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Doric Greek

Doric, or Dorian was an Ancient Greek dialect. Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern Peloponnese as well as in Sicily, Southern Italy, Rhodes, some islands in the southern Aegean Sea and some cities on the south east coast of Anatolia. Together with Northwest Greek, it forms the "Western group" of classical Greek dialects. By Hellenistic times, under the Achaean League, an Achaean-Doric koiné language appeared, exhibiting many peculiarities common to all Doric dialects, which delayed the spread of the Attic-based Koine Greek to the Peloponnese until the 2nd century BC, it is accepted that Doric originated in the mountains of Epirus in northwestern Greece, the original seat of the Dorians. It was expanded to all the colonisations that followed; the presence of a Doric state in central Greece, north of the Gulf of Corinth, led to the theory that Doric had originated in northwest Greece or maybe beyond in the Balkans. The dialect's distribution towards the north extends to the Megarian colony of Byzantium and the Corinthian colonies of Potidaea, Epidamnos and Ambracia.

In the north, local epigraphical evidence includes the decrees of the Epirote League, the Pella curse tablet, three additional lesser known Macedonian inscriptions, numerous inscriptions from a number of Greek colonies, etc.. Furthermore, we have plenty of local coins and names that assist us in our study of the northern Doric dialects. Southern dialects, in addition to numerous inscriptions and names, have provided much more literary evidence through authors such as Alcman, Archimedes of Syracuse, many others, all of whom wrote in Doric. Last, we have ancient dictionaries, such as the one from Hesychius of Alexandria, whose work preserved many dialectal words from throughout the Greek-speaking world. Where the Doric dialect group fits in the overall classification of ancient Greek dialects depends to some extent on the classification. Several views are stated under Greek dialects; the prevalent theme of most views listed. Some use the terms Northern Northwest Greek instead; the geographic distinction is only verbal and ostensibly is misnamed: all of Doric was spoken south of "Southern Greek" or "Southeastern Greek."

Be that as it may, "Northern Greek" is based on a presumption that Dorians came from the north and on the fact that Doric is related to Northwest Greek. When the distinction began is not known. All the "northerners" might have spoken one dialect at the time of the Dorian invasion, thus West Greek is the most accurate name for the classical dialects. Tsakonian, a descendant of Laconian Doric, is still spoken on the southern Argolid coast of the Peloponnese, in the modern prefectures of Arcadia and Laconia. Today it is a source of considerable interest to linguists, an endangered dialect; the dialects of the Doric Group are as follows: Laconian was spoken by the population of Laconia in the southern Peloponnese and by its colonies and Herakleia in Magna Graecia. Sparta was the seat of ancient Laconia. Laconian is attested in inscriptions on pottery and stone from the seventh century BC. A dedication to Helen dates from the second quarter of the seventh century. Taras was founded in 706 and its founders must have spoken Laconic.

Many documents from the state of Sparta survive, whose citizens called themselves Lacedaemonians after the name of the valley in which they lived. Homer calls it "hollow Lacedaemon"; the seventh century Spartan poet Alcman used a dialect that some consider to be predominantly Laconian. Philoxenus of Alexandria wrote a treatise On the Laconian dialect. Argolic was spoken in the thickly settled northeast Peloponnese at, for example, Mycenae, Troezen, as close to Athens as the island of Aegina; as Mycenaean Greek had been spoken in this dialect region in the Bronze Age, it is clear that the Dorians overran it but were unable to take Attica. The Dorians went on from Argos to Rhodes. Ample inscriptional material of a legal and religious content exists from at least the sixth century BC. Corinthian was spoken first in the isthmus region between the Peloponnesus and mainland Greece; the cities and states of the Corinthian dialect region were Corinth, Archaies Kleones, the colonies of Corinth in western Greece: Corcyra, Anactorium and others, the colonies in and around Italy: Syracuse and Ancona, the colonies of Corcyra: Dyrrachium, Apollonia.

