Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world, it holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer. The press mission is "to further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education and research at the highest international levels of excellence". Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries, its publishing includes academic journals, reference works and English language teaching and learning publications. Cambridge University Press is a charitable enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press.
It originated from letters patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed. Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses. Authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, Stephen Hawking. University printing began in Cambridge when the first practising University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house on the site of what became the Senate House lawn – a few yards from where the press's bookshop now stands. In those days, the Stationers' Company in London jealously guarded its monopoly of printing, which explains the delay between the date of the university's letters patent and the printing of the first book. In 1591, Thomas's successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, an octavo edition of the popular Geneva Bible; the London Stationers objected strenuously. The university's response was to point out the provision in its charter to print "all manner of books".
Thus began the press's tradition of publishing the Bible, a tradition that has endured for over four centuries, beginning with the Geneva Bible, continuing with the Authorized Version, the Revised Version, the New English Bible and the Revised English Bible. The restrictions and compromises forced upon Cambridge by the dispute with the London Stationers did not come to an end until the scholar Richard Bentley was given the power to set up a'new-style press' in 1696. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and presse" and James Halman, Registrary of the University, lent £100 for the same purpose, it was in Bentley's time, in 1698, that a body of senior scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the press's affairs. The Press Syndicate's publishing committee still meets and its role still includes the review and approval of the press's planned output. John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century.
Baskerville's concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design and printing techniques. Baskerville wrote, "The importance of the work demands all my attention. Caxton would have found nothing to surprise him if he had walked into the press's printing house in the eighteenth century: all the type was still being set by hand. A technological breakthrough was badly needed, it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates; this involved making a mould of the whole surface of a page of type and casting plates from that mould. The press was the first to use this technique, in 1805 produced the technically successful and much-reprinted Cambridge Stereotype Bible. By the 1850s the press was using steam-powered machine presses, employing two to three hundred people, occupying several buildings in the Silver Street and Mill Lane area, including the one that the press still occupies, the Pitt Building, built for the press and in honour of William Pitt the Younger.
Under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks. During Clay's administration, the press undertook a sizeable co-publishing venture with Oxford: the Revised Version of the Bible, begun in 1870 and completed in 1885, it was in this period as well that the Syndics of the press turned down what became the Oxford English Dictionary—a proposal for, brought to Cambridge by James Murray before he turned to Oxford. The appointment of R. T. Wright as Secretary of the Press Syndicate in 1892 marked the beginning of the press's development as a modern publishing business with a defined editorial policy and administrative structure, it was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories. The Cambridge Modern History was published
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron system, as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, for classifying and studying ancient societies. An ancient civilization is defined to be in the Bronze Age either by producing bronze by smelting its own copper and alloying with tin, arsenic, or other metals, or by trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere. Bronze itself is harder and more durable than other metals available at the time, allowing Bronze Age civilizations to gain a technological advantage. Copper-tin ores are rare, as reflected in the fact that there were no tin bronzes in Western Asia before trading in bronze began in the third millennium BC. Worldwide, the Bronze Age followed the Neolithic period, with the Chalcolithic serving as a transition. Although the Iron Age followed the Bronze Age, in some areas, the Iron Age intruded directly on the Neolithic.
Bronze Age cultures differed in their development of the first writing. According to archaeological evidence, cultures in Mesopotamia and Egypt developed the earliest viable writing systems; the overall period is characterized by widespread use of bronze, though the place and time of the introduction and development of bronze technology were not universally synchronous. Human-made tin bronze technology requires set production techniques. Tin must be mined and smelted separately added to molten copper to make bronze alloy; the Bronze Age was a time of developing trade networks. A 2013 report suggests that the earliest tin-alloy bronze dates to the mid-5th millennium BC in a Vinča culture site in Pločnik, although this culture is not conventionally considered part of the Bronze Age; the dating of the foil has been disputed. Western Asia and the Near East was the first region to enter the Bronze Age, which began with the rise of the Mesopotamian civilization of Sumer in the mid 4th millennium BC.
