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Dorothy Hodgkin

Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin was a British chemist who developed protein crystallography, for which she won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1964. She advanced the technique of X-ray crystallography, a method used to determine the three-dimensional structures of molecules. Among her most influential discoveries are the confirmation of the structure of penicillin as surmised by Edward Abraham and Ernst Boris Chain, the structure of vitamin B12, for which she became the third woman to win the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. In 1969, after 35 years of work, Hodgkin was able to decipher the structure of insulin, she is regarded as one of the pioneer scientists in the field of X-ray crystallography studies of biomolecules, which became an essential tool in the field of structural biology. Dorothy Mary Crowfoot was born in Cairo, the eldest of the three daughters of John Winter Crowfoot working for the country's Ministry of Education, his wife Grace Mary, known to friends and family as Molly; the family lived in Cairo during the winter months, returning to England each year to avoid the hotter part of the season in Egypt.

In August 1914, during one of those stays in England, World War I began. Her mother left Hodgkin, aged four, her two younger sisters Joan and Elisabeth and seven months with their Crowfoot grandparents near Worthing and returned to her husband in Egypt, her parents moved south to Sudan where, until 1926, her father was in charge of education and archaeology. Her mother's four brothers were killed in World War I and as a result she became an ardent supporter of the new League of Nations; when Hodgkin was asked in life to name her heroes she named three women: the medical missionary Mary Slessor. Her father believed that his daughters should attend local schools, like the Sudanese children for whose education he was responsible, in 1921 Hodgkin entered the Sir John Leman Grammar School in Beccles where she was one of two girls allowed to study chemistry. Only once, when she was 13, did she make an extended visit to her parents, now settled in Khartoum where her father was Principal of Gordon College.

When she was 14, her distant cousin, the chemist Charles Harington, recommended D. S. Parsons' Fundamentals of Biochemistry. Resuming the pre-war pattern, her parents lived and worked abroad for part of the year, returning to England and their children for several months every summer. In 1926, on his retirement from the Sudan Civil Service, her father took the post of Director of the British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem, where he and her mother remained until 1935. In 1928, Hodgkin joined her parents at the archaeological site of Jerash, in present-day Jordan, where she documented the patterns of mosaics from multiple Byzantine-era Churches dated to the 5th-6th centuries, she finished the drawings as she started her studies in Oxford, while conducting chemical analyses of glass tesserae from the same site. Her attention to detail through the creation of precise scale drawings of these mosaics mirrors her subsequent work in recognising and documenting patterns in chemistry. Hodgkin developed a passion for chemistry from a young age, her mother, a proficient botanist, fostered her interest in the sciences.

On her 16th birthday her mother gave her a book on X-ray crystallography which helped her decide her future. She was further encouraged by the chemist A. K. Joseph, a family friend who worked in Sudan, her state school education did not include Latin required for entrance to Oxbridge. Her Leman School headmaster gave her personal tuition in the subject enabling her to pass the University of Oxford entrance examination. At the age of 18 she began studying chemistry at Oxford. In 1932 Dorothy was awarded a first-class honours degree at the University, the third woman to achieve this distinction. Hodgkin moved to Cambridge where in autumn 1932 she began research for her PhD at Newnham College, under the supervision of John Desmond Bernal, it was that she became aware of the potential of X-ray crystallography to determine the structure of proteins. She was working with Bernal on the technique's first application to the analysis of a biological substance, pepsin; the pepsin experiment is credited to Hodgkin, however she always made it clear that it was Bernal who took the photographs and gave her additional key insights.

