Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Granville is a commune in the Manche department and region of Normandy in north-western France. Chef-lieu of the canton of Granville and seat of the Communauté de communes de Granville, Terre et Mer, it is a seaside resort and health resort of Mont Saint-Michel Bay at the end of the Côte des Havres, a former cod fishing port and the first shellfish port of France, it is sometimes nicknamed "Monaco of the north" by virtue of its location on a rocky promontory. The town was founded by a vassal of William the Conqueror, on land occupied by the Vikings, in the 11th century; the old privateer city and fortification, for the defence of Mont Saint-Michel, became a seaside resort in the 19th century, frequented by many artists, equipped with a golf course and a horse racing course. Home of the Dior family of industrialists, an important commune which absorbed the village of Saint-Nicolas-près-Granville in 1962, port and airport of South Manche, it has been a Douzelage city since 1991, twinned with 20 European cities.
Administratively, the islands of Chausey, which include a small harbour, are part of the commune of Granville. The town is populated by 13,021 inhabitants. Granville is located at the edge of the English Channel at the extremity of the natural region of the Cotentin, it closes the north of the Bay of Mont Saint-Michel and the south of the Côte des Havres; the upper town is located on a peninsula surrounded by schist cliffs, known as Pointe du Roc or Cap Lihou. The rest of the town extends eastward inland, bounded on the north by the Boscq, a short coastal river, on the south by alternating cliffs and beaches up to the Saigue stream; the commune has four sand beaches, one to the north between the peninsula and the river, three to the south on the bay. It occupies 990 acres, of urbanised territory but this urbanisation is now limited by the Natura 2000 European directive and the law of preservation of the coastline; the town is part of the association of Les Plus Beaux Détours de France. The National Institute of Geographic Information and Forestry gives the co-ordinates as 48°50′17″N 1°35′13″W.
It is at the centre of the Urban Area of Granville. Closing in the north of the Bay of Mont Saint-Michel and its foreshore of a gentle gradient, it enjoys the highest tides in Europe, up to 14 m of tidal range; this situation sometimes leads to significant changes of the coastal features of the nearby beaches. Off the coast, the archipelago of the Chausey Islands is administered by the commune of Granville, it is one of the only island quarters of France. It consists of 52 islands of granite at high tide and more than 365 at low tide covering 5,000 ha. Granville is located 17 km south-west of its insular district of Chausey, 288 km to the west of Notre-Dame in Paris, point zero of the roads of France, 40 km south-west of Saint-Lô, 24 km north-west of Avranches, 27 km south-west of Coutances, 90 km to the south of Cherbourg-Octeville, 23 km north of Mont Saint-Michel, 26 km northeast of Cancale and 99 km to the southwest of Caen. A legacy of generations of sailors from the commune, it is located 5,356 km from Granville in the State of New York, 6,053 km from Granville, West Virginia and 6,196 km from Granville, among others.
Granville has natural limits materialised by the Boscq river to the north and the Saigue stream in the south. For a few years, an artificial river pierced between the peninsula, it is now replaced by Place du Maréchal-Foch. The commune is at sea level, it rises only towards the interior, a little more on the peninsula from the Pointe du Roc to reach 67 m. Granville, located on the Pointe du Roc is washed to the north, south and to the west by the English Channel. To the northeast lies the commune of Donville-les-Bains, the village of Yquelon is to the east and to the southeast are the small seaside resort of Saint-Pair-sur-Mer and the village of Saint-Planchers; the island quarter of Chausey is located off to the northwest, Mont Saint-Michel is to the south. Granville is located on the English Channel coast, it is therefore subject to an oceanic climate; however its positioning on the Bay of the Mont Saint-Michel, at the bottom of the gulf formed by Normandy and Brittany, allows it to be protected from storms and wind and enjoy mild temperatures.
