Broadway theatre known as Broadway, refers to the theatrical performances presented in the 41 professional theatres, each with 500 or more seats located in the Theater District and Lincoln Center along Broadway, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Along with London's West End theatre, Broadway theatre is considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world; the Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City. According to The Broadway League, for the 2017–2018 season total attendance was 13,792,614 and Broadway shows had US$1,697,458,795 in grosses, with attendance up 3.9%, grosses up 17.1%, playing weeks up 2.8%. The majority of Broadway shows are musicals. Historian Martin Shefter argues that "'Broadway musicals', culminating in the productions of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein, became enormously influential forms of American popular culture" and contributed to making New York City the cultural capital of the Western Hemisphere.
New York did not have a significant theatre presence until about 1750, when actor-managers Walter Murray and Thomas Kean established a resident theatre company at the Theatre on Nassau Street, which held about 280 people. They presented Shakespeare ballad operas such as The Beggar's Opera. In 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager, they established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice and The Anatomist. The company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida; the Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the year the 2,000-seat Park Theatre was built on Chatham Street. The Bowery Theatre opened followed by others. By the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in Lower Manhattan. In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblo's Garden opened and soon became one of New York's premiere nightspots.
The 3,000-seat theatre presented all sorts of non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmo's Opera House opened and presented opera for only four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burton's Theatre; the Astor Opera House opened in 1847. A riot broke out in 1849 when the lower-class patrons of the Bowery objected to what they perceived as snobbery by the upper class audiences at Astor Place: "After the Astor Place Riot of 1849, entertainment in New York City was divided along class lines: opera was chiefly for the upper middle and upper classes, minstrel shows and melodramas for the middle class, variety shows in concert saloons for men of the working class and the slumming middle class."The plays of William Shakespeare were performed on the Broadway stage during the period, most notably by American actor Edwin Booth, internationally known for his performance as Hamlet. Booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, would revive the role at his own Booth's Theatre.
Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, Charles Fechter. Theatre in New York moved from downtown to midtown beginning around 1850, seeking less expensive real estate. In the beginning of the 19th century, the area that now comprises the Theater District was owned by a handful of families and comprised a few farms. In 1836, Mayor Cornelius Lawrence opened 42nd Street and invited Manhattanites to "enjoy the pure clean air." Close to 60 years theatrical entrepreneur Oscar Hammerstein I built the iconic Victoria Theater on West 42nd Street. Broadway's first "long-run" musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857. In 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square. Theatres did not arrive in the Times Square area until the early 1900s, the Broadway theatres did not consolidate there until a large number of theatres were built around the square in the 1920s and 1930s.
New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keene's "musical burletta" The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keene's troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, D. C. that Abraham Lincoln was shot. The first theatre piece that conforms to the modern conception of a musical, adding dance and original music that helped to tell the story, is considered to be The Black Crook, which premiered in New York on September 12, 1866; the production was five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a "musical comedy". Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham.
These musical comedies featured characters and situations taken from the everyday life of New York's lower classes and represented a significant step forward from vaudeville and burlesque, towards a more literate form. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of questionable repute who had starred in earlier m
Travis Banton was an American costume designer. He is best known for his long collaboration with actress Marlene Dietrich and director Josef von Sternberg, he is considered one of the most important Hollywood costume designers of the golden age. He was born in Texas. Travis moved to New York City as a child. Banton was educated at Columbia University and at the Art Students League where he studied art and fashion design. An early apprenticeship with a high-society costume dressmaker earned him fame; when Mary Pickford selected one of his dresses for her wedding to Douglas Fairbanks, his reputation was established. He opened his own dressmaking salon in New York City, soon was asked to create costumes for the Ziegfeld Follies. In 1924, Travis Banton moved to Hollywood when Paramount contracted with him to create costumes for his first film, The Dressmaker from Paris. Beginning with Norma Talmadge in Poppy, Banton designed clothing for Pola Negri and Clara Bow in the 1920s. In the 1930s and 1940s Banton designed for such stars as Kay Francis, Lilyan Tashman, Sylvia Sidney, Gail Patrick, Helen Vinson, Claudette Colbert.