Cultures in the ancient Near East practiced intensive year-round agriculture, developed a writing system, invented the potter's wheel, created a centralized government, written law codes and nation states and empires, embarked on advanced architectural projects, introduced social stratification and civil administration and practiced organized warfare and religion. Societies in the region laid the foundations for astronomy and astrology. Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details The Ancient Near East Bronze Age can be divided as following: The Hittite Empire was established in Hattusa in northern Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite Kingdom was at its height, encompassing central Anatolia, southwestern Syria as far as Ugarit, upper Mesopotamia. After 1180 BC, amid general turmoil in the Levant conjectured to have been associated with the sudden arrival of the Sea Peoples, the kingdom disintegrated into several independent "Neo-Hittite" city-states, some of which survived until as late as the 8th century BC.
Arzawa in Western Anatolia during the second half of the second millennium BC extended along southern Anatolia in a belt that reaches from near the Turkish Lakes Region to the Aegean coast. Arzawa was the western neighbor – sometimes a rival and sometimes a vassal – of the Middle and New Hittite Kingdoms; the Assuwa league was a confederation of states in western Anatolia, defeated by the Hittites under an earlier Tudhaliya I, around 1400 BC. Arzawa has been associated with the much more obscure Assuwa located to its north, it bordered it, may be an alternative term for it. In Ancient Egypt the Bronze Age begins in the Protodynastic period, c. 3150 BC. The archaic early Bronze Age of Egypt, known as the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt follows the unification of Lower and Upper Egypt, c. 3100 BC. It is taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from the Protodynastic Period of Egypt until about 2686 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom. With the First Dynasty, the capital moved from Abydos to Memphis with a unified Egypt ruled by an Egyptian god-king.
Abydos remained the major holy land in the south. The hallmarks of ancient Egyptian civilization, such as art and many aspects of religion, took shape during the Early Dynastic period. Memphis in the Early Bronze Age was the largest city of the time; the Old Kingdom of the regional Bronze Age is the name given to the period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement – the first of three "Kingdom" periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley. The First Intermediate Period of Egypt described as a "dark period" in ancient Egyptian history, spanned about 100 years after the end of the Old Kingdom from about 2181 to 2055 BC. Little monumental evidence survives from this period from the early part of it; the First Intermediate Period was a dynamic time when the rule of Egypt was divided between two competing power bases: Heracleopolis in Lower Egypt and Thebes in Upper Egypt. These two kingdoms would come into conflict, with the Theban kings conquering the north, resulting in the reunification of Egypt under a single ruler during the second part of the 11th Dynasty.
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt laste
Cropmarks or crop marks are a means through which sub-surface archaeological and recent features may be visible from the air or a vantage point on higher ground or a temporary platform. Along with parch marks, soil marks and frost marks can reveal buried archaeological sites not visible from the ground. Crop marks appear due to the principle of differential growth. One of the factors controlling the growth of vegetation is the condition of the soil. A buried stone wall, for example, will affect crop growth above it, as its presence channels water away from its area and occupies the space of the more fertile soil. Conversely, a buried ditch, with a fill containing more organic matter than the natural earth, provides much more conducive conditions and water will collect there, nourishing the plants growing above; the differences in conditions will cause some plants to grow more and therefore taller, others less and therefore shorter. Some species will react through differential ripening of their fruits or their overall colour.
Effective crops that exhibit differential growth include cereal crops and potatoes. Differential growth will follow any features buried below. Although the growth differences may appear small close up, from the air the pattern they make is more visible, as the small changes can be seen as marked differences in tone or colour in the context of the growing surrounding vegetation; when the sun is low to the horizon, shadows cast by the taller crops can become visible. By their nature crop marks are visible only seasonally and may not be visible at all except in exceptionally wet or dry years. Droughts can be useful to cropmark hunters, as the differential growth can become apparent in hardy species such as grass; the drought of 2010 produced good conditions for observing crop marks in the UK. Pre-parching stress in crops and grass, others factors that may affect plant health, can be captured in near infra-red photography. An alternative approach is thermal imaging, where differential water loss can create temperature differences, which result in thermal crop marks that are visible at any time during crop growth.