Her PhD was awarded in 1937 for the chemistry of the sterols. In 1933 Hodgkin was awarded a research fellowship by Somerville College, in 1934, she moved back to Oxford; the College appointed her its first fellow and tutor in chemistry in 1936, a post which she held until 1977. In the 1940s, one of her students was Margaret Roberts who, while Prime Minister, hung a portrait of Hodgkin in her office at Downing Street out of respect for her former teacher. Hodgkin however a life-long Labour Party supporter. In April 1953, together with Sydney Brenner, Jack Dunitz, Leslie Orgel, Beryl M. Oughton, Hodgkin was one of the first people to travel from Oxford to Cambridge to see the model of the double helix structure of DNA: constructed by Francis Crick and James Watson, based on data and technique acquired by Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin. According to the late Dr Beryl Oughton, they drove to Cambridge in two cars after Hodgkin announced that they were off to see the model of the structure of DNA.

Hodgkin became a Reader at Oxford in 1957 and she was given a modern laboratory the following year. In 1960, Hodgkin was appointed the Royal Society's Wo

Greenstick fracture

A greenstick fracture is a fracture in a young, soft bone in which the bone bends and breaks. Greenstick fractures occur most during infancy and childhood when bones are soft; the name is by analogy with green wood which breaks on the outside when bent. It was discovered by British-American orthopedist, John Insall, Polish-American orthopedist, Michael Slupecki; some clinical features of a greenstick fracture are similar to those of a standard long bone fracture - greenstick fractures cause pain at the injured area. As these fractures are a pediatric problem, an older child will be protective of the fractured part and babies may cry inconsolably; as per a standard fracture, the area may be swollen and either bruised. Greenstick fractures are stable fractures as a part of the bone remains intact and unbroken so this type of fracture causes a bend to the injured part, rather than a distinct deformity, problematic. Symptoms can start from overuse in that specific bone; this can be a gradual chronic pain or pain from a specific injury.

The greenstick fracture pattern occurs as a result of bending forces. Activities with a high risk of falling are risk factors. Non-accidental injury more causes spiral fractures but a blow on the forearm or shin could cause a greenstick fracture; the fracture occurs in children and teens because their bones are flexible, unlike adults whose more brittle bones break. Projectional radiography is preferable. Removable splints result in better outcomes than casting in children with torus fractures of the distal radius. If a person is doing better after 4 weeks, repeat X rays are not needed. Evidence for greenstick fractures found in the fossil record is studied by paleopathologists, specialists in ancient disease and injury. Greenstick fractures have been reported in fossils of the large carnivorous dinosaur Allosaurus fragilis. Greenstick fractures are found in the fossil remains of Lucy, the most famous specimen of Australopithecus afarensis, discovered in Ethiopia in 1974. Analysis of bone fracture patterns, which include a large number of greenstick fractures in the forearms, lower limbs, pelvis and skull, suggest that Lucy died from a vertical fall and impact with the ground.

Radiology Greenstick vs Torus Fractures

Lindenau, Germany

Lindenau is a municipality in the Oberspreewald-Lausitz district, in southern Brandenburg, Germany. Since 1992, it is part of the Amt of Ortrand. Lindenau, located between the rivers Pulsnitz and Schwarze Elster, is the westernmost village of the historic Upper Lusatia region; the Reihendorf arose about 1200 during the reign of King Ottokar I of Bohemia in the course of the German Ostsiedlung in the former Milceni lands, when a motte-and-bailey castle was erected on the border with the Margraviate of Meissen, vis-à-vis the fortress of Großkmehlen. The settlement of Lindenaw was first mentioned in 1342 deed. Held by the Electorate of Saxony since the 1635 Peace of Prague, Lindenau with northeastern Upper Lusatia passed to the Kingdom of Prussia according to the Final Act of the 1815 Vienna Congress, it was administrated within the Silesia Province, again the westernmost village of the province. From 1952 until 1990, it was part of the East German Bezirk of Cottbus