Travis Banton may be best remembered for forging the style of such Hollywood icons as Carole Lombard, Marlene Dietrich, Mae West. Dietrich and Banton had an close and successful collaboration, his work for Dietrich is still referenced by designers. Glamour, subtle elegance, exquisite fabrics endeared Travis Banton to the most celebrated of Hollywood's beauties and made him one of the most sought-after costume designers of his era; as viewings of such films as The Gilded Lily and Desire reveal, his costume designs were marked by form-flattering cuts, rich fabrics, extravagant textures. He collaborated with directors and actresses in order to fulfil their vision; when designer Howard Greer left Paramount, Banton was promoted to Head Designer and was responsible for dressing the studio's most illustrious stars. Because of his worsening alcoholism, according to some commentators at the instigation of his assistant Edith Head, Banton was forced to leave Paramount, he returned to designing for loyal stars and occasionally designed for Twentieth Century-Fox from 1939-1941 and Universal from 1945-1948.
Clara Bow in It and Wings, 1927 Kay Francis in Trouble in Paradise, 1932 Mae West in I'm No Angel, 1933 and Belle of the Nineties, 1934 Claudette Colbert in Cleopatra, 1934 Loretta Young in The Crusades, 1935 Marlene Dietrich in "Morocco", 1930, Shanghai Express, 1932, The Scarlet Empress, 1934 and The Devil is a Woman, 1935 Carole Lombard in My Man Godfrey, 1936 Nothing Sacred, 1937 and "Made for Each Other", 1939 Alice Faye in Lillian Russell and Tin Pan Alley, 1940 Carmen Miranda in Down Argentine Way, 1940, That Night in Rio, 1941 Linda Darnell and Rita Hayworth in Blood and Sand, 1941 Betty Grable in Moon Over Miami, 1941 Rita Hayworth in Cover Girl, 1944 Joan Bennett in Scarlet Street, 1945 Merle Oberon in A Song to Remember, 1945 Lucille Ball in Lover Come Back, 1946 Joan Fontaine in Letter from an Unknown Woman, 1948 Linda Darnell in The Mark of Zorro, 1940 Travis Banton at FMD Travis Banton at Virtual History Chierichetti, David. Hollywood Costume Design, Harmony Books, 1977. ISBN 0-517-52637-9
A screenplay, or script, is a written work by screenwriters for a film, television program or video game. These screenplays can be original adaptations from existing pieces of writing. In them, the movement, actions and dialogues of the characters are narrated. A screenplay written for television is known as a teleplay; the format is structured so that one page equates to one minute of screen time, though this is only used as a ballpark estimate and bears little resemblance to the running time of the final movie. The standard font is 10 pitch Courier Typeface; the major components are dialogue. The action is written in the present tense and is limited to what can be heard or seen by the audience, for example descriptions of settings, character movements, or sound effects; the dialogue is the words the characters speak, is written in a center column. Unique to the screenplay is the use of slug lines. A slug line called a master scene heading, occurs at the start of every scene and contains three pieces of information: whether the scene is set inside or outside, the specific location, the time of day.
Each slug line begins a new scene. In a "shooting script" the slug lines are numbered consecutively for ease of reference. American screenplays are printed single-sided on three-hole-punched paper using the standard American letter size, they are held together with two brass brads in the top and bottom hole. The middle hole is left empty as it would otherwise make it harder to read the script. In the United Kingdom, double-hole-punched A4 paper is used, taller and narrower than US letter size; some UK writers format the scripts for use in the US letter size when their scripts are to be read by American producers, since the pages would otherwise be cropped when printed on US paper. Because each country's standard paper size is difficult to obtain in the other country, British writers send an electronic copy to American producers, or crop the A4 size to US letter. A British script may be bound by a single brad at the top left hand side of the page, making flicking through the paper easier during script meetings.
Screenplays are bound with a light card stock cover and back page showing the logo of the production company or agency submitting the script, covers are there to protect the script during handling which can reduce the strength of the paper. This is important if the script is to pass through the hands of several people or through the post. Reading copies of screenplays are distributed printed on both sides of the paper to reduce paper waste, they are reduced to half-size to make a small book, convenient to read or put in a pocket. Although most writing contracts continue to stipulate physical delivery of three or more copies of a finished script, it is common for scripts to be delivered electronically via email. Screenplays and teleplays use a set of standardizations, beginning with proper formatting; these rules are in part to serve the practical purpose of making scripts uniformly readable "blueprints" of movies, to serve as a way of distinguishing a professional from an amateur. Motion picture screenplays intended for submission to mainstream studios, whether in the US or elsewhere in the world, are expected to conform to a standard typographical style known as the studio format which stipulates how elements of the screenplay such as scene headings, transitions, character names and parenthetical matter should be presented on the page, as well as font size and line spacing.
