Saab Automobile AB /ˈsɑːb/ was a manufacturer of automobiles that was founded in Sweden in 1945 when its parent company, SAAB AB, began a project to design a small automobile. The first production model, the Saab 92, was launched in 1949, in 1968 the parent company merged with Scania-Vabis, and ten years the Saab 900 was launched, in time becoming Saabs best-selling model. In the mid-1980s the new Saab 9000 model appeared, in 1989, the automobile division of Saab-Scania was restructured into an independent company, Saab Automobile AB. In 2010 GM sold Saab Automobile AB to the Dutch automobile manufacturer Spyker Cars N. V, on 13 June 2012, it was announced that a newly formed company called National Electric Vehicle Sweden had bought Saab Automobiles bankrupt estate. According to Saab United, the first NEVS Saab 9-3 drove off its line on 19 September 2013. NEVS lost its license to manufacture automobiles under the Saab name in the summer of 2014, Saab AB, Svenska Aeroplan Aktiebolaget, a Swedish aerospace and defence company, was created in 1937 in Linköping.
The company had established in 1937 for the express purpose of building aircraft for the Swedish Air Force to protect the countrys neutrality as Europe moved closer to World War II. As the war drew towards a close and the market for fighter planes seemed to weaken, an automobile design project was started in 1945 with the internal name X9248. The design project became known as Project 92, the 92 being next in production sequence after the Saab 91. In 1948, a site in Trollhättan was converted to allow automobile assembly and the project moved there, along with the car manufacturing headquarters. The company made four prototypes named Ursaab or original Saab, numbered 92001 through to 92004, before designing the production model, the Saab 92 went into production in December 1949, selling 20,000 cars through the mid-1950s. The 92 was thoroughly redesigned and re-engineered in 1955, and was renamed the Saab 93, the cars engine gained a cylinder, going from two to three and its front fascia became the first to sport the first incarnation of Saabs trademark trapezoidal radiator grill.
A wagon variant, the Saab 95, was added in 1959, the decade saw Saabs first performance car, the Saab 94, the first of the Saab Sonetts. 1960 saw the major revision to the 92s platform in the Saab 96. The 96 was an important model for Saab, it was the first Saab to be exported out of Sweden. It proved very popular, selling nearly 550,000 examples, even more important to the companys fortunes was 1968s Saab 99. The 99 was the first all-new Saab in 19 years, and unlike its predecessors, the 99 had many innovations and features that would come to define Saabs for decades, wraparound windscreen, self-repairing bumpers, headlamp washers and side-impact door beams. The design by Sixten Sason was no less revolutionary than the underlying technology, in 1969, Saab AB merged with the Swedish commercial vehicle manufacturer Scania-Vabis AB to form Saab-Scania AB, under the Wallenberg family umbrella
Pontiac was a brand of automobile manufactured and sold by General Motors between 1926 and 2010. Introduced as a make for GMs more expensive line of Oakland automobiles, Pontiac overtook Oakland in popularity. Sold in the United States and Mexico by GM, the last Pontiac badged cars were built in December 2009, with one final vehicle in January,2010. Franchise agreements for Pontiac dealers expired October 31,2010, leaving GM to focus on its four remaining North American brands, Buick, and GMC. The Pontiac brand was introduced by General Motors in 1926 as the marque to GMs Oakland division. It was named after the famous Ottawa chief who had given his name to the city of Pontiac. Within months of its introduction, Pontiac was outselling Oakland, which was essentially a 1920s Chevrolet with a six-cylinder engine installed. Body styles offered included a sedan with two and four doors, Landau Coupe, with the Sport Phaeton, Sport Landau Sedan, Sport Cabriolet. As a result of Pontiacs rising sales, versus Oaklands declining sales, Pontiac became the companion marque to survive its parent.
It was manufactured from knock-down kits at GMs short-lived Japanese factory at Osaka Assembly in Osaka, Japan from 1927-1941. Pontiac produced cars offering 40 hp 186.7 cu in L-head straight 6-cylinder engines in the Pontiac Chief of 1927, the Chief sold 39,000 units within six months of its appearance at the 1926 New York Auto Salon, hitting 76,742 at twelve months. The next year, it became the six in the U. S. ranking seventh in overall sales. By 1933, it had moved up to producing the least expensive cars available with straight eight-cylinder engines, in the late 1930s, Pontiac used the so-called torpedo body of the Buick for one of its models, just prior to its being used by Chevrolet. This body style brought some attention to the marque, an unusual feature of the torpedo body exhibition car, was that with push of a button the front half of the car body would open showing the engine and the cars front seat interior. In 1937, the eight-cylinder had a 122-inch wheelbase, while the six-cylinder had a 117-inch wheelbase, for an extended period of time—prewar through the early 1950s—the Pontiac was a quiet, solid car, but not especially powerful.