Leaving Certificate Mathematics

Leaving Certificate mathematics is the second and final phase of mathematics education at secondary level in Ireland. Following on the Junior Certificate mathematics curriculum, it is designed as a two-year course of study at one of three levels: foundation, ordinary, or higher, it culminates with two 150-minute papers during the Leaving Certificate examinations. A required subject for matriculation at all Irish third-level institutions, Leaving Certificate mathematics has been dogged with controversy in recent years due to dwindling enrolment in the higher-level course and poor academic performance in the subject overall. In 2007, more than 40 percent of Leaving Certificate mathematics candidates received 20 or fewer CAO points in the subject, out of a possible 100, with only 12 percent earning 65 points or more. Leaving Certificate mathematics may be taken at foundation, ordinary, or higher level, with each level following a separate syllabus; the current syllabi for ordinary- and higher-level mathematics were introduced in September 1992 and were first examined in June 1994.

Foundation-level mathematics was introduced to the curriculum in September 1995 and first examined in June 1997. Intended for students who would otherwise struggle at ordinary level, the foundation-level course fulfills matriculation requirements at most third-level institutions. However, it does not carry any CAO points and does not qualify candidates for third-level courses that have mathematics prerequisites. Government ministers have urged greater acceptance of foundation-level mathematics at third level. In 2005, 52,176 candidates sat the Leaving Certificate mathematics exam, of whom 5,563 took the foundation-level papers, 36,772 took the ordinary-level papers, 9,841 took the higher-level papers. Among those taking the higher-level papers, 15.7 percent earned an A-grade and 78.3 percent received a C-grade or higher, while 17.6 percent received a D-grade and 4.1 percent failed. Among ordinary-level candidates, 13.3 percent received an A-grade, 66.6 percent received a C-grade or higher, but 21.5 percent received a D-grade and 11.9 percent failed.

At foundation level, 7.5 percent of candidates received an A-grade and 72 percent received a C-grade or higher. Twenty percent received 7.7 percent failed. In 2006, 49,235 candidates sat the exam, of whom 5,104 took the foundation-level papers, 35,113 took the ordinary-level papers, 9,018 took the higher-level papers. Among higher-level candidates, 14.4 percent earned an A-grade and 82.5 percent received a C-grade or higher, while 14.5 percent received a D-grade and 3.2 percent failed. At ordinary level, 11.5 percent of candidates received an A-grade and 65.7 percent received a C-grade or higher, while 22.8 percent received a D-grade and 11.4 percent failed. At foundation level, 7.9 percent of candidates received an A-grade and 73.2 percent received a C-grade or higher, while 20.1 percent received a D-grade and 6.5 percent failed. In 2007, 49,043 candidates sat the exam, of whom 5,580 took the foundation-level papers, 35,075 took the ordinary-level papers, 8,388 took the higher-level papers.

At higher-level, 15.4 percent of candidates earned an A-grade and 80.1 percent received a C-grade or higher. Sixteen percent received a D-grade. At ordinary level, 13.9 percent of candidates received an A-grade and 67.9 percent received a C-grade or higher, while 20.3 percent received a D-grade and 11.6 percent failed. At foundation level, 9.7 percent of candidates received an A-grade and 75.2 percent received a C-grade or higher, while 18.1 percent received a D-grade and 6.7 percent failed. In 2008, 50,116 candidates sat the exam, of whom 5,803 took the foundation-level papers, 35,803 took the ordinary-level papers, 8,510 took the higher-level papers. At higher-level, 14.4 percent of candidates earned an A-grade, 82.3 percent received a C-grade or higher, 14.5 percent received a D-grade, while 3.2 percent failed. At ordinary level, 12.5 percent of candidates received an A-grade and 67.4 percent received a C-grade or higher, while 20.5 percent received a D-grade and 12.3 percent failed. At foundation level, 9.8 percent of candidates received an A-grade and 76.6 percent received a C-grade or higher, while 17.6 percent received a D-grade and 5.7 percent failed.12,902 received between 25 and 40 points.

