In fluid dynamics, wind waves, or wind-generated waves, are surface waves that occur on the free surface of bodies of water. They result from the wind blowing over an area of fluid surface. Waves in the oceans can travel thousands of miles before reaching land. Wind waves on Earth range in size to waves over 100 ft high; when directly generated and affected by local waters, a wind wave system is called a wind sea. After the wind ceases to blow, wind waves are called swells. More a swell consists of wind-generated waves that are not affected by the local wind at that time, they have been generated some time ago. Wind waves in the ocean are called ocean surface waves. Wind waves have a certain amount of randomness: subsequent waves differ in height and shape with limited predictability, they can be described as a stochastic process, in combination with the physics governing their generation, growth and decay—as well as governing the interdependence between flow quantities such as: the water surface movements, flow velocities and water pressure.
The key statistics of wind waves in evolving sea states can be predicted with wind wave models. Although waves are considered in the water seas of Earth, the hydrocarbon seas of Titan may have wind-driven waves; the great majority of large breakers seen at a beach result from distant winds. Five factors influence the formation of the flow structures in wind waves: Wind speed or strength relative to wave speed—the wind must be moving faster than the wave crest for energy transfer The uninterrupted distance of open water over which the wind blows without significant change in direction Width of area affected by fetch Wind duration — the time for which the wind has blown over the water. Water depthAll of these factors work together to determine the size of the water waves and the structure of the flow within them; the main dimensions associated with waves are: Wave height Wave length Wave period Wave propagation directionA developed sea has the maximum wave size theoretically possible for a wind of a specific strength and fetch.
Further exposure to that specific wind could only cause a dissipation of energy due to the breaking of wave tops and formation of "whitecaps". Waves in a given area have a range of heights. For weather reporting and for scientific analysis of wind wave statistics, their characteristic height over a period of time is expressed as significant wave height; this figure represents an average height of the highest one-third of the waves in a given time period, or in a specific wave or storm system. The significant wave height is the value a "trained observer" would estimate from visual observation of a sea state. Given the variability of wave height, the largest individual waves are to be somewhat less than twice the reported significant wave height for a particular day or storm. Wave formation on an flat water surface by wind is started by a random distribution of normal pressure of turbulent wind flow over the water; this pressure fluctuation produces normal and tangential stresses in the surface water, which generates waves.
It is assumed that: The water is at rest. The water is not viscous; the water is irrotational. There is a random distribution of normal pressure to the water surface from the turbulent wind. Correlations between air and water motions are neglected; the second mechanism involves wind shear forces on the water surface. John W. Miles suggested a surface wave generation mechanism, initiated by turbulent wind shear flows based on the inviscid Orr-Sommerfeld equation in 1957, he found the energy transfer from wind to water surface is proportional to the curvature of the velocity profile of the wind at the point where the mean wind speed is equal to the wave speed. Since the wind speed profile is logarithmic to the water surface, the curvature has a negative sign at this point; this relation shows the wind flow transferring its kinetic energy to the water surface at their interface. Assumptions: two-dimensional parallel shear flow incompressible, inviscid water and wind irrotational water slope of the displacement of the water surface is smallGenerally these wave formation mechanisms occur together on the water surface and produce developed waves.
For example, if we assume a flat sea surface, a sudden wind flow blows across the sea surface, the physical wave generation process follows the sequence: Turbulent wind forms random pressure fluctuations at the sea surface. Ripples with wavelengths in the order of a few centimetres are generated by the pressure fluctuations; the winds keep acting on the rippled sea surface causing the waves to become larger. As the waves grow, the pressure differences get larger causing the growth rate to increase; the shear instability expedites the wave growth exponentially. The interactions between the waves on the surface generate longer waves and the interaction will transfer wave energy from the shorter waves generated by the Miles mechanism to the waves which have lower frequencies than the frequency at the peak wave magnitudes finally the waves will be faster than the cross wind speed. Three different types of wind waves develop over time: Capillary waves
The Fog Warning
The Fog Warning is one of several paintings on marine subjects by the late-19th-century American painter Winslow Homer. Together with The Herring Net and Breezing Up, painted the same year and depicting the hard lives of fishermen in Maine, it is considered among his best works on such topics. After making his reputation with paintings on themes related to the Civil War, in the late 1860s and through the 1870s Winslow Homer turned instead to painting people relaxing and at play: children, young women, genre paintings of farm and sea scenes. In 1881–82 he spent time in Cullercoats, in northeast England, on his return to the US, settled for good in Prout's Neck, where his father and brother had purchased a large amount of land, his brother had spent his honeymoon in Prout's Neck in 1875, Winslow had visited him then. In both these locations he returned to painting the sea with more serious themes, the hard and dangerous lives of the fishermen and their families, "humankind’s life-and-death struggles against the sea and the elemental power of nature" throughout the rest of his career.