Thermal imaging can reveal archaeological residues as a result of thermal inertia or differential evaporation. The interaction of the processes involved can be complex and the prediction of optimal imaging time, for a given site, further complicated by environmental conditions including temperature variation and relative humidity; the usefulness of cropmarks to archaeologists has been a fruit of inspection from aircraft, but the possibility was suggested by Rev. Gilbert White in The Natural History of Selborne, in a note appended to his Letter VI, to Thomas Pennant, apropos of local people's success in searching for bog oak for house construction, by discovering these trees "by the hoar frost, which lay longer over the space where they were concealed, than on the surrounding morass." To White it suggested the query "might not such observations be reduced to domestic use, by promoting the discovery of old obliterated drains and wells about houses. Examples of archaeological sites where cropmarks have been observed are Balbridie and Fetteresso in Scotland.
In 2009, investigation of crop marks near Stonehenge revealed a variety of 6,000-year-old prehistoric subterranean structures. Another example is the rediscovery of the Roman city Altinum, a precursor to the city of Venice, from a combination of visible and near-infrared photos of the area taken during a drought in 2007, which stressed the maize and soy crops; the multi period site at Mucking was discovered as a result of aerial photographs showing cropmarks and soil marks. The earliest photographs to reveal the site were taken by the Luftwaffe in 1943; the importance of the site was recognised following photographs taken by Kenneth Joseph in 1959. In 1982, Margaret Jones noted, she pointed out that some features do not produce crop marks and that some crop marks, when excavated, turn out not to be what they seem. Archaeological field survey Aerial archaeology Shadow marks Wilson, D. R. 2000 Air photo interpretation for archaeologists, London. Agache, R. 1963. Détection des fossés comblés. Bulletin de la société préhistorique française, 1963, vol.
60, n°9-10, p. 642-647 Lasaponara R. N. Masini. 2007. Detection of archaeological crop marks by using satellite QuickBird multispectral imagery. In: Journal of Archaeological Science, 34, pp. 214-221 Daily Mail article with photographs Kite Aerial Photographers - Archaeology
HarperCollins Publishers L. L. C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Penguin Random House, Simon & Schuster. The company is a subsidiary of News Corp.. The name is a combination of several publishing firm names: Harper & Row, an American publishing company acquired in 1987, together with UK publishing company William Collins, acquired in 1990; the worldwide CEO of HarperCollins is Brian Murray. HarperCollins has publishing groups in the United States, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and China; the company publishes many different imprints, both former independent publishing houses and new imprints. In 1989, Collins was bought by Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation, the publisher was combined with Harper & Row, which NewsCorp had acquired two years earlier. In addition to the simplified and merged name, the logo for HarperCollins was derived from the torch logo for Harper and Row, the fountain logo for Collins, which were combined into a stylized set of flames atop waves.
In 1999, News Corporation purchased the Hearst Book Group, consisting of William Morrow & Company and Avon Books. These imprints are now published under the rubric of HarperCollins. HarperCollins bought educational publisher Letts and Lonsdale in March 2010. In 2011, HarperCollins announced; the purchase was completed on July 11, 2012, with an announcement that Thomas Nelson would operate independently given the position it has in Christian book publishing. Both Thomas Nelson and Zondervan were organized as imprints, or "keystone publishing programs," under a new division, HarperCollins Christian Publishing. Key roles in the reorganization were awarded to former Thomas Nelson executives. In 2012, HarperCollins acquired part of the trade operations of John Son in Canada. In 2014, HarperCollins acquired Canadian romance publisher Harlequin Enterprises for C$455 million. Brian Murray, the current CEO of HarperCollins, succeeded Jane Friedman, CEO from 1997 to 2008. Notable management figures include Lisa Sharkey, current senior vice president and director of creative development and Barry Winkleman from 1989 to 1994.
