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Douglas Mawson

Sir Douglas Mawson OBE FRS FAA was an Australian geologist, Antarctic explorer, academic. Along with Roald Amundsen, Robert Falcon Scott, Sir Ernest Shackleton, he was a key expedition leader during the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration; the Mawson Station in the Australian Antarctic Territory is named in his honour. Mawson was born on 5 May 1882 to Margaret Ann Moore, he was born in Shipley, West Yorkshire, but was less than two years old when his family immigrated to Australia and settled at Rooty Hill, now in the western suburbs of Sydney. He attended Fort Street Model School and the University of Sydney, where he graduated in 1902 with a Bachelor of Engineering degree, he was appointed geologist to an expedition to the New Hebrides in 1903. That year he published a geological paper on Mittagong, New South Wales, his major influences in his geological career were Professor Edgeworth David and Professor Archibald Liversidge. He became a lecturer in petrology and mineralogy at the University of Adelaide in 1905.

He first described the mineral davidite. Mawson joined Ernest Shackleton's Nimrod Expedition to the Antarctic intending to stay for the duration of the ship's presence in the first summer. Instead both he and his mentor, Edgeworth David, stayed an extra year. In doing so they became, in the company of Alistair Mackay, the first to climb the summit of Mount Erebus and to trek to the South Magnetic Pole, which at that time was over land. Mawson turned down an invitation to join Robert Falcon Scott's Terra Nova Expedition in 1910. Mawson chose to lead his own expedition, the Australasian Antarctic Expedition, to King George V Land and Adelie Land, the sector of the Antarctic continent south of Australia, which at the time was entirely unexplored; the objectives were to carry out geographical exploration and scientific studies, including a visit to the South Magnetic Pole. Mawson raised the necessary funds in a year, from British and Australian governments, from commercial backers interested in mining and whaling.

The expedition, using the ship SY Aurora commanded by Captain John King Davis, departed from Hobart on 2 December 1911, landed at Cape Denison on Commonwealth Bay on 8 January 1912, established the Main Base. A second camp was located to the west on the ice shelf in Queen Mary Land. Cape Denison proved to be unrelentingly windy, they wintered through nearly constant blizzards. Mawson brought the first aeroplane to Antarctica; the aircraft, a Vickers R. E. P. Type Monoplane, was to be flown by Francis Howard Bickerton; when it was damaged in Australia shortly before the expedition departed, plans were changed so it was to be used only as a tractor on skis. However, the engine did not operate well in the cold, it was removed and returned to Vickers in England; the aircraft fuselage. On 1 January 2009, fragments of it were rediscovered by the Mawson's Huts Foundation, restoring the original huts. Mawson's exploration program was carried out by five parties from the Main Base and two from the Western Base.

Mawson himself was part of a three-man sledging team, the Far Eastern Party, with Xavier Mertz and Lieutenant Belgrave Ninnis, who headed east on 10 November 1912, to survey King George V Land. After five weeks of excellent progress mapping the coastline and collecting geological samples, the party was crossing the Ninnis Glacier 480 km east of the main base. Mertz was skiing and Mawson was on his sled with his weight dispersed, but Ninnis was jogging beside the second sled. Ninnis fell through a crevasse, his body weight is to have breached the snow bridge covering it; the six best dogs, most of the party's rations, their tent, other essential supplies disappeared into the massive crevasse. Mertz and Mawson spotted one dead and one injured dog on a ledge 165 ft below them, but Ninnis was never seen again. After a brief service and Mertz turned back immediately, they had plenty of fuel and a primus. They sledged for 27 hours continuously to obtain a spare tent cover they had left behind, for which they improvised a frame from skis and a theodolite.