It came with a straight eight. Straight 8s were slightly less expensive to produce than the increasingly popular V8s, the long crankshaft suffered from excessive flex, restricting straight 8s to a relatively low compression ratio with a modest redline. However, in application, inexpensive flatheads were not a liability
The Accord nameplate has been applied to a variety of vehicles worldwide, including coupes, hatchbacks and a crossover. In 1982, the Accord became the first car from a Japanese manufacturer to be produced in the United States when production commenced in Marysville, numerous road tests and present, rate the Accord as one of the worlds most reliable vehicles. The Accord has been on the Car and Driver 10Best list a record 30 times and it debuted in 1976 as a compact hatchback, though this style only lasted through 1981, as the line-up was expanded to include a sedan, coupé, and wagon. For the eighth generation of the Accord released for the North America market in 2007, Honda had again chosen to move the model further up-scale and increase its size. The Civic utilized Hondas CVCC technology, used in the Accord, to help Honda meet emission standards of the 1970s, buoyed by their success with the Civic, Honda turned their sights to developing a larger companion model. For the new model, Honda chose the name Accord, reflecting Hondas desire for accord, soichiro Honda was the owner of a 1969 Pontiac Firebird, to which the Accords predecessor, the Honda 1300, bore a striking frontal resemblance.
A December 1975 issue of Motor Trend Magazine had a drawing of a new Honda automobile which was similar in shape to the Volkswagen Scirocco, in 1989, the Accord was the first vehicle sold under an import brand to become the best-selling vehicle in the United States. The first generation Honda Accord was launched on 7 May 1976 as a hatchback with 68 hp, a 93. 7-inch wheelbase. Japanese market cars claimed 80 PS JIS, while European and other markets received a model without emissions control equipment, it claimed 80 PS as well. It was an expansion of the earlier Honda Civic at 4,125 mm long. To comply with recently enacted emission regulations enacted in Japan, the engine was fitted with Hondas CVCC technology, the Accord sold well due to its moderate size and great fuel economy. It was one of the first Japanese sedans with features like cloth seats, a tachometer, intermittent wipers, in 1978 an LX version of the hatchback was added which came with air conditioning, a digital clock, and power steering.
Until the Accord, and the closely related Prelude, power steering had not been available to cars under two litres, Japanese buyers were liable for slightly more annual road tax over the smaller Civic, which had a smaller engine. On 14 October 1977, a sedan was added to the lineup. In 1980 the optional two-speed semi-automatic transmission of previous years became a fully automatic gearbox. The North American versions had slightly redesigned bumper trim, other changes included new grilles and taillamps and remote mirrors added on the four-door and the LX models. The CVCC badges were deleted, but the CVCC induction system remained, in North America, the 1981 model year only brought detail changes such as new fabrics and some new color combinations. Nivorno Beige was replaced by Oslo Ivory, Dark brown was discontinued, as was the bronze metallic
A brake is a mechanical device that inhibits motion by absorbing energy from a moving system. It is used for slowing or stopping a vehicle, axle, or to prevent its motion. Most brakes commonly use friction between two surfaces pressed together to convert the energy of the moving object into heat, though other methods of energy conversion may be employed. For example, regenerative braking converts much of the energy to electrical energy, other methods convert kinetic energy into potential energy in such stored forms as pressurized air or pressurized oil. Eddy current brakes use magnetic fields to convert energy into electric current in the brake disc, fin, or rail. Still other braking methods even transform kinetic energy into different forms, Brakes are generally applied to rotating axles or wheels, but may take other forms such as the surface of a moving fluid. In practice, fast vehicles usually have significant air drag, almost all wheeled vehicles have a brake of some sort. Even baggage carts and shopping carts may have them for use on a moving ramp, most fixed-wing aircraft are fitted with wheel brakes on the undercarriage.