In April 2012, the United States Department of Justice filed United States v. Apple Inc. naming Apple, HarperCollins, four other major publishers as defendants. The suit alleged that they conspired to fix prices for e-books, weaken Amazon.com's position in the market, in violation of antitrust law. In December 2013, a federal judge approved a settlement of the antitrust claims, in which HarperCollins and the other publishers paid into a fund that provided credits to customers who had overpaid for books due to the price-fixing, it was announced to employees and later in the day on November 5, 2012, that HarperCollins was closing its remaining two U. S. warehouses, in order to merge shipping and warehousing operations with R. R. Donnelley in Indiana; the Scranton, PA warehouse closed in September 2013 and a Nashville, TN warehouse, under the name Thomas Nelson, in the winter of 2013. Several office positions and departments continued to work for HarperCollins in Scranton, but in a new location.
The Scranton warehouse closing eliminated 200 jobs, the Nashville warehouse closing eliminated up to 500 jobs. HarperCollins closed 2 U. S. warehouses, one in Williamsport, PA in 2011 and another in Grand Rapids, MI in 2012. “We have taken a long-term, global view of our print distribution and are committed to offering the broadest possible reach for our authors," said HarperCollins Chief Executive Brian Murray, according to Publishers Weekly."We are retooling the traditional distribution model to ensure we can competitively offer the entire HarperCollins catalog to customers regardless of location.” Company officials attribute the closings and mergers to the growing demand for e-book formats and the decline in print purchasing. HarperCollins maintains the backlist of many of the books published by their many merged imprints, in addition to having picked up new authors since the merger. Authors published by Harper include Mark Twain, the Brontë sisters and William Makepeace Thackeray. Authors published by Collins include H. G. Wells and Agatha Christie.
HarperCollins acquired the publishing rights to J. R. R. Tolkien's work in 1990 when Unwin Hymen was bought; this is a list of some of the more noted books, series, published by HarperCollins and their various imprints and merged publishing houses. The Hobbit, J. R. R. Tolkien The Lord of the Rings, J. R. R. Tolkien The Art of Loving, Erich Fromm Master and Commander, Patrick O'Brian the Leaphorn and Chee books, Tony Hillerman The Silmarillion, J. R. R. Tolkien Collins English Dictionary, a major dictionary Sharpe series, Bernard Cornwell Frida: A Biography of Frida Kahlo, Hayden Herrera, adapted into the 2002 film Frida The History of Middle-earth series, J. R. R. Tolkien Weaveworld, Clive Barker the Paladin Poetry Series Of Gravity & Angels, Jane Hirshfield The
Geophysical survey is the systematic collection of geophysical data for spatial studies. Detection and analysis of the geophysical signals forms the core of Geophysical signal processing; the magnetic and gravitational fields emanating from the Earth's interior hold essential information concerning seismic activities and the internal structure. Hence and analysis of the electric and Magnetic fields is crucial; as the Electromagnetic and gravitational waves are multi-dimensional signals, all the 1-D transformation techniques can be extended for the analysis of these signals as well. Hence this article discusses multi-dimensional signal processing techniques. Geophysical surveys may use a great variety of sensing instruments, data may be collected from above or below the Earth's surface or from aerial, orbital, or marine platforms. Geophysical surveys have many applications in geology, archaeology and energy exploration and engineering. Geophysical surveys are used in industry as well as for academic research.
The sensing instruments such as gravimeter, gravitational wave sensor and magnetometers detect fluctuations in the gravitational and magnetic field. The data collected from a geophysical survey is analysed to draw meaningful conclusions out of that. Analysing the spectral density and the time-frequency localisation of any signal is important in applications such as oil exploration and seismography. There are many types of instruments used in geophysical surveys. Technologies used for geophysical surveys include: Seismic methods, such as reflection seismology, seismic refraction, seismic tomography. Seismoelectrical method Geodesy and gravity techniques, including gravimetry and gravity gradiometry. Magnetic techniques, including aeromagnetic surveys and magnetometers. Electrical techniques, including electrical resistivity tomography, induced polarization, spontaneous potential and marine control source electromagnetic or EM seabed logging. Electromagnetic methods, such as magnetotellurics, ground penetrating radar and transient/time-domain electromagnetics, surface nuclear magnetic resonance.
