Downtown Edmonton

Downtown Edmonton is the central business district of Edmonton, Alberta. Located at the geographical centre of the city, the downtown area is bounded by 109 Street to the west, 105 Avenue to the north, 97 Street to the east, 97 Avenue and Rossdale Road to the south, the North Saskatchewan River to the southeast. Surrounding neighbourhoods include Oliver to the west, Queen Mary Park, Central McDougall and McCauley to the north, Boyle Street and Riverdale to the east, Rossdale to the south; the residents of Downtown Edmonton are represented by the Downtown Edmonton Community League, established in 1999, which runs a community hall located at 100 Avenue and 103 Street. The arts district is in the eastern part of the core with many award winning institutions like the Francis Winspear Centre for Music and the Citadel Theatre. Edmonton City Hall is located here with all these buildings facing onto Sir Winston Churchill Square, it is the site of the new Art Gallery of Alberta, which opened in early 2010, the Stanley A. Milner Library, Edmonton Public Library's main branch.

Churchill Square is the main downtown square in Edmonton, is the heart of the Arts District. The square plays host to a large majority of events in Greater Edmonton, it is bordered on the north by 102A Avenue, on the west by 100 Street, on the south by 102 Avenue and on the east by Rue Hull Street. The portion of 102A Avenue that cut Churchill Square off from Edmonton's City Hall has been closed off to vehicular traffic as a way to better connect Churchill Square with the fountains and some festivities on the plaza at City Hall. Government Centre is an informal district located at the southwest corner of the downtown core and is the home of the Alberta provincial government; the most notable feature of this part of downtown is the Alberta Legislature Building and its surrounding parks and gardens. An underground pedway system connects the Legislature to several of the surrounding buildings, including the historic Bowker Building and the Frederick W. Haultain Building. Federal government offices were housed in the Federal Building at the north-east corner of Government Centre until they relocated to Canada Place, located at the east edge of downtown, in the 1980s.

The Federal Building is undergoing a $356 million renovation due to be completed in 2015 for provincial government offices and a new underground parking structure. Transit service is provided by the Government Centre Transit Centre located near the Federal Building and by Grandin LRT Station located just to the west. Jasper Avenue is the city's "main street", it starts at 77 Street in the east, running south west along the south edge of Boyle Street until it reaches the downtown core. It runs due west through downtown and the neighbourhood of Oliver until it reaches 125 Street. Jasper Avenue is a major public transit route as several of Edmonton's busiest bus routes travel along it; the LRT travels underneath Jasper Avenue between 110 Streets. Jasper Avenue sits where 101 Avenue would otherwise be. Jasper Avenue is home to many of Edmonton's oldest heritage buildings and some of Edmonton's tallest office towers, including Canadian Western Bank Place and Scotia Place. Together with help from nearby streets like 100 Avenue, 104 Street, 101 Street, 102 Avenue, the Jasper West area is one of the major retail, living and entertainment districts of the city.

Rice Howard Way comprises 100A Street between Jasper Avenue and 102 Avenue and 101A Avenue between 100 Street and 101 Street. The portion of 101A Avenue between 100A Street and 101 Street was closed to traffic, making it an open air pedestrian walkway; the rest of Rice Howard Way is open to vehicular traffic. Rice Howard Way has a few prominent office towers like some restaurants. Rice Howard Way's southern edge has an entrance to the Central LRT Station; the Warehouse District is located between Jasper Avenue and 104 Avenue and between 102 Street and 109 Street. During the first decade of the 20th century, the Hudson's Bay Company began selling its land holdings in this area, businesses were quick to move in. Between 1909 and 1914, no fewer than two dozen warehouses were constructed. In the part of the century, warehouses closed and the buildings were redeveloped into commercial enterprises. In the late 1990s lofts were created in these former warehouses. In recent years, the area has seen a revival, with new lofts and condos being constructed or proposed, along with many designer shops.