Some aircraft feature air brakes designed to reduce their speed in flight, notable examples include gliders and some World War II-era aircraft, primarily some fighter aircraft and many dive bombers of the era. These allow the aircraft to maintain a speed in a steep descent. The Saab B17 dive bomber and Vought F4U Corsair fighter used the deployed undercarriage as an air brake, Friction brakes on automobiles store braking heat in the drum brake or disc brake while braking conduct it to the air gradually. When traveling downhill some vehicles can use their engines to brake, when the brake pedal of a modern vehicle with hydraulic brakes is pushed against the master cylinder, ultimately a piston pushes the brake pad against the brake disc which slows the wheel down. On the brake drum it is similar as the cylinder pushes the brake shoes against the drum which slows the wheel down, Brakes may be broadly described as using friction, pumping, or electromagnetics. Typically the term brake is used to mean pad/shoe brakes and excludes hydrodynamic brakes.
Friction brakes are often rotating devices with a pad and a rotating wear surface. Other brake configurations are used, but less often, a drum brake is a vehicle brake in which the friction is caused by a set of brake shoes that press against the inner surface of a rotating drum. The drum is connected to the rotating roadwheel hub, drum brakes generally can be found on older car and truck models. However, because of their low production cost, drum brake setups are installed on the rear of some low-cost newer vehicles, compared to modern disc brakes, drum brakes wear out faster due to their tendency to overheat
Rover 600 Series
The Rover 600 Series is a large family car range that was produced by the British manufacturer Rover from 1993 to 1999. The Rover 600 exterior was designed by Rover, a re-skin of the European Honda Accord, the core structure and vast majority of the engineering content was sourced from Honda but the vehicles were designed at the same time, with a small Rover team on-site in Japan. Colour and trim derivatives were used to help separate the Rover from the Honda in the marketplace. The 1.8,2.0 and 2. 3-litre straight-4 petrol engines were all provided by Honda. However, the 2. 0-litre turbodiesel Rover L-Series engine and turbocharged T-Series engines were developed by Rover itself, the 600s interior included wood and chrome trim, as well as relatively high equipment levels, although rear legroom was criticised as rather constrained. The interior was similar to the Japanese-built Honda Ascot Innova, except with a few cosmetic changes, carpet was not evident along the bottom trim of the dashboard, although it did feature there on the Innova.
The Honda-derived chassis was reported to give a comfortable but unsporting ride, unlike the Montego, there was never an estate version of the 600 Series, with no direct replacement being launched for the estate version of the Montego when it was discontinued at the end of 1994. Production ceased continued until early 1999, when it was replaced with the retro-styled Rover 75 developed under BMWs stewardship, the 75 replaced the larger 800 Series. The 600 had been a car in the compact executive sector. With the exception of the T-Series 620ti, all engines were sourced from Honda. The K-Series engine was not used in the 600, the 600 was available in a number of different trims. All models had power-assisted steering, electric front windows, remote central locking with alarm and immobiliser, the Si had split rear seats, Si Auto and above got a sunroof. SLi trim added electric rear windows and wooden trim, GSi models received 15 multispoke alloys. From 1994 all cars had a drivers airbag, the 623iS had half leather trim and a small lip spoiler on its boot.
The ti featured a set of 16 six spoke alloys with uprated suspension, Torsen gearbox, run out models included, 618iL 618iS 620iSD 620iLD S and SD models had the appearance of the 620ti, with the same six spoke 16 alloy wheels and half leather trim. L and LD models had seven spoke 15 alloy wheels and full leather trim resembling the GSi models, the range was revised/mildly facelifted twice. At this time the T series changed ignition system from Distributor to wasted spark, Klinger head gasket, LSD and the steering was changed to Rovers Positive Centre Feel system. UK cars which featured these revisions were all badged as 600 only, the final revisions came in 1997, just over a year later, and all cars got slightly lowered suspension and body-coloured sills, rubbing strips, door handles and door mirror covers
Mercedes-Benz is a global automobile manufacturer and a division of the German company Daimler AG. The brand is known for vehicles, coaches. The headquarters is in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, the slogan for the brand is the best or nothing and Mercedes-Benz was one of the top growing brands in 2014 with 18% growth. The Mercedes automobile was first marketed in 1901 by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft, emil Jellinek, an Austrian automobile entrepreneur who worked with DMG created the trademark in 1902, naming the 1901 Mercedes 35 hp after his daughter Mercedes Jellinek. The first Mercedes-Benz brand name vehicles were produced in 1926, following the merger of Karl Benzs, on 28 June 1926, Mercedes Benz was formed with the merger of Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimlers two companies. Gottlieb Daimler was born on 17 March 1834 in Schorndorf, after training as a gunsmith and working in France, he attended the Polytechnic School in Stuttgart from 1857 to 1859. After completing various activities in France and England, he started work as a draftsman in Geislingen in 1862.