Borehole geophysics called well logging. Remote sensing techniques, including hyperspectral; this section deals with the principles behind measurement of geophysical waves. The magnetic and gravitational fields are important components of geo-physical signals. Hence, a brief discussion is important; this section deals with the equipment used in detecting the magnetic and gravitational waves. Magnetometers are used to measure magnetic anomalies in the earth; the sensitivity of magnetometers depends upon the requirement. For example, the variations in the geomagnetic fields can be to the order of several aT where 1aT = 10−18T. In such cases, specialized magnetometers such as the superconducting quantum interference device are used. SQUID Jim Zimmerman co-developed. However, events leading to the invention of SQUID were in fact, serendipitous. John Lambe, during his experiments on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance noticed that the electrical properties of Indium varied due to a change in the magnetic field of the order of few nT.
But, Lambe was not able to recognise the utility of SQUID. SQUIDs have the capability to detect magnetic fields of low magnitude; this is due to the virtue of the Josephson junction. Jim Zimmerman pioneered the development of SQUID by proposing a new approach to making the Josephson junctions, he made use of niobium wires and Niobium ribbons to form two Josephson junctions connected in parallel. The ribbons act as the interruptions to the superconducting current flowing through the wires; the junctions are sensitive to the magnetic fields and hence are useful in measuring fields of the order of 10^-18T. Gravitational wave sensors can detect a minute change in the gravitational fields due to the influence of heavier bodies. Large seismic waves may cause shifts in the atoms. Hence, the magnitude of seismic waves can be detected by a relative shift in the gravitational waves; the motion of any mass is affected by the gravitational field. The motion of planets is affected by the Sun's enormous gravitational field.
A heavier object will influence the motion of other objects of smaller mass in its vicinity. However, this change in the motion is small compared to the motion of heavenly bodies. Hence, special instruments are required to measure such a minute change. Atom interferometers work on the principle of diffraction; the diffraction gratings are nano fabricated materials with a separation of a quarter wavelength of light. When a beam of atoms pass through a diffraction grating, due the inherent wave nature of atoms, they split and form interference fringes on the screen. An atom interferometer is sensitive to the changes in the positions of atoms; as heavier objects shifts the position of the atoms nearby, displacement of the atoms can be measured by detecting a shift in the interference fringes. This section addresses the methods and mathematical techniques behind signal recognition and signal analysis, it considers the time frequency domain analysis of signals. This section discusses various transforms and their usefulness in the analysis of multi-dimensional waves.
The first step in any signal processing approach is analog to digital conversion. The geophysical signals in the analog domain has to be converted to digital domain for further processing; as the name suggests, the gravitational and electromagnetic waves in the analog domain are detected and stored for further analysis. The signals can be sampl
Long barrows known as chambered tombs, were a style of monument constructed across Western Europe in the fifth and fourth millennia BCE, during the Early Neolithic period. Constructed from earth and either timber or stone, those using the latter material represent the oldest widespread tradition of stone construction in the world; the long barrows consist of an earthen tumulus, or "barrow", sometimes with a timber or stone chamber in one end. These monuments contained human remains interred within their chambers, as a result, are interpreted as tombs, although there are some examples where this appears not to have happened; the choice of whether to use timber or stone may have had more to do with the availability of local materials than any cultural differences. The earliest examples developed in Iberia and western France during the mid-fifth millennium BCE; the tradition spread northwards, into the British Isles and the Low Countries and Southern Scandinavia. Each area developed its own regional variations of the long barrow tradition exhibiting their own architectural innovations.
The purpose and meaning of such barrows remains an issue of debate among archaeologists. One argument is that they are religious sites erected as part of a system of ancestor veneration or as a religion spread by missionaries or settlers. An alternative explanation views them in economic terms, as territorial markers delineating the areas controlled by different communities as they transitioned toward farming. Around 40,000 chambered long barrows survive today. Many have been excavated by archaeologists. Given their dispersal across Western Europe, long barrows have been given different names in the various different languages of this region; the term "barrow" is a southern English dialect word for an earthen tumulus, was adopted as a scholarly term for such monuments by the 17th century English antiquarian John Aubrey. Synonyms found in other parts of Britain included low in Cheshire and Derbyshire, tump in Gloucestershire and Hereford, howe in Northern England and Scotland, cairn in Scotland.
