Sister cities or twin towns are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, counties, prefectures, regions and countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties. The modern concept of town twinning, conceived after the Second World War in 1947, was intended to foster friendship and understanding among different cultures and between former foes as an act of peace and reconciliation, to encourage trade and tourism. By the 2000s, town twinning became used to form strategic international business links among member cities. In the United Kingdom, the term "twin towns" is most used. In mainland Europe, the most used terms are "twin towns," "partnership towns," "partner towns," and "friendship towns." The European Commission uses the term "twinned towns" and refers to the process as "town twinning." Spain uses the term "ciudades hermanadas," which means "sister cities." Germany and the Czech Republic use Partnerstadt / miasto partnerskie / partnerské město, which translate as "partner town" or "partner city."
France uses ville jumelée, Italy has gemellaggio and comune gemellato. In the Netherlands, the term is stedenband. In Greece, the word αδελφοποίηση has been adopted. In Iceland, the terms vinabæir and vinaborgir are used. In the former Soviet Bloc, "twin towns" and "twin cities" were used, along with города-побратимы; the Americas, South Asia, Australasia use the term "sister cities" or "twin cities." In China, the term is 友好城市. Sometimes, other government bodies enter into a twinning relationship, such as the agreement between the provinces of Hainan in China and Jeju-do in South Korea; the douzelage is a town twinning association with one town from each of the member states of the European Union. Despite the term being used interchangeably, with the term "friendship city," this may mean a relationship with a more limited scope in comparison to a sister city relationship, friendship city relationships are mayor-to-mayor agreements. City diplomacy is a form of paradiplomacy that involves discussions between officials and residents of different cities.
These cities will be located in different countries. As such city diplomacy involves a sort of international relations that works in parallel to the conventional system involving embassies and treaties negotiated at the level of nation states. According to Rodrigo Tavares, the earliest formal attempts to establish city diplomacy across national boundaries took place in the 19th century. Only a handful of cities were involved in the 19th century efforts; the first priority of those carrying out city diplomacy overlaps with the core aims of municipal government - improving the lives of local residents. Yet they will collaborate with peers in other cities to work on issues of planet wide concern, such as efforts to address climate change; the phrase "city diplomacy" is formally used in the workings of the United Cities and Local Governments and the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group, is recognised by the USC Center on Public Diplomacy. A March 2014 debate in the British House of Lords acknowledged the evolution of town twinning into city diplomacy around trade and tourism, but in culture and post-conflict reconciliation.
The importance of cities developing "their own foreign economic policies on trade, foreign investment and attracting foreign talent" has been highlighted by the World Economic Forum. In addition to C40, other organisations facilitating city diplomacy include the World Cities Summit, the Smart City Expo World Congress, the Strong City Network and 100 Resilient Cities; as of 2016, there were over 125 such multilateral networks and forums to facilitate international collaboration between different municipal authorities. The earliest known town twinning in Europe was between Paderborn, Le Mans, France, in 836. Starting in 1905, Keighley in West Yorkshire, had a twinning arrangement with French communities Suresnes and Puteaux; the first recorded modern twinning agreement was between Keighley and Poix-du-Nord in Nord, France, in 1920 following the end of the First World War. This was referred to as an adoption of the French town; the practice was continued after the Second World War as a way to promote mutual understanding and cross-border projects of mutual benefit.
For example, Coventry twinned with Stalingrad and with Dresden as an act of peace and reconciliation, all three cities having been bombed during the war. The City of Bath formed an "Alkmaar Adoption committee" in March 1945, when the Dutch city was still occupied by the German Army in the final months of the war, children from each city took part in exchanges in 1945 and 1946. In 1947, Bristol Corporation sent five'leading citizens' on a goodwill mission to Hanover. Reading in 1947 was the first British town to form links with a former "enemy" city – Düsseldorf; the link still exists. Since 9 April 1956 Rome and Paris have been and reciprocally twinned with each other, following the motto: "Only Paris is worthy of Rome; the support scheme was established
JoAnne L. Hewett is a theoretical particle physicist on the faculty of the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory at Stanford University, where she is a professor in the Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics. Since 2017 she has been the associate lab director of the Fundamental Physics Directorate and the chief research officer at SLAC, her research interests include physics beyond the Standard Model, dark matter, hidden dimensions. She is a fellow of the American Physical Society and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. JoAnne Lea Hewett, daughter of Robert and Jean Hewett, lived in Boulder, CO, Phoenix, AZ, St. Louis, MO and Bettendorf, IA while growing up, she completed her undergraduate degree in physics and mathematics at Iowa State University in 1982, earned her doctorate there in 1988. Her dissertation, advised by B.-L. Young, was titled, Superstring Inspired E Phenomenology. Hewett began her career as a postdoctoral associate from 1988 to 1991 at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and in 1991–1993 she worked as a physicist at Argonne National Laboratory.