One reason for this is that, when rendered in studio format, most screenplays will transfer onto the screen at the rate of one page per minute. This rule of thumb is contested — a page of dialogue occupies less screen time than a page of action, for example, it depends enormously on the literary style of the writer — and yet it continues to hold sway in modern Hollywood. There is no single standard for studio format; some studios have definitions of the required format written into the rubric of their writer's contract. The Nicholl Fellowship, a screenwriting competition run under the auspices of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, has a guide to screenplay format. A more detailed reference is The Complete Guide to Standard Script Formats. A "spec script" or speculative screenplay is a script written to be sold on the open market with no upfront payment, or promise of payment; the content is invented by the screenwriter, though spec screenplays can be based on established works, or real people and events.
For American TV shows, the format rules for hour-long dramas and single-camera sitcoms are the same as for motion pictures. The main difference is. Multi-camera sitcoms use a specialized format that derives from stage plays and radio. In this format, dialogue is double-spaced, action lines are capitalized, scene headings, character entrances and exits, sound effects are capitalized and underlined. Drama series and sitcoms are no longer the only formats. With reality-based programming crossing genres to create various hybrid programs, many of the so-called "reality" programs are in a large part scripted in format; that is, the overall skeleton of the show and its episodes are written to di
Ralph Spence (screenwriter)
Ralph Spence was an American screenwriter and playwright. Born in Key West, Florida in 1890, he wrote for 121 films between 1912 and 1946, his play, The Gorilla, was produced on Broadway in 1925, was the basis for several films. He wrote material for a number of presentations of the Ziegfeld Follies and Earl Carroll's Vanities. Spence died in Los Angeles from a heart attack. Spence worked on several Broadway productions: Ziegfeld Follies of 1921 - dialogue Ziegfeld Follies of 1922 - book and lyrics Ziegfeld Follies of 1923 - sketches Earl Carroll's Vanities - book The Gorilla - playwright Earl Carroll's Vanities - book Ralph Spence on IMDb Ralph Spence at the Internet Broadway Database Ralph Spence at Find a Grave
Fayard Antonio Nicholas was an American choreographer and actor. He and his younger brother Harold Nicholas made up the Nicholas Brothers tap-dance duo, who starred in the MGM musicals An All-Colored Vaudeville Show, Stormy Weather, The Pirate, Hard Four; the Nicholas brothers starred in the 20th Century-Fox musicals Down Argentine Way, Sun Valley Serenade, Orchestra Wives. Nicholas was born in Alabama, but grew up in Philadelphia, he learned to dance while watching vaudeville shows with his brother while their musician parents played in the orchestra. His father, Ulysses D. Nicholas, was a drummer and his mother, Viola Harden Nicholas, was a pianist. In 1932, when he was 18 and his brother was only 11, they became the featured act at Cotton Club in New York City; the brothers earned fame with a unique style of rhythm tap that blended "masterful jazz steps with daredevil athletic moves and an elegance of motion worthy of ballet". They appeared in the Ziegfeld Follies on Broadway and in London they worked with jazz choreographer Buddy Bradley.
The performances led them to a career in film. Nicholas appeared in over 60 films, including the 1943 musical Stormy Weather with their signature staircase dance, his career was interrupted from 1943 to 1944 when he served in the U. S. Army during World War II. Nicholas achieved the rank of Technician fifth grade while in WWII. After his dance career ended and his wife, Katherine Hopkins Nicholas, embarked on a lecture tour discussing dance. In 2003, Nicholas served as "Festival Legend" at the third "Soul to Sole Tap Festival" in Austin, Texas. Fayard Nicholas was inducted into the National Museum of Dance C. V. Whitney Hall of Fame in 2001. Nicholas was married three times, he remained friends with Geraldine Pate, after their divorce. His second wife was Barbara January, he married dancer Katherine Hopkins in 2000. He was a member of the Bahá'í Faith. Nicholas died of pneumonia at age 91. Nicholas Brothers official website "Fayard Nicholas Biography". Filmreference. 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-22. Fayard Nicholas at Find a Grave Fayard Nicholas at the Internet Broadway Database Fayard Nicholas on IMDb Fayard Nicholas's oral history video excerpts at The National Visionary Leadership Project 1998 Interview with Fayard Nicholas
Don Ameche was an American actor, voice artist and comedian. After playing in college shows and vaudeville, he became a major radio star in the early 1930s, which led to the offer of a movie contract from 20th Century Fox in 1935; as a handsome, debonair leading man in 40 films over the next 14 years, he was a popular star in comedies and musicals. In the 1950s he worked on Broadway and in television, was the host of NBC's International Showtime from 1961 to 1965. Returning to film work in his years, Ameche enjoyed a fruitful revival of his career beginning with his role as a villain in Trading Places and won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his performance in Cocoon. Ameche was married to his wife Honore for 54 years, they had six children. Don Ameche was born as Dominic Felix Amici on May 31, 1908, in Wisconsin, his father, Felice Amici, was a bartender from Montemonaco, Ascoli Piceno, Italy. His mother, Barbara Etta Hertel, was of Scottish and German ancestry, he had three brothers, Umberto and Louis, four sisters, Catherine and Anna.