Annual average temperature stood at 11.4 °C with a maximum of 14.2 °C and a minimum of 8.6 °C. The maximum nominal temperatures of 21 °C in July–August and 3 °C in January–February show the mildness of the climate and the lack of thermal amplitude; the insolation values given. Contrary to a common misconception, 606 mm of total precipitation shows that Normandy is not a wetter region than others; the record of rainfall per 24-hour period was established during a storm on 11 July 1977 with 57.2 mm of water. In the 1987 storm, wind culminated at 220 km/h in gusts, the current absolute record for the city. Several highways serve the commune including the downgraded roads RN 171, RN 24BIS and RN 173. Granville is located 25 km from the A84, it is crossed from north to south by the old RN 811, today the RD 911, the road to the coast at Avranches. The Paris - Granville line departing from Paris-Montparnasse railway station has its terminus at Granville station, it
Latvia the Republic of Latvia, is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. Since its independence, Latvia has been referred to as one of the Baltic states, it is bordered by Estonia to the north, Lithuania to the south, Russia to the east, Belarus to the southeast, shares a maritime border with Sweden to the west. Latvia has 1,957,200 inhabitants and a territory of 64,589 km2; the country has a temperate seasonal climate. After centuries of Swedish and Russian rule, a rule executed by the Baltic German aristocracy, the Republic of Latvia was established on 18 November 1918 when it broke away and declared independence in the aftermath of World War I. However, by the 1930s the country became autocratic after the coup in 1934 establishing an authoritarian regime under Kārlis Ulmanis; the country's de facto independence was interrupted at the outset of World War II, beginning with Latvia's forcible incorporation into the Soviet Union, followed by the invasion and occupation by Nazi Germany in 1941, the re-occupation by the Soviets in 1944 to form the Latvian SSR for the next 45 years.
The peaceful Singing Revolution, starting in 1987, called for Baltic emancipation from Soviet rule and condemning the Communist regime's illegal takeover. It ended with the Declaration on the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia on 4 May 1990, restoring de facto independence on 21 August 1991. Latvia is a democratic sovereign state, parliamentary republic and a highly developed country according to the United Nations Human Development Index, its capital Riga served as the European Capital of Culture in 2014. Latvian is the official language. Latvia is a unitary state, divided into 119 administrative divisions, of which 110 are municipalities and nine are cities. Latvians and Livonians are the indigenous people of Latvia. Latvian and Lithuanian are the only two surviving Baltic languages. Despite foreign rule from the 13th to 20th centuries, the Latvian nation maintained its identity throughout the generations via the language and musical traditions. However, as a consequence of centuries of Russian rule and Soviet occupation, Latvia is home to a large number of ethnic Russians, some of whom have not gained citizenship, leaving them with no citizenship at all.
Until World War II, Latvia had significant minorities of ethnic Germans and Jews. Latvia is predominantly Lutheran Protestant, except for the Latgale region in the southeast, predominantly Roman Catholic; the Russian population are Eastern Orthodox Christians. Latvia is a member of the European Union, Eurozone, NATO, the Council of Europe, the United Nations, CBSS, the IMF, NB8, NIB, OECD, OSCE, WTO. For 2014, the country was listed 46th on the Human Development Index and as a high income country on 1 July 2014. A full member of the Eurozone, it began using the euro as its currency on 1 January 2014, replacing the Latvian lats; the name Latvija is derived from the name of the ancient Latgalians, one of four Indo-European Baltic tribes, which formed the ethnic core of modern Latvians together with the Finnic Livonians. Henry of Latvia coined the latinisations of the country's name, "Lettigallia" and "Lethia", both derived from the Latgalians; the terms inspired the variations on the country's name in Romance languages from "Letonia" and in several Germanic languages from "Lettland".
Around 3000 BC, the proto-Baltic ancestors of the Latvian people settled on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. The Balts established trade routes to Byzantium, trading local amber for precious metals. By 900 AD, four distinct Baltic tribes inhabited Latvia: Curonians, Selonians, Semigallians, as well as the Finnic tribe of Livonians speaking a Finnic language. In the 12th century in the territory of Latvia, there were 14 lands with their rulers: Vanema, Bandava, Duvzare, Megava, Pilsāts, Upmale, Sēlija, Jersika, Tālava and Adzele. Although the local people had contact with the outside world for centuries, they became more integrated into the European socio-political system in the 12th century; the first missionaries, sent by the Pope, sailed up the Daugava River in the late 12th century, seeking converts. The local people, did not convert to Christianity as as the Church had hoped. German crusaders were sent, or more decided to go on their own accord as they were known to do. Saint Meinhard of Segeberg arrived in Ikšķile, in 1184, traveling with merchants to Livonia, on a Catholic mission to convert the population from their original pagan beliefs.