Their lack of provisions forced them to use their remaining sled dogs to feed the other dogs and themselves: Their meat was stringy and without a vestige of fat. For a change we sometimes chopped it up finely, mixed it with a little pemmican, brought all to the boil in a large pot of water. We were exceedingly hungry. Only a few ounces were used of the stock of ordinary food, to, added a portion of dog's meat, never large, for each animal yielded so little, the major part was fed to the surviving dogs, they ate the skin, until nothing remained. There was a quick deterioration in the men's physical condition during this journey. Both men suffered dizziness. Mawson noticed a dramatic change in his travelling companion. Mertz wished only to remain in his sleeping bag, he began to deteriorate with diarrhoea and madness. On one occasion Mertz refused to believe he was suffering from frostbite and bit off the

Bhujhangy Group

Bhujhangy Group are the world's longest-running bhangra band. The group was founded in Smethwick, near Birmingham, England in 1967 by brothers Dalbir Singh Khanpur and Balbir Singh Khanpur, who had come to the United Kingdom to in the mid 1950s and been joined by their families in 1964 working as labourers in the West Midlands' factories, they were named Bhujhangy – meaning "kids" – as they were still teenagers, their first recording was "Teri Chithi Noon Parthan", a 7" EP recorded in 1967 that sold 100 copies. Bhujhangy appeared on television in 1969 as part of the celebrations of Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji Maharaj 500th birthday - and the same year approached Oriental Star Agencies with a view to making further recordings; the group had always been interested in western music as well as traditional Punjabi music, learning to play the guitar and accordion as well as the dhol and dholak. Their music incorporated wider influences including modern western rhythms and sounds from Hindi-speaking Bollywood culture.

Their early 1970 single "Bhabiye Akh Larr Gayee" was the first recording to combine traditional Asian sounds with modern western musical instruments and influences, a momentous step in the development of bhangra. Received an award from the House of Commons of the United Kingdom for Punjabi cultural and Bhangra music in 2009 and a Life Time Achievement award from Brit Asia TV Hammersmith in London 2011. Balbir Bhujhangy Appears in the Guinness Book of World Records for being the pioneer of Bhangra music in the UK since 1967 and continues to perform in 2014 and has released over 50 albums to date

Congregation Shivtei Yeshuron-Ezras Israel

Congregation Shivtei Yeshuron-Ezras Israel is an active unaffiliated synagogue located in the Pennsport neighborhood of South Philadelphia. Shivtei Yeshuron moved to its current location in 1909 and had purchased the building by 1917, it is South Philadelphia's oldest congregation. Religious services are lay led, the congregation offers cultural events and tours open to the public; the congregation first organized itself in 1876 at 322 Bainbridge Street and chartered itself in 1892 as "Shivtei Yeshurun". As the population of Jews from Eastern Europe increased in Philadelphia between 1881 and 1924, the Jewish community extended from Society Hill south to Oregon Avenue; the congregation moved to its current location at 2015 South 4th Street, near 4th Street and Snyder Avenue, in 1909. Community craftsman redesigned the interior and the synagogue became an active synagogue along with a meeting place for community beneficial societies and events. Max Karafin came to Philadelphia from Odessa in the 1920s, served as cantor, conducting services.

His wife, Baila Karafin, helped to start the Ladies Auxiliary during the 1930s' Great Depression in support of community members in need. South Philadelphia's urban Jewish community contracted in the years following World War II when many families moved to the suburbs and exurbs. Shivtei Yeshuron survived by virtue of several mergers. In 1961, Shivtei Yeshuron combined with Raim Ahuvim. In 1968, Shivtei Yeshuron welcomed the merger of Heisner, of Congregation Ezras Israel of Sixth and Cantrell Streets, to become Shivtei Yeshurun - Heisner Ezras Israel. Shivtei Yeshuron Ezras Israel subsequently absorbed the members of six other area synagogues that closed between 1970 and 1983. Rabbi Wilner led High Holiday services from the 1970s until 2005. Rabbi Yadidya Dagovitz led Sabbath services at the synagogue from the 1980s until his death in 2004, joined R. Wilner for the High Holidays; the congregation was one of two active South Philadelphia synagogues until the 2019 opening of a third. The congregation meets for Sabbath services the first Saturday of the month.