He had a studio built for him in Prout's Neck, completed in 1884. Here he painted The Fog Warning, one of his three best paintings he completed there in 1885 depicting the lives of the local fishermen; these are considered among his best. Many of his late paintings, like The Fog Warning, depict a single figure at sea. Another theme in many of his paintings of the fisherman's life was the bounty of the sea, which provides the people's livelihood; the painting depicts a lone fisherman in a dory who has caught several halibut but now sees fog blowing up, threatening to cut him off as he rows back to his ship. His face is turned in profile to the viewer as he looks over his shoulder at the streamers of fog in the background; the Boston Fine Art Museum gives this description: The Fog Warning is a painting with a narrative, though its tale is disturbing rather than charming. As indicated by the halibut in his dory, the fisherman in this picture has been successful, but the hardest task of the day, the return to the main ship, is still ahead of him.
He turns to look at the horizon, measuring the distance to the mother ship, to safety. The seas are choppy and the dory rocks high on the waves, making it clear that the journey home will require considerable physical effort, but more threatening is the approaching fog bank, whose streamers echo mock, the fisherman's profile. The scene is psychologically tense; the picture has been used in elementary-school education to teach about interpretation of art and fishermen's lives. Several studies for the painting survive, among them a more intimate, less monumental version called Halibut Fishing. Homer's handyman Henry Lee posed for the painting in a dory supported on a pile of sand. In addition to Herring Nets and Breezing Up, which share the focus on Maine fishermen, Homer's Lost on the Grand Banks and After the Hurricane, Bahamas 1899 depict tragedy at sea: the former another fisherman in mortal danger at sea, the latter one thrown up on shore dead. In contrast, in Summer Night the sea is raging in the background while in the middle ground people silhouetted against the waves watch, but in the foreground two girls are dancing, unconcerned.
Other marine paintings by Winslow Homer Cooper, Helen A. Winslow Homer Watercolors, p. 16. Yale University Press, 1986. Nicolai Cikovsky, Jr. Winslow Homer, Harry N. Abrams, New York, 1990, pp. 11–13, ISBN 0-8109-1193-0 Elizabeth Johns, Winslow Homer: The Nature of Observation, University of California Press, Berkeley, 2002, p. 9, ISBN 0-520-22725-5 Randall C. Griffin, Winslow Homer: An American Vision. Phaidon Press, New York, 2006, ISBN 0-7148-3992-2 Paul Raymond Provost, Winslow Homer's The Fog Warning: The Fisherman as Heroic Character, Kennedy Galleries, 1990 Media related to The Fog Warning at Wikimedia Commons Video from Smarthistory about The Fog Warning
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s
Shelburne, Nova Scotia
Shelburne is a town located in southwestern Nova Scotia, Canada. It is home to the Bowers Meadows Wilderness Area. Early European settlers had small subsistence farms, but most of the inhabitants' income from that time to the present have been derived from the sea. Shelburne lies at the southwest corner of Nova Scotia, at the same latitude as Portland, Maine in the United States; the Mi ` kmaq called Sogumkeagum. The first Europeans to make a settlement on these shores were the French Acadians, they set up a small fishing settlement known as Port Razoir in the late 17th century, named after the harbour's resemblance to an open razor. The Acadian fishing settlement was abandoned after repeated raids from English colonists from New England during Queen Anne's War in 1705, in which five Acadians were taken prisoner, 1708. On May 14, 1715, New England naval commander Cyprian Southack attempted to create a permanent fishing station at a place he named "Cape Roseway". Shortly after he set up a base, in July 1715 the Mi'kmaq raided the station and burned it to the ground.