Pope Celestine III had called for a crusade against pagans in Northern Europe in 1193. When peaceful means of conversion failed to produce results, Meinhard plotted to convert Livonians by force of arms. In the beginning of the 13th century, Germans ruled large parts of today's Latvia. Together with Southern Estonia, these conquered areas formed the crusader state that became known as Terra Mariana or Livonia. In 1282, the cities of Cēsis, Limbaži, Koknese and Valmiera, became part of the Hanseatic League. Riga became an important point of east-west trading and formed close cultural links with Western Europe. After the Livonian War, Livonia fell under Lithuanian rule; the southern part of Estonia and the northern part of Latvia were ceded to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and formed into the Duchy of Livonia. Gotthard Kettler, the last Master of
Marsaskala, sometimes spelt Marsascala, is a sea-side village in the South Eastern Region of Malta that has grown around the small harbour at the head of Marsaskala Bay, a long narrow inlet known as Marsaskala Creek. The bay is sheltered to the north by Ras iż-Żonqor, the south-east corner of Malta, to the south by the headland of Ras il-Gżira; the parish church is dedicated to Santa Anna and the feast is celebrated at the end of July in Marsaskala. The town swells to around 20,000 in summer. Different opinions exist regarding the origin of the name Marsaskala. While it is agreed that Marsa is an Arabic word meaning bay, Skala has given rise to different interpretations, it could have been derived from Sqalli for Marsaskala was frequented by Sicilian fishermen since Malta is just 60 miles south from Sicily. Maybe it was derived from the Sicilian'Piccola Cala' meaning little inlet or it was just a reference to some rock-cut steps on the water's edge since scala means a straight flight of steps.
Marsaskala is better known as Wied il-Għajn by the Maltese as the bay and the old small village are flanked by two valleys, through which a spring of fresh water used to flow down into the innermost bay. Wied means Għajn refers to the spring of fresh water. Wied il-Għajn means Valley of the Spring. Human inhabited the area since pre-history; some of the ancient remains are the cart-ruts. Early Christian catacombs, as well as Roman era remains, were discovered in Marsaskala, the latter suggesting that Marsaskala was a Roman port. Remains of Roman Baths were found in a field at il-Gżira, a rock peninsula behind the Jerma Palace Hotel. In 1614, 60 Turkish ships carrying 6000 soldiers landed at Marsaskala and launched an attack on the south of Malta. Although the battle was a decisive Christian victory, it brought back fear and terrifying memories of the 1565 Great Siege of Malta. Marsaskala's vulnerability to sea borne attacks was reduced by the building of Saint Thomas Tower in that same year; the tower was financed by Grandmaster Alof de Wignacourt and it is one of a series of Wignacourt towers.
St Thomas Tower continued to be used for military purposes until the 19th century and it has been restored. In 1659, Żonqor Tower, one of 13 De Redin towers was built in the area; this tower was demolished in 1915 by British military engineers. No traces of it can be seen anymore and a pillbox now stands in its place. Marsaskala has various other towers, but these were built by wealthy residents as fortified houses; these include Tal-Buttar Tower and Tal-Gardiel Tower. In 1715, Briconet Redoubt was built by the Order and it is now well preserved and is used as a police station. A second redoubt was built close to Marsaskala but it was destroyed in 1915. In 1882, the British built Żonqor Battery but it was not used a lot since it was unsuitable for proper defence. In 2003, U. S. amateur pseudo-archaeologist Bob Cornuke caused a controversy with sweeping statements written in his book The Lost Shipwreck of St. Paul, where he claimed that the Apostle Paul had been shipwrecked in St Thomas' Bay, in Marsaskala.