At the end of 1863, he was appointed inspector in a machine tool factory in Reutlingen. Throughout the 1930s, Mercedes-Benz produced the 770 model, a car that was popular during Germanys Nazi period, Adolf Hitler was known to have driven these cars during his time in power, with bulletproof windshields. Most of the models have been sold at auctions to private buyers. One of them is currently on display at the War Museum in Ottawa, the pontiffs Popemobile has often been sourced from Mercedes-Benz. In 1944,46,000 forced laborers were used in Daimler-Benzs factories to bolster Nazi war efforts, the company paid $12 million in reparations to the laborers families. Mercedes-Benz has introduced many technological and safety innovations that became common in other vehicles. Mercedes-Benz is one of the best-known and established automotive brands in the world, for information relating to the famous three-pointed star, see under the title Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft including the merger into Daimler-Benz.
As part of the Daimler AG company, the Mercedes-Benz Cars division includes Mercedes-Benz, mercedes-AMG became a majority owned division of Mercedes-Benz in 1999. The company was integrated into DaimlerChrysler in 1999, and became Mercedes-Benz AMG beginning on 1 January 1999, Daimlers ultra-luxury brand Maybach was under Mercedes-Benz cars division until 2013, when the production stopped due to poor sales volumes. It now exists under the Mercedes-Maybach name, with the models being ultra-luxury versions of Mercedes cars, Daimler coorporates with BYD Auto to make and sell a battery-electric car called Denza in China. In 2016, Daimler announced plans to sell Mercedes-Benz branded all-electric battery cars in China, beside its native Germany, Mercedes-Benz vehicles are manufactured or assembled in, Since its inception, Mercedes-Benz had maintained a reputation for its quality and durability
A shock absorber is a mechanical or hydraulic device designed to absorb and damp shock impulses. It does this by converting the energy of the shock into another form of energy which is dissipated. Most shock absorbers are a form of dashpot and hydraulic shock absorbers are used in conjunction with cushions and springs. An automobile shock absorber contains spring-loaded check valves and orifices to control the flow of oil through an internal piston, one design consideration, when designing or choosing a shock absorber, is where that energy will go. In most shock absorbers, energy is converted to heat inside the viscous fluid, in hydraulic cylinders, the hydraulic fluid heats up, while in air cylinders, the hot air is usually exhausted to the atmosphere. In other types of shock absorbers, such as electromagnetic types, in general terms, shock absorbers help cushion vehicles on uneven roads. In a vehicle, shock absorbers reduce the effect of traveling over rough ground, leading to improved ride quality, while shock absorbers serve the purpose of limiting excessive suspension movement, their intended sole purpose is to damp spring oscillations.
Shock absorbers use valving of oil and gasses to absorb energy from the springs. Spring rates are chosen by the based on the weight of the vehicle. Some people use shocks to modify spring rates but this is not the correct use, along with hysteresis in the tire itself, they damp the energy stored in the motion of the unsprung weight up and down. Effective wheel bounce damping may require tuning shocks to an optimal resistance, spring-based shock absorbers commonly use coil springs or leaf springs, though torsion bars are used in torsional shocks as well. Ideal springs alone, are not shock absorbers, as only store. Vehicles typically employ both hydraulic shock absorbers and springs or torsion bars, in this combination, shock absorber refers specifically to the hydraulic piston that absorbs and dissipates vibration. Now, composite suspension system are used mainly in 2 wheelers, in common with carriages and railway locomotives, most early motor vehicles used leaf springs. However the amount of damping provided by leaf spring friction was limited and variable according to the conditions of the springs and it operated in both directions.