In response, Southack led a raid on Canso, Nova Scotia and encouraged Governor Phillips to fortify Canso. New England fishermen knew Shelburne as "Port Roseway" and used the outer harbour for seasonal shelter and repairs. Pirate Ned Low raided the New England fishing fleet at Shelburne Harbour in 1723, capturing 13 ships and taking Philip Ashton captive. After the English conducted the Acadian Expulsion in 1755, there were no settlers for several decades. Alexander McNutt was not successful. In the spring of 1783, more than 5,000 settlers arrived on the shores of Shelburne Harbour from New York and the Middle Colonies of the Thirteen Colonies; these settlers were Loyalists, British-American colonists who had opposed the Revolution and remained loyal to Britain. The Crown offered them free land and provisions as compensation to lure them to settle in this undeveloped area. Four hundred families associated to form a town at Port Roseway, which Governor Parr renamed Shelburne that year, after Lord Shelburne, the British prime minister.
This group was led by the Port Roseway Associates, who had formed while still in New York and petitioned Governor Parr for the land. The Black Loyalists, a large group of African-American slaves who escaped from rebels to British lines and were promised freedom, were evacuated and transported by British forces to Shelburne Harbour at the same time, they founded Birchtown next to Shelburne. It developed as North America's largest free Black settlement. But, the Black Loyalists had to endure long waits before receiving land, were granted less than the whites, faced discrimination from other colonists, including some who had taken their slaves with them to Canada. In July 1784 whites conducted the Shelburne Riots against the African Americans. In the fall of 1783, a second wave of settlers arrived in Shelburne; the community was settled by Loyalists soldiers of the Duke of Cumberland's Regiment. By 1784, the population of this new community is estimated to have been 17,000, making it the fourth-largest city in North America.
But, initial hopes were short-lived. These problems curtailed its economic growth; the population fell by the 1790s, leaving many abandoned buildings. However, the remaining residents developed the harbour potential as a fishing and shipbuilding centre. In 1792 more than 1,000 Black Loyalists accepted a British offer to resettle in Freetown, a newly founded British colony in West Africa, they became the core of an ethnic group that became known as Krios, which included numerous Black Poor of London, former slaves resettled from Jamaica, slaves liberated from illegal trading ships after Britain and the United States prohibited the Atlantic slave trade. Shipbuilding is a significant industry; the first vessel launched at Shelburne was the 181-ton Roseway, built for MacLean and Bogle in 1786. Commissary Island, now a peninsula, was the area from which supplies of flour and salt were dispensed to the Loyalists by the Commissary General, Mr. Brinley; this area became the shipyard of Joseph McGill. The Cox family built their own ships and conducted extensive international trade.
The former MacKay shipyard was located in Shelburne at Black's Brook. Donald McKay, famous in the United States for the clippers which he built at Boston, began his shipbuilding career in Shelburne, he was born at Jordan Falls in 1810, left the area at the age of 16 to apprentice in New York. Led by master shipbuilders such as Amos Pentz and James Havelock Harding, Shelburne shipyards built many fishing schooners in the banks fishing era, as well as a notable research yacht inspired by fishing schooners, the schooner Blue Dolphin in 1926. In May 1945, following Germany's surrender, U-889 surrendered to the RCN at Nova Scotia. Many of Shelburne's buildings date back to Loyalist times; the Shelburne County Museum is a restored home built in 1787 by a cooper from Scotland. The present-day Christ Church is on the site of the original building of the same name, designed by Loyalist Isaac Hildreth and consecrated by Bishop Charles Inglis in 1790; the original structure was destroyed by fire in 1971.
Tottie's Store is thought to have been built by John Tottie about the year 1800. In 1787, government distr
A boat is a watercraft of a large range of type and size. Ships are distinguished from boats based on their larger size and cargo or passenger capacity, their ability to carry boats. Small boats are found on inland waterways such as rivers and lakes, or in protected coastal areas. However, some boats, such as the whaleboat, were intended for use in an offshore environment. In modern naval terms, a boat is a vessel small enough to be carried aboard a ship. Anomalous definitions exist, as bulk freighters 1,000 feet long on the Great Lakes being known as oreboats. Boats vary in proportion and construction methods due to their intended purpose, available materials, or local traditions. Canoes have been used since prehistoric times and remain in use throughout the world for transportation and sport. Fishing boats vary in style to match local conditions. Pleasure craft used in recreational boating include ski boats, pontoon boats, sailboats. House boats may be used for long-term residence. Lighters are used to convey cargo to and from large ships unable to get close to shore.