The congregation's building was built between 1886 and 1895 as a retail storefront with living quarters on the second and third floors, a horse stable at its rear-facing Moyamensing Avenue. Many members were skilled craftsmen, trained as tinsmen and electricians, they did extensive renovations when the congregation moved to the building, they built the ark on the east wall and dedicated it in 1916. They installed exterior columns on the entrance that distinguish the building from the other residential homes and corner stores along the street; the sanctuary walls and ceilings are made of tin. City maps show the building's transformation from store to synagogue took place between 1914 and 1919. In 2007, the rear wall of the old stable building collapsed, endangering the structure including the sanctuary; the city condemned the entire property and the synagogue risked losing the building if it did not reconstruct. The synagogue leadership, with critical support from local architect and historian Joel Spivak, raised funds and began to repair the building.

Then-Councilman James F. Kenney, grew up in the neighborhood and offered to help preserve the historic community site; the congregation reopened for High Holiday services in 2008 and completed the renovations in 2009. The 2007 to 2009 renovations enabled the congregation to retain its building, rebuild the synagogue as a Jewish and Philadelphia community destination; the synagogue raised funds and repaired its primary Torah scroll in 2010. The synagogue hosted a Hanukah party in December 2011, arts event, "Studio Aggada: New Ideas Lab" in January 2012 with Brooklyn's Jewish Art Now. In June 2013, Shivtei Yeshuron was a host site for the Hidden City Philadelphia Festival which highlighted its history in South Philadelphia and standing as one of the last pre-World War I synagogues; the synagogue hosted an interactive machine knitting laboratory, served as a concert space for “Radical Jewish Music: A Concert Series” featuring Masada Book Two – The Book of Angels, by composer John Zorn, screened the film Punk Jews.

Zorn's compositions were performed by Shanir Ezra Blumenkranz, Erik Friedlander, Uri Caine. The Andy Statman Trio performed in concert at Shivtei Yeshuron in March 2014. Congregation Shivtei Yeshuron marked Holocaust Remembrance Day with a talk in April 2014. Former-Pennsylvania governor Ed Rendell cited a speaking commitment at the synagogue on June 1, 2014 that prevented him from being a passenger on a private Gulfstream IV business jet that had crashed the previous night, killing all on board; the congregation welcomed its use by the wider Philadelphia community. In 2019, Dr. Sidney Grobman and Steven Sisman led the expulsion of the synagogue's LGBTQ board members and congregants; the English spelling of the congregation's name has evolved through its history. The congregation refers to itself in 2019 as Congregation Shivtei Yeshuron-Ezras Israel; the 1901 American Jewish Year Book identifies the congregation as Shifte Yeshurun Anshe Philadelphia. The 1954 Philadelphia Directory of Streets and Information identifies the synagogue as Shivtai Jeshurun.

History of the Jews in Philadelphia: Jewish Quarter of Philadel

Hazlehurst, Georgia

Hazlehurst is a city in and the county seat of Jeff Davis County, United States. The population was 4,226 at the 2010 census. Hazlehurst was founded circa 1880 as a depot on the Brunswick Railroad; the community was named for railroad surveyor Col. George Hazlehurst. At the census of 2000, there were 3,787 people, 1,513 households, 1,039 families residing in the city. There were 1,810 housing units; the racial makeup of the city was 68.55% White, 27.67% African American, 0.42% Native American, 0.74% Asian, 1.66% from other races, 0.95% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.43% of the population. There were 1,513 households out. 28.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.95. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 24.0% from 25 to 44, 24.8% from 45 to 64, 16.0% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $24,306, the median income for a family was $27,890. Males had a median income of $27,436 versus $18,304 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,996. About 21.1% of families and 26.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 40.0% under age 18 and 25.7% age 65 or over. The Jeff Davis County School District consists of two elementary schools, a middle school, a high school; the district has over 2,624 students. Jeff Davis Elementary School Jeff Davis Primary School Jeff Davis Middle School Jeff Davis High School

