The Douglas DC-3 is a propeller-driven airliner which had a lasting effect on the airline industry in the 1930s/1940s and World War II. It was developed as a larger, improved 14-bed sleeper version of the Douglas DC-2, it is a low-wing metal monoplane with a tailwheel landing gear, powered by two 1,200 hp Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp radial piston engines. It has a cruise speed of 207 mph, capacity of 21 to 32 passengers or 6,000 lbs of cargo, a range of 1,500 mi, could operate from short runways. Before the war, it pioneered many air travel routes as it could cross the continental US and made worldwide flights possible, carried passengers in greater comfort, was reliable and easy to maintain, it is considered the first airliner. Following the war, the airliner market was flooded with surplus military transport aircraft, the DC-3 could not be upgraded by Douglas due to cost, it was made obsolete on main routes by more advanced types such as the Douglas DC-6 and Lockheed Constellation, but the design proved adaptable and useful.
Civil DC-3 production ended in 1942 at 607 aircraft. Military versions, including the C-47 Skytrain, Soviet- and Japanese-built versions, brought total production to over 16,000. Many continue to see service in a variety of niche roles: 2,000 DC-3s and military derivatives were estimated to be still flying in 2013. "DC" stands for "Douglas Commercial". The DC-3 was the culmination of a development effort that began after an inquiry from Transcontinental and Western Airlines to Donald Douglas. TWA's rival in transcontinental air service, United Airlines, was starting service with the Boeing 247 and Boeing refused to sell any 247s to other airlines until United's order for 60 aircraft had been filled. TWA asked Douglas to build an aircraft that would allow TWA to compete with United. Douglas' design, the 1933 DC-1, was promising, led to the DC-2 in 1934; the DC-2 was a success. The DC-3 resulted from a marathon telephone call from American Airlines CEO C. R. Smith to Donald Douglas, when Smith persuaded a reluctant Douglas to design a sleeper aircraft based on the DC-2 to replace American's Curtiss Condor II biplanes.
Douglas agreed to go ahead with development only after Smith informed him of American's intention to purchase twenty aircraft. The new aircraft was engineered by a team led by chief engineer Arthur E. Raymond over the next two years, the prototype DST first flew on December 17, 1935, its cabin was 92 in wide, a version with 21 seats instead of the 14–16 sleeping berths of the DST was given the designation DC-3. There was no prototype DC-3; the DC-3 and DST popularized air travel in the United States. Eastbound transcontinental flights could cross the U. S. in about 15 hours with three refueling stops. A few years earlier such a trip entailed short hops in slower and shorter-range aircraft during the day, coupled with train travel overnight. A variety of radial engines were available for the DC-3. Early-production civilian aircraft used either the nine-cylinder Wright R-1820 Cyclone 9 or the fourteen-cylinder Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp, but the Twin Wasp was chosen for most military versions and was used by most DC-3s converted from military service.
Five DC-3S Super DC-3s with Pratt & Whitney R-2000 Twin Wasps were built in the late 1940s, three of which entered airline service. Total production of all variants was 16,079. More than 400 remained in commercial service in 1998. Production was as follows: 607 civil variants of the DC-3. Production of DSTs ended in mid-1941 and civil DC-3 production ended in early 1943, although dozens of DSTs and DC-3s ordered by airlines that were produced between 1941 and 1943 were pressed into the US military service while on the production line. Military versions were produced until the end of the war in 1945. A larger, more powerful Super DC-3 was launched in 1949 to positive reviews; the civilian market was flooded with second-hand C-47s, many of which were converted to passenger and cargo versions. Only five Super DC-3s were built, three of them were delivered for commercial use; the prototype Super DC-3 served the US Navy with the designation YC-129 alongside 100 R4Ds, upgraded to the Super DC-3 specification.
From the early 1950s, some DC-3s were modified to use Rolls-Royce Dart engines, as in the Conroy Turbo Three. Other conversions featured Armstrong Siddeley Pratt & Whitney PT6A turbines; the Greenwich Aircraft Corp DC-3-TP is a conversion with an extended fuselage and with Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-65AR or PT6A-67R engines fitted. The Basler BT-67 is a conversion of the DC-3/C-47. Basler refurbishes C-47s and DC-3s at Oshkosh, fitting them with Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-67R turboprop engines, lengthening the fuselage by 40 in with a fuselage plug ahead of the wing, strengthening the airframe in selected areas. BSAS International in South Africa is another company able to perform a Pratt & Whitney PT6 turboprop conversion of DC-3s. Over 50 DC-3/C-47s / 65
Alain Bauer is a French criminologist. He was elected professor of criminology at the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers and is a senior research fellow at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice and the China University of Political Science and Law. There were many protests in the scientific community in France against the appointment because he had not received a PhD; as an elected student on the "U. N. E. F. I. D." list, a socialist organisation, he was the youngest vice president of the Sorbonne in charge of Finances and Administration, an office he held from 1982 to 1989. Afterwards, he became an advisor on national security to Prime Minister Michel Rocard from 1988 to 1990. Bauer was elected Professor of Criminology at the National Conservatory for Arts and Crafts under CNAM in Paris in 2010, he is a member of the International Association of Chiefs of Police. In 2006 and 2007, he has been appointed at the French Commission on police data control and of the French Working Group on Policing.
He worked as an advisor to the New York City Police Department, the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department and the Sûreté du Québec. He was appointed in August 2007 by President Nicolas Sarkozy to reorganise the French system on studies and research on security and strategy, focusing on the creation of a National Security Council. Bauer was an advisor for the French industrial company Lafarge between 2007 and 2014. Grand Master of the Grand Orient de France, 2000–2003 Chancellor of the International Masonic Institute since 2003 Knight of the Legion of Honour Captain of the National Order of Merit, of the National Order of Academic Palms, of the National Order of Arts and Letters Grand Cross of the Lafayette Order Violence et Insécurité urbaines l'Amérique, la violence, le crime la Guerre ne fait que commencer les Polices en France le Crime aux Etats-Unis, les Polices aux Etats-Unis Imaginer la sécurité globale Etat d'urgence, Deux siècles de débats républicains et Dico rebelle l'Enigme Al Qaïda Mercenaires et polices privées Géographie de la France criminelle les Polices au Québec Mieux contrôler les fichiers de police World Chaos, Early Detection and Proactive Security Les mystères de Channel Row Radicalization in the West L’année stratégique 2008 Le nouveau chaos mondial L’esprit des lumières est il perdu République, Républiques Pour une stratégie globale de sécurité nationale Vidéosurveillance et vidéoprotection Le 11 Septembre 100 Mots pour comprendre l’actualité
The 47th District of the Iowa Senate is located in eastern Iowa, is composed of Scott County. Roby Smith is the senator representing the 47th District; the area of the 47th District contains two Iowa House of Representatives districts: The 93rd District The 94th District The district is located in Iowa's 2nd congressional district, represented by David Loebsack. The district has been represented by: John Buren, 1965–1966 J. Henry Lucken, 1967–1970 Charles Laverty, 1971–1972 Richard Ramsey, 1973–1982 Calvin Hultman, 1983–1990 Derryl McLaren, 1991–1992 Donald Gettings, 1993–1998 David Miller, 1999–2002 Keith Kreiman, 2003–2010 Mark Chelgren, 2011–2012 Roby Smith, 2013–present