In 1994 she joined the faculty at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, where she is a professor in the SLAC Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics. Hewett has served on Program Advisory Committees of SLAC, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, she chairs the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel and was a member of the panel in 2004–2006 and again in 2016. Her research interests include models of physics beyond the Standard Model, emphasizing collider signatures and the interface with astroparticle physics. Hewett has worked on the "phenomenology of extra spatial dimensions, extended Higgs sectors, new physics signatures in heavy flavor physics, dark matter, the complementarity of experimental probes of dark matter", she has collaborated on the International Linear Collider. Upon her election in 2007 as a fellow of the American Physical Society, Hewett was cited "For her contributions to our understanding of constraints on and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model, service to the particle physics community leading studies of future experiments."
She was elected in 2009 as a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Official website SLAC Spotlight Video Series, JoAnne L. Hewett - Theoretical Physics Hidden Dimensions and String Theory – Joanne Hewett
Ryszard Jerzy Tarasiewicz is a Polish retired football player and current manager of GKS Tychy. After playing 10 years for Śląsk Wrocław, he left Poland in 1989 and played for Neuchâtel Xamax and AS Nancy, RC Lens, Besançon RC, he was a participant of the 1986 FIFA World Cup. Just like his active career, Tarasiewicz started his managing career at Śląsk Wrocław. After 2 years, where he led the club to the II liga, he resigned due to conflicts with the club's president Edward Ptak, he went on to coach Jagiellonia Białystok, but was dismissed before the end of the season due to poor results. On 19 June 2007 he yet again signed a contract with Śląsk Wrocław. In 2008, he led the club back to the highest Polish football league, the Ekstraklasa, making him the first manager in the club's history, who promoted twice with his team. On 22 September 2010 he was dismissed from his position due to a poor start to the 2010-11 Ekstraklasa season. On 7 November 2011 he signed a contract with ŁKS Łódź. Śląsk Wrocław Polish Cup: 1986-87Zawisza Bydgoszcz Polish Cup: 2013–14 I Liga: 2012–13 Ryszard Tarasiewicz at 90minut.pl Ryszard Tarasiewicz at WorldFootball.net
James Henry Linacre was an English professional footballer who played as a goalkeeper and, one of three members of the same family who started his professional career with Derby County before joining Nottingham Forest and going on to play for England. He took part in the first foreign tour by Nottingham Forest to South America where the red shirts are said to have given inspiration to Club Atlético Independiente. Linacre was born to his wife Annie Linacre, they lived on Derby Road in Derbyshire. Linacre was the nephew of fellow footballers Fred Forman and Frank Forman and all three followed a similar career path. Linacre played for his village side and the side at nearby Draycott and for Loughborough Grammar School before being signed by Derby County, he was there for only two games however. Linacre joined Forest in 1899. A card has been found that records a match between Nottingham Forest and Derby: it would appear from the accompanying verse that Derby won as a result of Linacre travelling backwards with the ball through his own net.
Linacre was chosen to go on the first foreign tour with his Nottingham club in 1905. In the same year as he appeared for England, he toured Argentina; the trip had been organised at the club. Thirteen players and two officials were despatched on 19 May, three weeks after the football season ended; the journey out to South America took three weeks and they had to run around the steamship Danube's decks to keep in training. In total there were eight matches in South America and sixty goals were scored with only three being against Nottingham Forest, who did not lose a match on the tour, it is said that the Argentinian team Club Atlético Independiente changed their colours to red after seeing the Nottingham Forest players play. The tour started at Montevideo and had a number of matches against Argentinian teams, firstly at Santa Fe and in Buenos Aires; the party consisted of Bob Norris, Harry Linacre, H. Hallam, C. Clifford, Charles Craig, William Shearman, H. S. Radford, Sam Timmins, Alf Spouncer, Fred Lessons, – Walter Dudley, Thomas Davies, Thomas Niblo, George Henderson and Albert Holmes.