Carson–Iceberg Wilderness

The Carson–Iceberg Wilderness is a federal wilderness area located 80 miles northeast of Stockton, California. It encompasses 160,000 acres and was designated by the California Wilderness Act of 1984, it protects an area of High Sierra landscape with elevations from 4,800 feet to 11,462 feet along the Sierra Mountains from Ebbetts Pass to Sonora Pass in the south. The US Forest Service manages the wilderness, in both the Stanislaus National Forest and the Humboldt–Toiyabe National Forest. Located in the wilderness are the headwaters of the Carson River draining the east side of the crest, as well as the North and Middle Forks of the Stanislaus River on the west slopes; the name Carson–Iceberg comes from two prominent geographical features: the Carson River and the distinctive granite formation called "The Iceberg" on the southern boundary near Clark Fork Road. Historical highlights: Jedediah Smith crossed the Sierra Nevada Range near Ebbetts Pass sometime in 1827, the first immigrant party of Bartleson–Bidwell crossed over in 1841 near Sonora Pass.

The wilderness supports large herds of mule deer and there is good habitat for black bear, which have become a problem due to an insatiable appetite for backpackers' food. The forest cover consists of lodgepole pine, Jeffrey pine, Sierra juniper and curl-leaf mountain mahogany; the Carson–Iceberg Wilderness supports a native population of the only Paiute cutthroat trout in existence in the drainages of Silver King Creek, a tributary of the East Fork Carson River. They were listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966 and upgraded to threatened status in 1973 with the passage of the Endangered Species Act which allowed regulated fishing of the Paiute; the US Fish and Wildlife Service believe the Paiute trout only occupied the Silver King Creek and its tributaries below the barrier of LLewellyn Falls, around 1912 were introduced to other streams where the Paiute hybridized with the Lahonton and rainbow trout species. The "revised recovery plan" by the US Fish and Wildlife Service seeks to remove nonnative fish from the environment, protect habitat for the current populations of Paiute trout, both within the historical range of the Silver King Creek watershed and the other streams in the region, such as North Fork Cottonwood Creek, lastly, to study the Paiute trout to better understand the population trends.

The main distinguishing characteristic is the lack of spots on the body. The related Lahontan cutthroat trout has between 50 and 100 spots whereas the Paiute may have up to nine, but more than five; the Paiute trout require a habitat of clean, well-oxygenated, moving water with gravel bottoms and quiet pools near riparian zones. They reach maturity in 2 years, spawn during June and July with eggs hatching in 6–8 weeks and the fry emerging from the gravel in 2–3 weeks; the rate of growth depends on water temperature and food access, with the Silver King Creek Paiute having been measured at 13.5 inches. Predators include a bird that can go underwater to feed. Humans impact the Paiute trout as the fish show a lack of wariness to anglers because of the high elevation environment and lack of predators. Serious population declines have occurred from moderate to light fishing of the trout. In the Silver King Creek watershed are the Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frog, mountain yellow-legged frog and the Yosemite toad.

A permit is required from May to October for overnight visits into the wilderness but can be used to visit more than one wilderness area in a single trip. There is 25 stock in the wilderness. Leave No Trace methods of wilderness travel are encouraged by the US Forest Service. Adkinson, Ron Wild Northern California; the Globe Pequot Press, 2001 USGS Stanislaus National Forest official website, Carson–Iceberg Wilderness page. Official Humboldt–Toiyabe National Forest website

USS Relief (AH-1)

The sixth USS Relief, the first ship of the United States Navy designed and built from the keel up as a hospital ship, was laid down 14 June 1917 by the Philadelphia Navy Yard. Holcomb, Medical Corps, USN, in command. With a bed capacity of 550 patients, Relief was one of the world's most modern and best equipped hospital ships. Assigned to the Atlantic Fleet, she departed Philadelphia 26 February 1921 to provide fleet units on Caribbean maneuvers with all the facilities of a modern shore hospital. Relief returned north to Philadelphia 28 April 1921 to serve the fleet in waters ranging from the Virginia Capes to the New England coast. During this service Captain Holcomb was relieved of command 5 September 1921 by Captain Thomas L. Johnson, a line officer. Following a proclamation made by Theodore Roosevelt in 1908, it had been customary for hospital ships to be commanded by medical officers, but now, as a result of a review decision of the Judge Advocate General 6 June 1921, the old tradition of line officer command of ships was re-established.