Ameche attended Marquette University, Loras College, the University of Wisconsin–Madison, where his cousin Alan Ameche played football and won the Heisman Trophy in 1954. Ameche had intended to study law, but he found theater more interesting and decided on a stage career. Ameche had done well in college dramatics at Marquette University, when a lead actor for a stock company production of Excess Baggage did not turn up, a friend persuaded him to stand in for the missing actor, he enjoyed the experience and got a juvenile lead in Jerry For Short in New York, followed by a tour in vaudeville with Texas Guinan until she dropped him from the act, dismissing him as "too stiff". Ameche made his film debut in 1935, with an uncredited bit in Dante's Inferno produced by Fox Corporation. Fox turned into 20th Century Fox who put Ameche under long term contract. Ameche graduated to leading roles quickly appearing in Sins of Man playing the son of Jean Hersholt, he was Loretta Young's leading man in the studio's first film in color.
Ameche was reunited with Young in Ladies in Love and he supported Sonja Henie in One in a Million. In Love Is News Ameche was teamed with Tyrone Power, he was top billed in Fifty Roads to Town with Ann Sothern made You Can't Have Everything with Alice Faye and The Ritz Brothers. Fox put Ameche in a drama, Love Under Fire with Young. More popular were the two films he made with Faye and Power, In Old Chicago and Alexander's Ragtime Band. Ameche was reunited with Henie in Happy Landing and made Josette with Simone Simon and Robert Young, Gateway with Arleen Whelan, he played D'Artagnan in The Three Musketeers alongside the Ritz Brothers. He went to Paramount to play Claudette Colbert's leading man in Midnight. Back at Fox Ameche played the title character in The Story of Alexander Graham Bell, it led to the use of the word, "ameche", as slang for telephone in common catchphrases, as noted by Mike Kilen in the Iowa City Gazette: "The film prompted a generation to call people to the telephone with the phrase:'You're wanted on the Ameche.'"
In the 1940 film Go West, Groucho Marx proclaims, "Telephone? This is 1870, Don Ameche hasn't invented the telephone yet". While in the 1941 film Ball of Fire, Barbara Stanwyck's character discusses the "ameche" slang usage, "Do you know what this means: I'll get you on the Ameche." Ameche was Faye's leading man in Hollywood Cavalcade played another real-life figure, Stephen Foster, in Swanee River. He did a third biopic, Lillian Russell with Faye, was top billed in a war film, Four Sons, a musical, Down Argentine Way, which helped make a star of Betty Grable and Carmen Miranda. In 1940, he was voted the 21st-most-popular star in Hollywood. Ameche made That Night in Rio with Faye and Miranda and Moon Over Miami with Grable and Robert Cummings, he did some straight comedies: Kiss the Boys Goodbye with Mary Martin, The Feminine Touch at MGM with Rosalind Russell. Ameche did a drama, Confirm or Deny with Joan Bennett did The Magnificent Dope with Henry Fonda, Girl Trouble with Joan Bennett, Something to Shout About at Columbia.
Ameche starred with Gene Tierney in Ernst Lubitsch's Heaven Can Wait in 1943, a film nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture. Ameche did Happy Land, Wing and a Prayer, Greenwich Village. In 1944 he earned $247,677 for 1943, making him the second highest earner at 20th Century Fox after Spyros Skouras. Ameche played so many roles based on real people that on one of his radio broadcasts, Fred Allen joked, "Pretty soon, Don Ameche will be playing Don Ameche." Soon afterwards, in It's in the Bag!, which starred Allen, Ameche indeed played himself in a bit part. He did Guest Wife with Colbert, So Goes My Love with Myrna Loy and Will Tomorrow Ever Come?. Ameche followed this with Sleep, My Love with Colbert, Slightly French with Dorothy Lamour. Ameche was a major radio entertainer, heard on such shows as Empire Builders, The First Nighter Program, Family Theater, the Betty and Bob soap opera. Following his appearances as announcer and sketch participant on The Edgar Bergen/Charlie McCarthy Show, he achieved memorable success during the late 1940s playing opposite Frances Langford in The Bickersons, the Philip Rapp radio comedy series about a combative married couple.
It began on NBC in 1946, moving to CB
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i