Douglas DC-2

The Douglas DC-2 is a 14-seat, twin-engined airliner, produced by the American company Douglas Aircraft Corporation starting in 1934. It competed with the Boeing 247. In 1935, Douglas produced a larger version called the DC-3, which became one of the most successful aircraft in history. In the early 1930s, fears about the safety of wooden aircraft structures drove the US aviation industry to develop all-metal airliners. United Airlines had exclusive right to the all metal twin-engine Boeing 247; the Douglas response was more radical. When it flew on July 1, 1933, the prototype DC-1 had a robust tapered wing, retractable landing gear, two 690 hp Wright radial engines driving variable-pitch propellers, it seated 12 passengers. TWA accepted the basic design and ordered twenty of the upgraded DC-2s which were longer, had more powerful engines, carried 14 passengers in a 66-inch-wide cabin; the design impressed further orders followed. Although Fokker had purchased a production licence from Douglas for $100,000, no manufacturing was done in Holland.

Those for European customers KLM, LOT, Swissair, CLS and LAPE purchased via Fokker in the Netherlands were built and flown by Douglas in the US, sea-shipped to Europe with wings and propellers detached erected at airfields by Fokker near the seaport of arrival. Airspeed Ltd. took a similar licence for DC-2s to be delivered in Britain and assigned the company designation Airspeed AS.23, but although a registration for one aircraft was reserved none were built. Another licence was taken by the Nakajima Aircraft Company in Japan. A total of 130 civil DC-2s were built with another 62 for the United States military. In 1935 Don Douglas stated in an article that the DC-2 cost about $80,000 per aircraft if mass-produced. Although overshadowed by its ubiquitous successor, it was the DC-2 that first showed that passenger air travel could be comfortable and reliable; as a token of this, KLM entered its first DC-2 PH-AJU Uiver in the October 1934 MacRobertson Air Race between London and Melbourne. Out of the 20 entrants, it finished second behind only the purpose-built de Havilland DH.88 racer Grosvenor House.

During the total journey time of 90 hours, 13 min, it was in the air for 81 hours, 10 min, won the handicap section of the race. It flew KLM's regular 9,000 mile route, carrying mail, making every scheduled passenger stop, turning back once to pick up a stranded passenger, became lost in a thunderstorm and stuck in the mud after a diversionary landing at Albury racecourse on the last leg of the journey. DC-2 156 civil DC-2s, variously powered by two Wright R-1820-F2 -F2A -F3 -F3A -F3B -F52 -F53 Cyclone radial piston engines varying in power from 710 to 875 hp. DC-2A Two civil DC-2s, powered by two Pratt & Whitney R-1690 Hornet SD-G, S1E-G or S2E-G radial piston engines. DC-2B Two DC-2s sold to LOT Polish Airlines, fitted with two 750 hp Bristol Pegasus VI radial piston engines. Nakajima-Douglas DC-2 Transport DC-2 transports license built in Japan by Nakajima. Airspeed AS.23 The designation reserved for proposed license-built production by Airspeed Ltd. in Great Britain. Modified DC-2s built for the United States Army Air Corps under several military designations: XC-32 One aircraft, powered by 2x 750 hp Wright R-1820-25 radial piston engines, for evaluation as a 14-seat VIP transport aircraft, one built used by General Andrews as a flying command post.

C-32A Designation for 24 commercial DC-2s impressed at the start of World War II. C-33 Cargo transport variant of the C-32 powered by 2x 750 hp Wright R-1820-25 engines, with larger vertical tail surfaces, a reinforced cabin floor and a large cargo door in the aft fuselage, 18 built. YC-34 VIP transport for the Secretary of War similar to XC-32 designated C-34, two built. C-38 The first C-33 was modified with a DC-3 style tail section and two Wright R-1820-45 radial piston engines of 975 hp each. Designated C-33A but redesignated as prototype for C-39 variant, one built. C-39 16-seat passenger variant, a composite of DC-2 & DC-3 components, with C-33 fuselage and wings and DC-3 type tail, center-section and landing gear. Powered by two 975 hp Wright R-1820-45 radial piston engines. C-41 The sole C-41 was a VIP aircraft for Air Corps Chief Oscar Westover. Although supplied against a C-39 order it was not a DC-2 derivative but in fact a DC-3-253 fitted with two 1,200 hp Pratt & Whitney R-1830-21 engines.