His claim was never confirmed and discredited by those related in the field, though St. Thomas Bay matches the limited description found in the 27th chapter of the book of Acts: a sandy beach, rocky shoreline, deep water close to shore, the discovery of four identical Roman Era ship anchors found in the bay during the 1960s, now in the Malta Maritime Museum; as a monument over the more recent Maltese history are the remains of the previous four-star Corinthia Jerma Palace Hotel at the tip of mainland Ras il-Gżira. The hotel was owned by Libyan Arab Foreign Investment Company for 25 years and was closed in March 2007; the first council in Marsaskala was formed in April 1994. The first village mayor was Malta's first female mayor, Marvic Attard Gialanze; the main issue in this election was the controversial proposal of the building of a new waste recycling plant and a number of biogas tanks in Sant' Antnin Valley. This development is being challenged by a committee composed of seven Labour-led local councils and eight local non-government organisations.
The matter has been raised in the European Parliament. The former President George Abela, the former Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi and two Labour Members of Parliament, Dr Owen Bonnici and Dr Helena Dalli live in the Marsaskala area, as does the leader of the defunct party Azzjoni Nazzjonali, Josie Muscat; the town of Marsaskala is located in the south east of Malta, around the small harbour at the head of Marsaskala Bay, a long narrow inlet known as Marsaskala Creek. The bay is sheltered to the north by Ras iż-Żonqor, the south-east corner of Malta, to the south by the headland of Ras il-Gżira; the town itself is located along both sides of the bay, across most of Il-Ħamrija, a creek leading to Il-Ponta tal-Gzira. The shore north of Ras iż-Żonqor is with shelving rock ledges south of the point. Marsaskala Bay is edged by promenade, with low shelving rock ledges cut with salt pans on the seaward face of Ras iċ-Ċerna, which continue on round the eastern point, past l-Abjad iż-Żgħir, into Il-Bajja ta' San Tumas to the south.
The main sports in Marsaskala are waterpolo. Marsaskala F. C. are Malta's newest football club. Founded in 2010, they won promotion in 2013 and play in the MFA Second Division. Marsaskala Sports Club, founded in
Estonia the Republic of Estonia, is a country in North East Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland with Finland on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea with Sweden on the other side, to the south by Latvia, to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia; the territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands in the Baltic Sea, covering a total area of 45,227 km2, water 2,839 km2, land area 42,388 km2, is influenced by a humid continental climate. The official language of the country, Estonian, is the third most spoken Finno-Ugric language; the territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 9,000 B. C. Ancient Estonians were some of the last European pagans to be Christianized, following the Livonian Crusade in the 13th century. After centuries of successive rule by Germans, Swedes and Russians, a distinct Estonian national identity began to emerge in the 19th and early 20th centuries; this culminated in independence from Russia in 1920 after a brief War of Independence at the end of World War I.
Democratic, after the Great Depression Estonia was governed by authoritarian rule since 1934 during the Era of Silence. During World War II, Estonia was contested and occupied by the Soviet Union and Germany being incorporated into the former as the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic. After the loss of its de facto independence, Estonia's de jure state continuity was preserved by diplomatic representatives and the government-in-exile. In 1987 the peaceful Singing Revolution began against Soviet rule, resulting in the restoration of de facto independence on 20 August 1991; the sovereign state of Estonia is a democratic unitary parliamentary republic divided into fifteen counties. Its capital and largest city is Tallinn. With a population of 1.3 million, it is one of the least-populous member states of the European Union since joining in 2004, the economic monetary Eurozone, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Schengen Area, of the Western military alliance of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
It is a developed country with an advanced, high-income economy, among the fastest-growing in the EU. Estonia ranks high in the Human Development Index, performs favourably in measurements of economic freedom, civil liberties and press freedom. Estonian citizens are provided with universal health care, free education, the longest-paid maternity leave in the OECD. One of the world's most digitally advanced societies, in 2005 Estonia became the first state to hold elections over the Internet, in 2014 the first state to provide e-residency. In the Estonian language the oldest known endonym of the Estonians was maarahvas, meaning "country people" or "people of the soil"; the land inhabited by Estonians was called Maavald meaning "Country Realm" or "Land Realm". One hypothesis regarding the modern name of Estonia derives it from the Aesti, a people described by the Roman historian Tacitus in his Germania; the historic Aesti were Baltic people, whereas the modern Estonians are Finno-Ugric. The geographical areas of the Aesti and of Estonia do not match, with the Aesti living farther south.