Lifeboats have safety functions. Boats can be propelled by manpower and motor. Boats have served as transportation since the earliest times. Circumstantial evidence, such as the early settlement of Australia over 40,000 years ago, findings in Crete dated 130,000 years ago, in Flores dated to 900,000 years ago, suggest that boats have been used since prehistoric times; the earliest boats are thought to have been dugouts, the oldest boats found by archaeological excavation date from around 7,000–10,000 years ago. The oldest recovered boat in the world, the Pesse canoe, found in the Netherlands, is a dugout made from the hollowed tree trunk of a Pinus sylvestris, constructed somewhere between 8200 and 7600 BC; this canoe is exhibited in the Drents Museum in Netherlands. Other old dugout boats have been recovered. Rafts have operated for at least 8,000 years. A 7,000-year-old seagoing reed. Boats were used between 4000 and 3000 BC in the Indian Ocean. Boats played an important role in the commerce between the Indus Valley Civilization and Mesopotamia.
Evidence of varying models of boats has been discovered at various Indus Valley archaeological sites. Uru craft originate in Beypore, a village in south Calicut, Kerala, in southwestern India; this type of mammoth wooden ship was constructed of teak, with a transport capacity of 400 tonnes. The ancient Arabs and Greeks used such boats as trading vessels; the historians Herodotus, Pliny the Elder and Strabo record the use of boats for commerce and military purposes. Boats can be categorized into three main types: human-powered. Unpowered craft include rafts meant for one-way downstream travel. Human-powered boats include canoes, kayaks and boats propelled by poles like a punt. Sailboats, propelled by means of sails. Motorboats, propelled by mechanical means, such as engines; the hull is the main, in some cases only, structural component of a boat. It provides both buoyancy; the keel is a boat's "backbone", a lengthwise structural member to which the perpendicular frames are fixed. On most boats a deck covers the hull, in whole.
While a ship has several decks, a boat is unlikely to have more than one. Above the deck are lifelines connected to stanchions, bulwarks topped by gunnels, or some combination of the two. A cabin may protrude above the deck forward, along the centerline, or covering much of the length of the boat. Vertical structures dividing the internal spaces are known as bulkheads; the forward end of a boat is called the aft end the stern. Facing forward the right side is referred to as starboard and the left side as port; until the mid-19th century most boats were made of natural materials wood, although reed and animal skins were used. Early boats include the bound-reed style of boat seen in Ancient Egypt, the birch bark canoe, the animal hide-covered kayak and coracle and the dugout canoe made from a single log. By the mid-19th century, many boats had been built with iron or steel frames but still planked in wood. In 1855 ferro-cement boat construction was patented by the French, who coined the name "ferciment".
This is a system by which a steel or iron wire framework is built in the shape of a boat's hull and covered over with cement. Reinforced with bulkheads and other internal structure it is strong but heavy repaired, and, if sealed properly, will not leak or corrode; these materials and methods were copied all over the world and have faded in and out of popularity to the present time. As the forests of Britain and Europe continued to be over-harvested to supply the keels of larger wooden boats, the Bessemer process cheapened the cost of steel, steel ships and boats began to be more common. By the 1930s boats built of steel from frames to plating were seen replacing wooden boats in many industrial uses and fishing fleets. Private recreational boats of steel remain uncommon. In 1895 WH Mullins produced steel boats of galvanized iron and by 1930 became the world's largest producer of pleasure boats. Mullins offered boats in aluminum from 1895 through 1899 and once again in the 1920s, but it wasn't until the mid-20th century that aluminium gained widespread popularity.
Though much more expensive than steel, aluminum alloys exist that do not corrode in salt water, allowing a similar load carrying capacity to steel at much less weight. Around the mid-1960s, boats made of fiberglass became pop
Boston Harbor is a natural harbor and estuary of Massachusetts Bay, is located adjacent to the city of Boston, Massachusetts. It is home to the Port of Boston, a major shipping facility in the northeastern United States. Since its discovery to Europeans by John Smith in 1614, Boston Harbor has been an important port in American history, it was the site of the Boston Tea Party as well as continuous building of waves, piers, a new filled land into the harbor until the 19th century. By 1660 all imports came to the greater Boston area and the New England coast through the waters of Boston Harbor. A rapid influx of people transformed Boston into a booming city; the health of the harbor deteriorated as the population of Boston increased. As early as the late 19th century Boston citizens were advised not to swim in any portion of the Harbor. In the 19th century, two of the first steam sewage stations were built. With these mandates, the harbor was seeing small improvements, but raw sewage was still continuously pumped into the harbor.