C-42 VIP transport variant of the C-39, powered by two 1,000 hp Wright R-1820-53 radial piston engines, of 1,000 hp each, one built in 1939 for the commanding general, GHQ Air Force, plus two similarly-converted C-39s with their cargo doors bolted shut were converted in 1943. R2D-1 710 hp Wright R-1820-12 powered transport similar to the XC-32, three built for the United States Navy and two for the United States Marine Corps. ♠ = Original operators AustraliaAustralian National Airways Holymans Airways ♠ BrazilAerovias Brasil Aerovias Minas Gerais Cruzeiro do Sul Panair do Brasil Republic of ChinaCNAC, jointly owned and operated with Pan American Airlines ColombiaSCADTA renamed as Avianca

Battle of Dai Do

The Battle of Dai Do took place from 30 April to 3 May 1968 in Quảng Trị Province during the Vietnam War. The Cửa Việt River served as a vital supply line for the 3rd Marine Division in northern Quảng Trị Province, running from the Cửa Việt Base to the Đông Hà Combat Base which in turn supported the Marine bases along the Demilitarized Zone; the Cửa Việt area was part of the Napoleon/Saline operational area with the 1st Amphibian Tractor Battalion responsible for securing the Cửa Việt Base and its vicinity. The 1st AMTRAC Battalion had operational control of a rotation of Marine infantry battalions. In late April, 4 People's Army of Vietnam Battalions, including 2 from the 320th Division, infiltrated past the Army of the Republic of Vietnam 2nd Regiment to occupy the area around Dai Do 2.5 km northeast of Đông Hà. The PAVN moved into a series of pre-built mutually supporting bunkers surrounded by barbed wire, built over the preceding weeks unnoticed by the ARVN who were responsible for security in the area.

At 03:30 on 30 April PAVN in the hamlet of An Loc fired on a United States Navy PBR, which returned fire and returned to Đông Hà Base. At 04:00 the PAVN opened fire on an LCU killing 1 sailor. At 07:00 a patrol from Company H, 2/4 Marines operating north of Dai Do was sent to investigate the area. Two platoons from Company F were ordered aboard AMTRACs to move to join Company H; as Company H advanced towards the suspected PAVN position they came under heavy machine gun and rocket fire from across a stream in the hamlet of Dong Xuan. Company H was withdrawn to await the arrival of the Company F reinforcements; the reconnaissance platoon and 2 M48s were sent as reinforcements. The Marines called in air and artillery strikes which were reported to have knocked out 3 PAVN machine guns and Company H crossed the stream 400m northwest of Dong Xuan. Company F riding on AMTRACs crossed the stream west of Company H and positioned itself to attack Dai Do. At 14:00 both companies launched their attack and by 15:00 Company H had secured Dong Xuan.

Company F's attack on Dai Do was stopped some 300m short of the hamlet, recoilless rifle fire had knocked out 2 AMTRACs, while mortar and machine gun fire had stopped the infantry advance. An attempt to reinforce Company F by landing Company G nearby was stopped when PAVN forces attacked Company G's landing zone near Lam Xuan. At 16:25 Company B 1/3 Marines aboard AMTRACs landed south of An Loc under cover of Task Force Clearwater gun boats. Company B was met by intense fire which destroyed 1 AMTRAC and disabled another Company B captured half of An Loc hamlet until its advance was brought to a halt and its commanding officer killed. 1st AMTRAC Battalion commander, Colonel Hull ordered Company F to withdraw from Dai Do and join Company H in Dong Xuan so the Marines would only have 2 perimeters to defend overnight. That night the PAVN probed the Company F/H position at Dong Xuan but were deterred by Marine artillery. Marines losses for the day were 16 dead; the 2/4 Marines commander Lieutenant colonel William Weise felt that inadequate resources were provided for the attack on Dai Do, both in terms of men and air and artillery support.