Ancient Scandinavian sagas refer to an area called Eistland, as the country is still called in Icelandic, with close parallels to the Danish, Dutch and Norwegian terms Estland for the country. Early Latin and other ancient versions of the name include Hestia. Esthonia was a common alternative English spelling before 1921. Human settlement in Estonia became possible 13,000 to 11,000 years ago, when the ice from the last glacial era melted; the oldest known settlement in Estonia is the Pulli settlement, on the banks of the river Pärnu, near the town of Sindi, in south-western Estonia. According to radiocarbon dating it was settled around 11,000 years ago; the earliest human inhabitation during the Mesolithic period is connected to the Kunda culture, named after the town of Kunda in northern Estonia. At that time the country was covered with forests, people lived in semi-nomadic communities near bodies of water. Subsistence activities consisted of hunting and fishing. Around 4900 BC appear ceramics of the neolithic period, known as Narva culture.
Starting from around 3200 BC the Corded Ware culture appeared. The Bronze Age started around 1800 BC, saw the establishment of the first hill fort settlements. A transition from hunting-fishing-gathering subsistence to single-farm-based settlement started around 1000 BC, was complete by the beginning of the Iron Age around 500 BC; the large amount of bronze objects indicate the existence of active communication with Scandinavian and Germanic tribes. A more troubled and war-ridden middle Iron Age followed, with external threats appearing from different directions. Several Scandinavian sagas referred to major confrontations with Estonians, notably when Estonians defeated and killed the Swedish king Ingvar. Similar threats appeared in the east. In 1030 Yaroslav the Wise established a fort in modern-day Tartu. Around the 11th century, the Scandinavian Viking era around the Baltic Sea was succeeded by the Baltic Viking era, with seaborne
Sherborne is a market town and civil parish in north west Dorset, in South West England. It is sited on the edge of the Blackmore Vale, 6 miles east of Yeovil; the A30 road, which connects London to Penzance, runs through the town. In the 2011 census the population of Sherborne parish and the two electoral wards was 9,523. 28.7% of the population is aged 65 or older. Sherborne's historic buildings include Sherborne Abbey, its manor house, independent schools, two castles: the ruins of a 12th-century fortified palace and the 16th-century mansion known as Sherborne Castle built by Sir Walter Raleigh. Much of the old town, including the abbey and many medieval and Georgian buildings, is built from distinctive ochre-coloured ham stone; the town is served by Sherborne railway station. The town was named scir burne by the Saxon inhabitants, after a brook that runs through the centre of the town, a name meaning "clear stream", is referred to as such in the Domesday book. In 705 the diocese of Wessex was split between Sherborne and Winchester, King Ine founded an abbey for St Aldhelm, the first bishop of Sherborne, which covered Wiltshire, Dorset and part of Devon.
King Alfred the Great's elder brothers King Æthelbald and King Æthelberht are buried in the abbey. The large Sherborne diocese lasted until about 909 when it was further sub-divided into three sees, with Sherborne covering Dorset. In 933, King Æthelstan granted land at Sherborne to the nuns of Shaftesbury Abbey under the condition that they would recite the Psalter once a year on All Saints' day and say prayers for the king; the bishop's seat was moved to Old Sarum in 1075 and the church at Sherborne became a Benedictine monastery. In the 15th century the church was burnt down during tensions between the town and the monastery, rebuilt between 1425 and 1504 incorporating some of the Norman structure remains. In 1539 the monastery became a conventional church. Sherborne was the centre of a hundred of the same name for many centuries. See the article Sherborne Abbey for more on the history of the abbey. In the 12th century Roger de Caen, Bishop of Salisbury and Chancellor of England, built a fortified palace in Sherborne.