Motorcycle front suspension adopted coil sprung Druid forks from about 1906, and similar designs added rotary friction dampers and these friction disk shock absorbers were fitted to many cars. One of the problems with motor cars was the variation in sprung weight between lightly loaded and fully loaded, especially for the rear springs. What was called for was damping that operated on the rebound, horock came up with a design in 1901 that had hydraulic damping, it worked in one direction only
Kinematics as a field of study is often referred to as the geometry of motion and as such may be seen as a branch of mathematics. The study of the influence of forces acting on masses falls within the purview of kinetics, for further details, see analytical dynamics. Kinematics is used in astrophysics to describe the motion of celestial bodies, in mechanical engineering and biomechanics kinematics is used to describe the motion of systems composed of joined parts such as an engine, a robotic arm or the human skeleton. Kinematic analysis is the process of measuring the quantities used to describe motion. In addition, kinematics applies geometry to the study of the mechanical advantage of a mechanical system or mechanism. The term kinematic is the English version of A. M, ampères cinématique, which he constructed from the Greek κίνημα kinema, itself derived from κινεῖν kinein. Kinematic and cinématique are related to the French word cinéma, particle kinematics is the study of the trajectory of a particle.
The position of a particle is defined to be the vector from the origin of a coordinate frame to the particle. If the tower is 50 m high, the vector to the top of the tower is r=. In the most general case, a coordinate system is used to define the position of a particle. However, if the particle is constrained to move in a surface, all observations in physics are incomplete without those observations being described with respect to a reference frame. The position vector of a particle is a vector drawn from the origin of the frame to the particle. It expresses both the distance of the point from the origin and its direction from the origin, the magnitude of the position vector |P| gives the distance between the point P and the origin. | P | = x P2 + y P2 + z P2, the direction cosines of the position vector provide a quantitative measure of direction. It is important to note that the vector of a particle isnt unique. The position vector of a particle is different relative to different frames of reference.
The velocity of a particle is a quantity that describes the direction of motion. More mathematically, the rate of change of the vector of a point
Detroit is the most populous city in the U. S. state of Michigan, the fourth-largest city in the Midwest and the largest city on the United States–Canada border. It is the seat of Wayne County, the most populous county in the state, the municipality of Detroit had a 2015 estimated population of 677,116, making it the 21st-most populous city in the United States. Roughly one-half of Michigans population lives in Metro Detroit alone, the Detroit–Windsor area, a commercial link straddling the Canada–U. S. Border, has a population of about 5.7 million. Detroit is a port on the Detroit River, a strait that connects the Great Lakes system to the Saint Lawrence Seaway. The Detroit Metropolitan Airport is among the most important hubs in the United States, the City of Detroit anchors the second-largest economic region in the Midwest, behind Chicago, and the thirteenth-largest in the United States. Detroit and its neighboring Canadian city Windsor are connected through a tunnel and various bridges, Detroit was founded on July 24,1701 by the French explorer and adventurer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac and a party of settlers.
During the 19th century, it became an important industrial hub at the center of the Great Lakes region, with expansion of the American automobile industry in the early 20th century, the Detroit area emerged as a significant metropolitan region within the United States. The city became the fourth-largest in the country for a period, in the 1950s and 1960s, suburban expansion continued with construction of a regional freeway system. A great portion of Detroits public transport was abandoned in favour of becoming a city in the post-war period. Due to industrial restructuring and loss of jobs in the auto industry, between 2000 and 2010 the citys population fell by 25 percent, changing its ranking from the nations 10th-largest city to 18th. In 2010, the city had a population of 713,777 and this resulted from suburbanization, industrial restructuring and the decline of Detroits auto industry. In 2013, the state of Michigan declared an emergency for the city. Detroit has experienced urban decay as its population and jobs have shifted to its suburbs or elsewhere, conservation efforts managed to save many architectural pieces since the 2000s and allowed several large-scale revitalisations.
More recently, the population of Downtown Detroit, Midtown Detroit, paleo-Indian people inhabited areas near Detroit as early as 11,000 years ago. In the 17th century, the region was inhabited by Huron, Potawatomi, for the next hundred years, virtually no British, colonist, or French action was contemplated without consultation with, or consideration of the Iroquois likely response. When the French and Indian War evicted the Kingdom of France from Canada, the 1798 raids and resultant 1799 decisive Sullivan Expedition reopened the Ohio Country to westward emigration, which began almost immediately, and by 1800 white settlers were pouring westwards. By 1773, the population of Detroit was 1,400, by 1778, its population was up to 2,144 and it was the third-largest city in the Province of Quebec
The Honda Civic is a line of small cars manufactured by Honda. Originally a subcompact, the Civic has gone through several generational changes, the Civic coupe is still considered a compact car. The Civic currently falls between the Honda Fit and Honda Accord, the first Civic was introduced in July 1972 as a two-door model, followed by a three-door hatchback that September. With an 1169 cc transverse engine and front-wheel drive like the British Mini, production of Civic and Civic hybrid for export markets continued. After a period of developing idiosyncratic automobiles such as the lukewarmly received domestic Honda 1300, the more conventional Civics release in 1972 immediately changed things, thanks to its economy and low cost in an era of rising fuel prices. Hondas CVCC technology helped it make it affordable, meeting 1970s, the first generation Honda Civic was introduced on 11 July 1972, but sold as a 1973 model in Japan. The Civic was available as a coupe, both a three- and a hatchback, as well as a five-door station wagon.