Major general Rathvon M. Tompkins the 3rd Marine Division commander could not be sure whether this was the main thrust of the May Offensive along the DMZ or a diversion for a larger attack still to come, however by the end of 30 April it was clear that the PAVN intended to either attack Đông Hà Base or move through the area and attack Quảng Trị. With limited Marine reserves available, Tompkins requested Army reinforcements from I Field Force commander Lieutenant general William B. Rosson who sent the 3rd Battalion, 21st Infantry Regiment to a landing zone north of Đông Hà on the morning of 1 May. On the morning of 1 May Company B patrols in An Loc found that the PAVN had deserted the hamlet overnight. Outside the hamlet they saw a group of 60 PAVN moving across paddyfields north of An Loc and opened fire on them in what was described as a "turkey shoot". While artillery fire continued to be directed at Dai Do, at 10:00 Company G and 2 M48s were landed by LCMs at An Loc and moved west through Company B's positions to attack Dai Do.

Company G was met by intense fire from the entrenched PAVN and had to knock out each bunker one by one reaching the north of Dai Do by 14:00 after having suffered heavy losses and both tanks being immobilized. The PAVN counterattacked from the north and west of Dai Do and from bypassed positions to the south forcing Company G to withdraw and establish a perimeter east of Dai Do. A large PAVN force, including an artillery spotter team was observed in the hamlet of Truc Kinh 3km northeast of Dai Do and airstrikes were directed on them resulting in a decline in the effectiveness of PAVN artillery fire. Company F at Dong Xuan attempted to move south to support Company G but was stopped by PAVN fire and returned to Dong Xuan. At 17:00 Company B in An Loc was ordered to move west to support Company G but was stopped by PAVN fire which injured their replacement company commander. Company B was ordered back to An Loc where it linked up with Company E which had marched south along Highway 1 and northeast across the stream.

Marine losses for the day were 24 dead while PAVN losses were 2 captured. At 05:00 on 2 May Company E attacked northeast from An Loc towards Company G's position near Dai Do in the face of heavy PAVN fire. Meanwhile Company G attacked PAVN positions in southern Dai Dao knocking out bunkers with White Phosphrous grenades, Satchel


Mountain coatis are two species of procyonid mammals from the genus Nasuella. Unlike the larger coatis from the genus Nasua, mountain coatis only weigh 1.0–1.5 kilograms and are endemic to the north Andean highlands in South America. Genetic evidence indicates that the genus Nasua is only monophyletic if it includes the mountain coatis. Based on cytochrome b sequences, Nasua nasua is the sister taxon to a clade consisting of Nasua narica plus both species of Nasuella; until only a single species with three subspecies was recognized. In 2009 this species was split into two species, the eastern mountain coati from Venezuela, the western mountain coati from Colombia and Ecuador. Externally, the two species of mountain coatis are quite similar, but the eastern mountain coati is overall smaller, somewhat shorter-tailed on average, has markedly smaller teeth, a paler olive-brown pelage, a dark mid-dorsal stripe on the back. Both are found in cloud páramo. A population discovered in southern Peru has tentatively been identified as the western mountain coati, but may represent an undescribed taxon.

They are poorly known, the "combined species" has been classified as data deficient by the IUCN. Their behavior appears to resemble that of the better-known Nasua coatis, although the mountain coatis feed less on fruit. Unlike the Nasua coatis, mountain coatis are rare in captivity. Among ISIS registered institutions, only three zoos reported that they had mountain coatis in early 2011, but at least one of these appears to be a case of misidentification. A mountain coati, confiscated from poachers is kept at Bioparque la Reserva in Cota, Colombia. ARKive. Nasuella olivacea in Ecuador. Photo by Nigel Simpson/Jocotoco Foundation