The palace was destroyed in 1645 by General Fairfax, its ruins are owned by English Heritage. In 1594 Sir Walter Raleigh built an Elizabethan mansion in the grounds of the old palace, today known as Sherborne Castle. Sherborne became home to Yorkshireman, Captain Christopher Levett who came to the West Country as His Majesty's Woodward of Somersetshire, who remained in Sherborne when he turned to a career as a naval captain and early explorer of New England. In the UK national parliament, Sherborne is within the West Dorset parliamentary constituency, represented by Sir Oliver Letwin of the Conservative Party. In local government, Sherborne is administered by Dorset Council at the highest tier, Sherborne Town Council at the lowest tier. In national parliament and local council elections, Dorset is divided into several electoral wards, with Sherborne forming two of these: Sherborne West and Sherborne East. In county council elections, Dorset is divided into 42 electoral divisions, with Sherborne's two wards together forming Sherborne Electoral Division.
There has been a school in Sherborne since the time of King Alfred, educated there. The school was re-founded in 1550 as King Edward's grammar school, using some of the old abbey buildings, though it is now known as Sherborne School; the school is one of the independent schools in Britain, with alumni such as Alan Turing, Jeremy Irons, Chris Martin, John le Carré, Hugh Bonneville and John Cowper Powys. Sherborne School for Girls was founded in 1895, its notable alumnae include the scientist Rosa Beddington. Until 1992 there were two grammar schools, Foster's School for Boys and Lord Digby's School for Girls. Both schools merged with another local school to form The Gryphon School; the Gryphon School Sherborne Abbey Primary School Sherborne Primary School Sherborne School Sherborne School for Girls Sherborne International Sherborne Preparatory School Sherborne Learning centre Other notable historic buildings in the town include the almshouses of saints John the Baptist and John the Evangelist, founded in 1438 and expanded in the Victorian era in indistinguishable medieval style architecture.
Sherborne House, famed for its mural by Sir James Thornhill. was a subject for the BBC's "Restoration" programme in 2004, was sold in 2008 by Dorset County Council to a developer, Redcliffe Homes, for £3 million. Its renovation included rebuilding an unstable rear wall. There are 378 listed buildings within the town and 23 in Castleton, totalling 401, including 14 Grade I listed buildings and 21 Grade II* listed buildings; the social reformer and moralist Rev Sir James Marchant died here in 1956. Olympic field hockey player Michael Walford died here in 2002. Olympic sailor Andrew Simpson lived here. Sherborne has an active green community, with various environmental and sustainability organisations in the area; the Quarr Local Nature Reserve at the northern end of the town makes use of an old quarry and landfill site, Sherborne Area Partnership oversees a successful environment forum and, in 2009, Sherborne became an official Transition Town, running a number of projects and events as a community response to climate change and peak oil.
The town has for centuries hosted an annual street fair, Pack Monday Fair, starting on the Monday following 10 October. An agricultural fair, it is now devoted
Bad Kötzting is a town in the district of Cham, in Bavaria, near the Czech border. It is situated in 15 km southeast of Cham. Bad Kötzting has the charming character of a small town and offers quite a variety of attractions for tourists; the locals pride themselves with having one of the largest mounted religious processions in the world, the "Kötztinger Pfingstritt". Legend has it that in the year 1412, a man who got injured during forestry was asking for the last rites before dying in a village 7 kilometres away from Kötzting; the local priest was unable to comply with the wishes of the man because he needed protection from bears and other dangers luring along the way. After asking the young men of the village to protect him, they accompanied the priest to the dying man. After a safe journey, the participants vowed to repeat the ride every year; that is how it remained since. Every Whit Monday, the ride of riders is repeated; the horses wear the riders wear traditional Bavarian clothes. The ride starts in Kötzting and goes to the village "Steinbühl", where according to the legend, the man asking for anointment, was dying.
Only men from the region are allowed to participate in the procession, the participating horses, come from all over Bavaria. The annual fair is in town when the procession takes place. A local "Bierzelt" and numerous rides invite the public. Impressions from the Kötztinger Pfingstritt, 2001 Since 2014: Markus Hofmann Bad Kötzting is a founding member of the Douzelage, a unique town twinning association of 24 towns across the European Union; this active town twinning began in 1991 and there are regular events, such as a produce market from each of the other countries and festivals. Discussions regarding membership are in hand with three further towns. Benedict Stattler, Catholic theologian of the enlightenment Anton Schwarz and music teacher Helmut Brunner and Bavarian Minister Thomas Dworzak, photographer Notes