In 1919, the Metropolitan District Commission was created to oversee and regulate the quality of harbor water. However, not much improvement was seen and general public awareness of the poor quality of water was low. In 1972 the Clean Water Act was passed in order to help promote increased national water quality. Boston did not receive a clean water act waiver from the Environmental Protection Agency, leaving Boston with little incentive to increase water quality of the harbor. Since the mid-1970s organizations within the Boston community have battled for a cleaner Boston Harbor. More the harbor was the site of the $4.5 billion Boston Harbor Project. Failures at the Nut Island sewage treatment plant in Quincy and the companion Deer Island plant adjacent to Winthrop had far-reaching environmental and political effects. Fecal coliform bacteria levels forced frequent swimming prohibitions along the harbor beaches and the Charles River for many years; the city of Quincy sued the Metropolitan District Commission and the separate Boston Water and Sewer Commission in 1982, charging that unchecked systemic pollution of the city’s waterfront contributed to the problem.
That suit was followed by one by the Conservation Law Foundation and by the United States government, resulting in the landmark court-ordered cleanup of Boston Harbor. The lawsuits forced then-Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis to propose separating the water and sewer treatment divisions from the MDC, resulting in the creation of the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority in 1985; the slow progress of the cleanup became a key theme of the 1988 U. S. presidential election as George H. W. Bush defeated Dukakis through campaign speeches casting doubt on the governor’s environmental record, which Dukakis himself had claimed was better than that of Bush; the court-ordered cleanup is still ongoing. Before the clean-up projects, the water was so polluted that The Standells released a song in 1965 called "Dirty Water" which referred to the sorry state of the Charles River. Neal Stephenson, who attended Boston University from 1977 to 1981, based his second novel, around pollution of the harbor. Since the writing of the song, the water quality in both the Harbor and the Charles River has improved, the projects have transformed Boston Harbor from one of the filthiest in the nation to one of the cleanest.
Today, Boston Harbor is safe for fishing and for swimming nearly every day, though there are still beach closings after small rainstorms, caused by bacteria-laden storm water and the occasional combined sewer overflow. Boston Harbor is a large harbor; the harbor is sheltered from Massachusetts Bay and the open Atlantic Ocean by a combination of the Winthrop Peninsula and Deer Island to the north, the hooked Nantasket Peninsula and Point Allerton to the south, the harbor islands in the middle. The harbor is described as being split into an inner harbor and an outer harbor; the harbor itself comprises fifty square miles with 180 miles of 34 harbor islands. The inner harbor was the main port of Boston and is still the site of most of its port facilities as well as the Boston waterfront, redeveloped for residential and recreational uses; the inner harbor extends from the mouths of the Charles River and the Mystic River, both of which empty into the harbor, to Logan International Airport and Castle Island, where the inner harbor meets the outer harbor.
The outer harbor stretches to east of the inner harbor. To its landward side, moving in a counterclockwise direction, the harbor is made up of the three small bays of Dorchester Bay, Quincy Bay and Hingham Bay. To seaward, the two deep water anchorages of President Roads and Nantasket Roads are separated by Long Island; the outer harbor is fed by several rivers, including the Neponset River, the Weymouth Fore River, the Weymouth Back River and the Weir River. Dredged deepwater channels stretch from President Roads to the inner harbor, from Nantasket Roads to the Weymouth Fore River and Hingham Bay via Hull Gut and West Gut; some commercial port facilities are located in the Fore River area, an area which has a history of shipbuilding including the notable Fore River Shipyard. In the 1830s members of the maritime community observed physical decay in the harbor. Islands in the outer harbor were visibly deteriorating and erosion was causing weathered materials and sediment to move from where it was protecting the harbor to where it would do the most harm.
Recent shoaling experiences and comparisons with old charts caused observers to