As a result of this decision, Navy Regulations were changed, the controversy ended. Relief continued to serve the Atlantic Fleet until the conclusion of the winter-spring maneuvers of 1923, which took her to Cuba and Panama Bay. Departing the Panama Canal Zone 31 March 1923 for San Diego, she arrived 12 April. There she relieved USS Mercy as hospital ship for the Pacific Fleet and participated in fleet battle problems conducted northward to Alaska and westward to Hawaii, her usual employment schedule was interrupted 1 July 1925 when she sailed from Pearl Harbor to join the Battle Fleet as it made its good will practice cruise via the Samoan Islands to Australia and New Zealand. She returned to San Pedro, California, 26 September 1925 and continued to serve the Pacific Fleet as the National Emergency preparations swelled the ranks of sailors and marines; this duty ended 3 June 1941 when Relief departed San Diego en route Norfolk, Virginia Arriving Norfolk 20 June 1941, Relief thereafter served as a base hospital for the Atlantic Fleet in waters from Charleston, South Carolina, to Newfoundland.

She was in port at NS Argentia, when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. The following day she got underway via Boston for Norfolk. Returning north, she arrived Casco Bay, Maine, 28 April and provided for the health needs of men training to man the navy's new fighting ships, she cared for victims of the war in the Atlantic. Relief departed Casco Bay 8 February 1943 and put into the Boston Navy Yard to prepare for duty in the Pacific. By the 23d she was bound via the Panama Canal to the South Pacific Advanced Fleet Base at Nouméa, New Caledonia; the bitter struggle to drive the Japanese from the Solomon Islands was still in progress when she reached her destination 2 April. Marine and army patients brought out of the combat zones of the Solomons awaited in the New Hebrides for transport to better hospital facilities at Auckland, New Zealand; this evacuation duty kept Relief occupied until 15 November, when she departed Auckland to evacuate battle casualties of the amphibious assaults on the Gilbert Islands.

Relief arrived off Abemama in the Gilberts 24 November, but retired to Funafuti Atoll, Ellice Islands, to serve as a base hospital there until 4 January 1944. She performed service off Tarawa in the Gilberts for the remainder of the month, she steamed for the Marshalls 31 January to care for battle casualties. On the east side of Carlson Island in Kwajalein Lagoon, she received battle casualties transported by small boat directly from the islands under attack. By the afternoon of 4 February she was bound for Hawaii with 607 patients. By 21 February, Relief returned to the newly-won Marshalls, bringing medical supplies to be used in establishing shore hospitals on Roi Island. After embarking battle casualties from navy transports, she shifted to Majuro Atoll lagoon 4 March. During the following 3 months, she was the only hospital ship at Majuro where she served some 200,000 officers and men of the 5th Fleet. With medical facilities ashore limited to dispensary service, Relief provided hospitalization for fleet casualties.

During this period, units of the fleet made constant air and surface attacks on the Japanese at Jaluit, Maloelap and other outlying Marshall Island atolls. Enemy attacks on Eniwetok were repulsed; these operations, as well as attacks made by the fleet against Truk and Palau, produced a large number of battle casualties. Relief admitted 1,329 patients and discharged 693 from 4 March through 4 June 1944. Relief served as general medical consultation center for the fleet. From her came recommendations for appropriate action for coping with the problems of sanitation, she served as medical supply depot for the combatant forces. When the fleet departed the Marshalls 4 June for amphibious operations in the Marianas, Relief evacuated her patients by air or surface transport to shore facilities and prepared to evacuate battle casualties of that campaign. Departing the Marshalls 21 June, Relief anchored off Saipan 3 days to receive casualties directly from the combat in progress, she debarked them safely at Kwajalein on the 29th.

Off Saipan again 15 July, she received 658 patients and again debarked them 5 days at Kwajalein. The next morning she was steaming for the Marianas to receive 400 casualties from the battle for Tinian Island. Nearly all were serious cases, so field facilities in the Marshalls were bypassed for the better treatment available in Hawaii. Relief entered Pearl Harbor 15 August. Taking on a maximum load of medical supplies and stores