of the portage route running south from that point, the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail. Regarding the translation of'Toronto' as meaning "where trees stand in the water", this would have been the outcome of the Huron practise of driving stakes into the channel sediments to corral fish. Fresh-cut saplings placed in the water and sediments would have sprouted branches and leaves, persisting for some time, leading to a place "where trees stand in the water". A number of southern Ontario rivers flow north, into the lake, draining 2,581 km2 of land.
From the east, the Talbot River, part of the Trent–Severn Waterway is the most important river draining into Lake Simcoe, connecting the lake with the Kawartha lakes system and Lake Ontario. From its connection to Lake Couchiching, the Severn River is the only drainage from the lake to Georgian Bay, part of Lake Huron; the canal locks of the Trent-Severn Waterway make this connection navigable. A number of creeks and rivers flow into the lake: Black River Bluffs Creek Beaver River Holland River Maskinonge River Pefferlaw River Talbot River White's Creek Duclos Creek Burnie Creek White's Creek Virginia CreekA Virginia CreekB Virginia CreekD Lake Simcoe contains a large island, which along with Snake Island and Fox Island forms the reserve of the Chippewas of Georgina Island First Nation
Georgian Bay is a large bay of Lake Huron, located within Ontario, Canada. The main body of the bay lies east of the Bruce Manitoulin Island. To its northwest is the North Channel. Georgian Bay is surrounded by the districts of Manitoulin, Parry Sound and Muskoka, as well as the more populous counties of Simcoe and Bruce; the Main Channel separates the Bruce Peninsula from Manitoulin Island and connects Georgian Bay to the rest of Lake Huron. The North Channel, located between Manitoulin Island and the Sudbury District, west of Killarney, was once a popular route for steamships and is now used by a variety of pleasure craft to travel to and from Georgian Bay; the shores and waterways of the Georgian Bay are the traditional domain of the Anishinaabeg First Nations peoples to the north and Huron-Petun to the south. The bay was thus a major Algonquian-Iroqouian trade route. Samuel de Champlain, the first European to explore and map the area in 1615–1616, called it "La Mer douce", a reference to the bay's freshwater.
In 1822, after Great Britain had taken over the territory, Lieutenant Henry Wolsey Bayfield of a Royal Navy expedition named it as "Georgian Bay". Georgian Bay is about 190 kilometres long by 80 kilometres wide, it covers 15,000 square kilometres, making it nearly 80% the size of Lake Ontario. Eastern Georgian Bay is part of the southern edge of the Canadian Shield, granite bedrock exposed by the glaciers at the end of the last ice age, about 11,000 years ago; the granite rock formations and windswept eastern white pine are characteristic of the islands and much of the shoreline of the bay. The rugged beauty of the area inspired landscapes by artists of the Group of Seven; the western part of the bay, from Collingwood north, including Manitoulin, Cockburn and St. Joseph islands, borders the Niagara Escarpment; because of its size and narrowness of the straits joining it with the rest of Lake Huron, analogous to if not as pronounced as the separation of Lake Huron and Lake Michigan, Georgian Bay is sometimes called the "sixth Great Lake".
If Georgian Bay were considered a lake in its own right, it would be the fourth largest lake located within Canada. With Georgian Bay, Lake Huron is considered to be the second largest of the Great Lakes - if Georgian Bay were excluded, Lake Huron would be the third largest. There are tens of thousands of islands in Georgian Bay. Most of these islands are along the east side of the bay and are collectively known as the "Thirty Thousand Islands", including the larger Parry Island. Manitoulin Island, lying along the northern side of the bay, is the world's largest island in a freshwater lake; the Trent–Severn Waterway connects Georgian Bay to Lake Ontario, running from Port Severn in the southeastern corner of Georgian Bay through Lake Simcoe into Lake Ontario near Trenton. Further north, Lake Nipissing drains into Georgian Bay through the French River. In October 2004, the Georgian Bay Littoral was declared a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO. Archaeological records reveal an Aboriginal presence in the southern regions of the Canadian Shield dating from 11,000 years ago.
Evidence of Paleo-Indian settlements have been found on Manitoulin Island and near Killarney. At the time of European contact, the Ojibwe and Ottawa First Nations, both of whom call themselves Anishinaabe, lived along the northern and western shores of Georgian Bay; the Huron and Tionontati inhabited the lands along the southern coast, having migrated from the northern shores of Lake Ontario. Names of islands such as "Manitoulin" and "Giant's Tomb" are indicative of the richness of the cultural history of the area. Aboriginal communities continue to practise their cultural traditions; the first European to visit this area was Étienne Brûlé, who at age less than 20, in 1610 was sent to live as an interpreter trainee with the Onontchataronon, an Algonquian people of the Ottawa River. They travelled every winter to live with the Arendarhonon people of the Huron confederacy at the southern end of Georgian Bay, in the area now called "Huronia". Brulé returned to the Arendarhonon the following year.
At the same time another young interpreter trainee, a youth remembered only as Thomas, employed by the French surgeon and trader Daniel Boyer likely made it to Huronia, in the company of the Onontchataronon, another member of the confederacy. In 1615, Brulé's employer, the French explorer Samuel de Champlain, made his own visit to Georgian Bay and overwintered in Huronia, he was preceded that summer by a Récollet missionary, Joseph Le Caron, who would live among the Huron in 1615–1616 and 1623–1624. Another Récollet missionary, Gabriel Sagard, lived there from 1623–34; the French Jesuit Jean de Brébeuf began a mission in Huronia in 1626. In 1639 he oversaw the building of the mission fort of Sainte-Marie, Ontario's first European settlement, at what is now the town of Midland; the reconstructed Jesuit mission, Sainte-Marie among the Hurons, is now a historic park operated by the province of Ontario. Nearby is the Martyrs' Shrine, a Catholic church dedicated to the Canadian Martyrs, Jesuits who were killed during Iroquois warfare against the Huron around Georgian Bay in the 17th century.
The Bay appears on maps of the time as "Toronto Bay". Penetanguishene, the location of an Ojibwe village located at the southern tip of the bay nea