The earliest inscriptions at Corinth date from the early sixth century BC. They use a Corinthian epichoric alphabet. Corinth contradicts the prejudice that Dorians were rustic militarists, as some consider the speakers of Laconian to be. Positioned on an international trade route, Corinth played a leading part in the re-civilizing of Greece after the centuries of disorder and isolation following the collapse of Mycenaean Greece; the Northwest Greek group is related to Doric proper, while sometimes there is no distinction between Doric and the Northwest Greek. Whether it is to be considered a part of the Doric Group or the latter a part of it or the two considered subgroups of West Greek, the dialects and their grouping remain the same. West Thessalian and Boeotian had

Jennifer Kessy

Jennifer "Jen" Anne Kessy is a retired American professional beach volleyball player on the AVP Tour. She is the coach of April Ross and Alex Klineman. Growing up in Southern California, Kessy excelled at multiple sports. In high school, she was the MVP of the swim team her junior year and the captain and the MVP of the volleyball team her senior year, earning honors as an All-California Interscholastic Federation second team. In 1994, she graduated from Dana Hills High School in California. Kessy continued her athletic excellence while attending the University of Southern California, she was a member of the volleyball team for all four years and was named an All-American her senior year. She was a member of the U. S. Junior National Team. Kessy graduated from USC with a bachelor's degree in history. Kessy was a member of the Kappa Kappa Gamma sorority. After signing a six-month contract for about $25,000, Kessy played indoor volleyball professionally under the coaches Gido Vermeulen and Christine Masel for the USPV Chicago Thunder which finished runners-up in the USPV in 2002.

In November 2002 with the collapse of the USPV, she signed with the team Pinkin de Corozal in Humacao, Puerto Rico, for the 2003 season and finished sixth overall for points in the LVSF. Kessy competed with the Olympian Barbra Fontana in 2004 and the Olympic Bronze Medalist and three-time Olympian Holly McPeak in 2005. Teaming up with her fellow USC Trojan April Ross in 2007, the tandem became one of the most successful teams in the world. On July 4, 2009, Kessy and Ross won the FIVB World Championships in Stavanger, defeating the Brazilians Juliana Felisberta Silva and Larissa Franca; as of April 2012, Kessy had ten AVP and nine FIVB first-place finishes overall, as well as over $1,223,635 in total prize money. In the spring of 2012, Kessy signed as a CoverGirl model for the 2012 Summer Olympics in London. In the 2012 London Olympics Kessy and Ross finished with the silver medal, when they lost to their fellow countrywomen Misty May-Treanor and Kerri Walsh Jennings in the championship game by the scores of 16-21 and 16-21.

Kessy did not play in the 2014 season due to her pregnancy with her first baby. She returned to the AVP tour in 2015 and teamed up with her fellow Californian Emily Day to begin the 2015 season. 2018 - Coaching April Ross & Alix Klineman, the #1 US team. April Ross & Alix Klineman won the first FIVB tournament of 2018. 2017-2018 - Coaching Winter Beach Elite Team at American Beach Volleyball Club at Doheny State Beach in Dana Point, California Kessy married French beach volleyball player Andy Cés in 2013. The pair have two daughters. 1994 All-California Interscholastic Federation second team 1998 All-American in volleyball 2004 AVP Most Improved Player 2008 AVP "Best of the Beach"* 2009 AVP "Best of the Beach"* 2009 USA Volleyball Beach Team of the Year. An asterisk denotes that Ms. Kessy was the only player to be named the AVP "Best of the Beach" for two consecutive years. Chicago Thunder in the United States Professional Volleyball League Pinkin de Corozal in the Liga de Voleibol Superior Femenino Jen Kessy's official bio at USA Volleyball

Cochlicopa lubrica

Cochlicopa lubrica is a species of small air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Cochlicopidae. The 5–7.5 x 2.4–2.9 mm shell has 4–5 moderately convex whorls. The aperture inside is thickened. There are no apertural teeth and there is no umbilicus. Shell colour is horny yellowish to reddish brown; the animal is blackish, with dark tentacles. This species can be hard to differentiate from the similar species Cochlicopa lubricella. Cochlicopa repentina Hudec, 1960 has been evaluated as a form of Cochlicopa lubrica in 1994; this species occurs in countries and islands including: Czech Republic Netherlands Poland Slovakia Ukraine Great Britain Ireland Hungary Spencer, H. G. Marshall, B. A. & Willan, R. C.. Checklist of New Zealand living Mollusca. Pp 196–219 in Gordon, D. P. New Zealand inventory of biodiversity. Volume one. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Deuterostomia. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch Cochlicopa lubrica at Animalbase taxonomy,short description, biology,status, images "Cionella lubrica: Glossy Pillar".

Terrestrial Gastropods of the Columbia Basin, British Columbia] "Cionella lubrica, Glossy pillar snail – Biodiversity of Great Smoky Mountains National Park"