Another term to have achieved international usage has been "dolmen", a Breton word meaning "table-stone". The historian Ronald Hutton suggested that such sites could be termed "tomb-shrines" to reflect the fact that they appear to have been used both to house the remains of the dead and to have been used in ritualised activities; the decision as to whether a long barrow used wood or stone appears to have been based on the availability of resources. Some of the long barrows contained stone-lined chambers within them. Early 20th century archaeologists began to call these monuments chambered tombs; the archaeologists Roy and Lesley Adkins referred to these monuments as megalithic long barrows. In most cases, local stone was used; the style of the chamber falls into two categories. One form, known as grottes sepulchrales artificielles in French archaeology, are dug into the earth; the second form, more widespread, are known as cryptes dolmeniques in French archaeology and involved the chamber being erected above ground.
Many chambered long barrows contained side chambers within them producing a cruciform shape. Others had no such side alcoves; the term earthen long barrow was coined by the British archaeologist Stuart Piggott. These long barrows might have used timber; the construction of long barrows in the Early Neolithic would have required the co-operation of a number of different individuals and would have represented an important investment in time and resources. Many were restyled over their long period of use. Ascertaining at what date a chambered long barrow was constructed is difficult for archaeologists as a result of the various modifications that were made to the monument during the Early Neolithic. Both modifications and damage can make it difficult to determine the nature of the original long barrow design. Enviro-archaeological studies have demonstrated that many of the long barrows were erected in wooded landscapes. In Britain, these chambered long barrows are located on prominent hills and slopes, in particular being located above rivers and inlets and overlooking valleys.
In Britain, long barrows were often constructed near to causewayed enclosures, a form of earthen monument. Across Europe, about 40,000 long barrows are known to survive from the Early Neolithic, they are found across much of Western Europe. The long barrows are not the world's oldest known structures using stone—they are predated by Göbekli Tepe in modern Turkey—but they do represent the oldest widespread tradition of using stone in construction; the archaeologist Frances Lynch has described them as "the oldest built structures in Europe" to survive. Although found across this large area, they can be subdivided into clear regionalised traditions based on architectural differences. Excavation has revealed that some of the long barrows in the area of modern Spain and western France were erected in the mid-fifth millennium BCE, making these older than those long barrows further north. Although the general area in which the oldest long barrows were built is therefore known, archaeologists do not know where the tradition started nor which long barrows are the first ones to have been built.
It therefore appears that the architectural tradition developed in this southern area of Western Europe before spreading north
Ackling Dyke is a section of Roman road in England which runs for 22 miles southwest from Old Sarum to the hill fort at Badbury Rings. Part of the road on Oakley Down has been scheduled as an ancient monument. Much of the road exists as an exceptionally large embankment, 6 ft high; this is much wider than most Roman roads. This would have been visible from a great distance and must have been intended to impress the native population, as it was unnecessary from an engineering viewpoint, it provided a rapid transit route for soldiers across Cranborne Chase. In addition, in places the road cuts straight through prehistoric earthworks and barrows, showing the Roman attitude to the existing British social structure as well as proving to early antiquaries that barrows preceded the Roman period. At Bokerley Junction it cuts through both Bokerley Dyke and Grim's Ditch before being overlaid by a turnpike, now the A354. Three miles further west at Wyke Down it cuts through the Dorset Cursus. A series of watchtower sites have been identified along the route.
After leaving the Salisbury suburbs, the route crosses open country throughout, nowhere comes close to any settlement. Apart from a one-mile section of the main Salisbury–Blandford road which follows its course, the road can be followed along minor lanes and tracks. At Old Sarum the road connected with the Port Way to London. Part of the road is on the Heritage at Risk Register because of the potential damage from arable ploughing. Roman roads in Britain