Linacre went on to make over 330 appearances for Nottingham Forest, in all competitions. Linacre was chosen to play for his country and he played twice for England in 1905. However, his England career lasted just five days. On 27 March 1905, when Linacre was aged 24 years, 279 days he was the goalie against Wales, his last cap was against Scotland on 1 April 1905. During those two matches he only conceded one goal to Wales in the first match. Both matches were England victories. After retiring from football in 1909, Linacre went into business as a building contractor with his uncle Frank Forman. Frank, had followed a similar career to Linacre, but he continued his association with the club after he stopped playing. Linacre died in Nottingham in 1957. Harry Linacre at Englandstats.com
William Chappell was an English writer on music, a partner in the London musical firms of Chappell & Co. and Cramer & Co. He was born in London on 20 November 1809, his father, Samuel Chappell, soon after the son's birth, entered into partnership with Johann Baptist Cramer and F. T. Latour, opened a music publishing business at 124 New Bond Street. In 1826, he became sole partner, in 1830 was established at 50 New Bond Street, where he died in December 1834. William, his eldest son managed the business for his mother until 1843. Chappell began the study of English ballads. In 1838, he issued his first work, A Collection of National English Airs, consisting of Ancient Song and Dance Tunes, in two volumes, one containing 245 tunes, the second some elucidatory remarks and an essay on English minstrelsy; the airs were harmonised by Macfarren, Dr. Crotch, Wade. Wade's being too slight, Crotch's too elaborate. Chappell was the first who studied traditional English tunes. In 1840, Chappell became a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries.
He took an active part in the formation of the Percy Society, for which he edited Johnson's Crown Garland of Golden Roses. He projected the Musical Antiquarian Society, to publish and perform early English compositions, established madrigal-singing by a small choir at his premises in New Bond Street. Most of the leading English musicians joined the society, which began publishing in 1841, he edited the twelfth volume, Dowland's First Booke of Songes or Ayres, but inexplicably omitted Dowland's accompaniments. The society's publications were in cumbersome and expensive folios, the members soon fell away until the society dissolved in 1848; the Chappell family had in 1843 made an arrangement by virtue of which William retired from the business. In 1845, he bought a share in the publishing business of Cramer & Co., called Cramer, Beale, & Chappell. He patiently continued his investigations into antiquarian music, waited till 1855 before issuing an improved edition of his collection, it was renamed Popular Music of the Olden Time, arranged in two octavo volumes and music interspersed.
The tunes were harmonised by Macfarren. Immense learning and research are displayed throughout the work, which at once became the recognised authority upon the subject, it suffers from Chappell's prejudices against everything Scottish. A new edition, edited by Professor H. E. Wooldridge, appeared in 1892, with the title Old English Popular Music, the tunes re-harmonised on the basis of the mediæval modes. In 1861, Chappell retired from the firm of Co.. He suffered from writers' palsy for several years, but recovered, he acted as honorary treasurer of the Ballad Society, for which he edited three volumes of the Roxburgh Ballads. He was an active member, for a time treasurer, of the Camden Society, he gave most important assistance in the publication of Coussemaker's Scriptores de Musica. The celebrated double canon, Sumer is icumen in, whose existence in a thirteenth-century manuscript is the most inexplicable phenomenon in the history of music, was long studied by Chappell. At the foundation of the Musical Association in 1874, he was appointed a vice-president, on 6 November 1877, he read a profound and original paper on Music a Science of Numbers.
During the latter part of his life he lived at Weybridge, but died at his London residence, 53 Upper Brook Street, on 20 August 1888. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Henry. "Chappell, William". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Free scores by William Chappell at the International Music Score Library Project Digitised copy of Popular music of the olden time published in London in 1859 at National Library of Scotland Works by or about William Chappell at Internet Archive
Vadim Vasilyevich Borisovsky was a Russian violist. Born in Moscow, Borisovsky entered Moscow Conservatory in 1917 studying the violin with Mikhail Press. A year on the advice of violist Vladimir Bakaleinikov, Borisovsky turned his attentions to the viola, he studied with Bakaleinikov and graduated in 1922. Borisovsky became Professor of Viola at the conservatory in 1925 Between 1922 and 1923, Borisovsky and colleagues from the Moscow Conservatory formed the Beethoven Quartet, he was the quartet's violist until 1964. There are many recordings of Borisovsky with the Beethoven Quartet. Borisovsky was a viola d'amore player, he arranged and edited more than 250 compositions for viola and viola d'amore. He died in Moscow, aged 72. Concert Etude in A major for viola solo Vulcan: Sicilian Tarantella for viola and piano For harp solo For viola d'amore and piano unless otherwise noted For viola and piano unless otherwise noted