The Civic was joined by an expansion of the three-door hatchback. The second generation Honda Civic was introduced in June 1979 as a 1980 model and it was larger, had a more angular shape, and came with increased engine power. All Civic engines now used the CVCC design, which added a 3rd valve per cylinder, the base 1335 cc engine made 55 hp, with an optional 1488 cc engine producing 67 hp. Three transmissions were offered, a manual, a five-speed manual. The second generation Civic was offered as a hatchback, a four-door sedan, a five-door hatchback. The third generation was released in September 1983 for the 1984 model year, an additional two-seat coupe style—labeled CRX—was introduced, noted for its compact dimensions and light weight. The third generation Civic saw the introduction of the long running four-cylinder D series engine including a new 1.5 L CVCC engine. 1984 saw the release of a high-performance Si model for the Japanese market, featuring upgraded suspension, Si models were offered in the US as a 3-door Civic Si hatchback and the CRX Si variant with a 91 horsepower fuel-injected SOHC 12-valve engine. A 4WD engine with different transmission mounts was introduced for the first time in 1984 and it delivered a fuel economy of around 28 mpg highway.
The 4WD system was operated until improved in 1987 when the rear wheels would engage automatically once the front wheels lost traction. This new system was called Realtime which used a viscous coupler connecting two propeller shafts between the front and rear axles, the manual transmission featured a synchronized 6th gear, called SL, or Super-Low, which was used for high torque at very low speeds
Lancia is an Italian automobile manufacturer founded in 1906 by Vincenzo Lancia as Lancia & C. It became part of the Fiat Group in 1969, the current company, the company has a strong rally heritage and is noted for using letters of the Greek alphabet for its model names. Lancia vehicles are no longer sold outside of Italy, and comprise only the Ypsilon supermini range, fabbrica Automobili was founded on 29 November 1906 in Turin by Fiat racing drivers, Vincenzo Lancia and his friend, Claudio Fogolin. The first car manufactured by Lancia was the Tipo 51 or 12 HP and it had a small four-cylinder engine with a power output of 28 hp. In 1910 Lancia components were exported to the United States where they were assembled, in 1915, Lancia manufactured its first truck, the Jota that continued as a dedicated series. In 1937, Vincenzo died of an attack and both his wife, Adele Miglietti Lancia, and his son, Gianni Lancia, took over control of the company. They persuaded Vittorio Jano to join as an engineer, Jano had already made a name for himself by designing various Alfa Romeo models, including some of its most successful race cars ever such as the 6C, P2 and P3.
Lancia is renowned in the world for introducing cars with numerous innovations. These include the Theta of 1913, which was the first European production car to feature a complete system as standard equipment. 1948 saw the first 5 speed gearbox to be fitted to a production car, Lancia premiered the first full-production V6 engine, in the 1950 Aurelia, after earlier industry-leading experiments with V8 and V12 engine configurations. It was the first manufacturer to produce a V4 engine, other innovations involved the use of independent suspension in production cars and rear transaxles, which were first fitted to the Aurelia and Flaminia range. This drive for innovation, constant quest for excellence, fixation of quality, complex construction processes, with little commonality between the various models, the cost of production continued to increase extensively, while demand did not eventually affecting Lancias viability. Gianni Lancia, an engineer was president of Lancia from 1947 to 1955. In 1956 the Pesenti family took control of Lancia with Carlo Pesenti in charge.
Fiat launched a bid in October 1969 which was accepted by Lancia as the company was losing significant sums of money. During the 1970s and 1980s, Lancia had great success in rallying, winning many World Rally Championships, during the 1980s, the company cooperated with Saab Automobile, with the Lancia Delta being sold as the Saab 600 in Sweden. The 1985 Lancia Thema shared a platform with the Saab 9000, Fiat Croma, during the 1990s, all models were closely related to other Fiat models. Starting from 1 February 2007, Fiats automotive operations were reorganised, Fiat Auto became Fiat Group Automobiles S. p. A