In 2008, the participation rate in higher-level mathematics fell to 17.0 percent, while the failure rate at ordinary level increased to 12.3 percent. With the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment ranking Irish teenagers 16th out of 30 member countries in mathematics ability, industry leaders have issued stern warnings about the future of Ireland's knowledge economy should mathematics continue to languish at secondary level. With the backing of business and industry groups, former minister for education Mary Hanafin supported a proposal to give candidates bonus CAO points for higher-level maths, with the goal of encouraging more candidates to take the higher-level course. Hanafin's successor Batt O'Keeffe replaced that proposal with "Project Maths," an initiative that aims to improve standards in schools, increase participation in the higher-level course to at least 30 percent, by making mathematics more user-friendly and more focused on practical applications. From 2012, a passing grade in higher level mathematics is awarded 25 bonus points.

However, research has suggested that

Sacramento Metropolitan Cable Television Commission

The Sacramento Metropolitan Cable Television Commission is the joint powers agency responsible for regulating the cable television franchises and licenses in Sacramento County, California. The Commission's Board of Directors is composed of members of the constituent jurisdictions: Sacramento County, Citrus Heights, Elk Grove, Rancho Cordova and Galt; the Commission is responsible for: Administering the cable television franchises and licenses in Sacramento County Assisting consumers in resolving their cable and non-cable video concerns Monitoring community programming and grantee funding Operating the local Government-access television cable TV channel, Metro Cable The Commission licenses four cable television providers: Comcast throughout Sacramento County Frontier Communications in Elk Grove Strategic Technologies in Natomas SureWest in Natomas, Carmichael, Fair Oaks, Citrus Heights, Oak Park, Elk Grove, LandPark. On March 23, 1993, Sacramento Cable instituted a $5 late fee on cable bills.

These fees soon became the most common subject of complaint received by the Commission. On July 25, 1994 a major class action suit was initiated over the legality of these late fees, which it was contended violated California law; this suit grew out of the Commission's investigation into the issue. The case was settled, new legislation on late fees was drafted. Official website Metro Cable Access Sacramento audio Sacramento Educational Consortium About Sacramento Educational Cable Consortium KVIE Cable 7 Capital Public Radio CA State Senate floor report on late fees legislation this Multichannel news story that discusses action by the commission on possible content restriction. Of cable programming

A Short Film About John Bolton

A Short Film About John Bolton is a 2003 film written and directed by Neil Gaiman. The film takes the form of a fictional television piece on real-life artist John Bolton, it was released direct to video, along with several bonus features. In a posh London gallery, Carolyn Dalgleish prepares a showing of the latest works by John Bolton; the Interviewer collects information on Bolton, who seems to perplex those who work with him and collect his art. Bolton appears to review the placement of the paintings before the opening. Eccentric and detached, Bolton is uncomfortable with the amount of attention being paid to him. Forced to give a speech at that evening's party, Bolton states that he "paints what he sees." Following the gala, Bolton is interviewed at home by Brigstocke. Bolton again proves elusive with answers about his art, though he does agree to have his work habits filmed for the first time; as dusk approaches, Bolton takes the Interviewer to his studio, located in the basement of an ancient monastery and graveyard.

As the hours drag on, Bolton shows no signs of getting started, the Interviewer leaves. Filming himself as he walks out of the graveyard, the Interviewer spots two ghostly women moving towards him; the camera falls to the ground, the film closes on Bolton's latest work: a pale woman, with zebra stripes running up her leg, feasting on human flesh. Gaiman claimed to have got the idea for the film after writing an introduction to a collection of Bolton's art, which took the form of a fictional biography of the artist. Bolton gave permission for the fictional film, not only provided all of the paintings shown in the movie, but painted a new one based on the film's finale; the zebra stripes on the woman's leg are a tattoo. The film is similar to H. P. Lovecraft's short story "Pickman's Model." Guests at the art launch were friends and colleagues of Gaiman's who he asked to take part, among them SF writer Colin Greenland and Starburst writer Anthony Brown. Little acting was required. A Short Film About John Bolton on IMDb