The area included Canada's first urban format Sobey's Fresh Market, flanking the curved Birks building as the entrance to 104 Street at Jasper Avenue, serving the residential population until its closure in 2014.104 Street is the main street in the Warehouse District and features shops, cafes and a variety of services. On Saturdays during the warmer months, the street hosts Edmonton's original farmer's market, the City Market; the area is known for lofts in old warehouses. The street is dense, has seen new projects completed in 2009 and 2010 with the construction of the Fox Towers condo complex at the northwest corner of 104 Street and 102 Avenue underway; the Ice District is located between 104 Street to 103 and 106 Avenue. It is a $2.5 billion mixed-use sports and entertainment district being developed on 10 hectares of

Ernest Clive Atkins

Colonel Ernest Clive Atkins CB TD DL JP was Battalion Commander of the 2/5th Leicestershire Regiment during World War I, High Sheriff of Leicestershire in 1931 and Chairman of the Leicestershire Territorial Association in 1938. Ernest Clive Atkins, the eldest son of Arthur Atkins of Middlefield, was born 13 February 1870, he was educated at Bedford Modern School between 1882 and 1886. Atkins was commissioned 2nd Lieutenant in the 1st Volunteer Battalion of the Leicestershire Regiment on 22 April 1892, he was made Captain in 1896, Major in 1903 and commanded the newly formed 4th Battalion as Lieutenant-Colonel until 1909. In 1914, as Lieutenant-Colonel, he raised and commanded the 2/5th Battalion from 1914 until 1917, including during the Easter Rising of 1916. After 1917, Atkins commanded battalions of the Middlesex Regiment. Atkins was a military member of the TA Association of Leicestershire from 1908, Vice-Chairman between 1934 and 1938 and chairman from 1938 for which he was made CB. In 1940, he was appointed first Honorary Colonel of the 2/5th Battalion of the Leicestershire Regiment.

Atkins was made a Deputy Lieutenant of Leicestershire in 1928 and High Sheriff of Leicestershire in 1931. In 1900 Atkins married Agnes Pidcock, the daughter of Reverend Benjamin Pidock of Easton, Hampshire, they had one daughter. Atkins died on 9 January 1953

Ludwig Daser

Ludwig Daser was a German renaissance composer and choirmaster. His career is marked by the Counter-Reformation struggles of his time. A noted composer in his day, Daser has been overshadowed by Orlande de Lassus, who replaced him in Munich. Daser was born in the son of fisherman Achacius Daser. At an early age he joined the Bavarian Hofkapelle in Munich. There he received formal education in the latter as a pupil of Ludwig Senfl. An ordained priest, he entered the Bayerische Hofkapelle in 1550 alongside Mattheus Le Maistre, he became the Munich court choirmaster in 1552. Daser earned extra money as a music copyist. In addition to conducting and composing, Daser was responsible for training boys for the choir, for hiring vocal and instrumental musicians for the chapel, his position afforded him a salary and clothing allowances, monetary bonuses on various occasions, not limited to the New Year. Le Maistre's sudden departure from Munich in 1554 caused Daser to assume duties as court composer. Although the court of Albert V, Duke of Bavaria was decidedly Catholic, Daser's predilection towards protestantism was stated in his Missa Ave Marie, where in the Credo section he added a word to the confession of faith "Et in unum Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum", at the time a clear signal of intent.

In 1556 Orlande de Lassus arrived at the Munich court. The universal acclaim accorded to de Lassus caused discomfiture for Daser, as his role as primary musician became supplanted by de Lassus. In the 1560s, Albert V began pursuing a course of establishing Catholicism at his court. There is some controversy surrounding Daser's activities between 1563 and 1572. Daser was subject to an Inquisition, was shortly removed from his position of Kapellmeister in 1563 on grounds of "ill health". Iain Fenlon suggests that he was found to be "Lutheran", that the "ill health" was a pretext upon which allowed the Duke to give Daser a retirement pension of considerate amount. Bernhold Schmid posits that Daser did suffer from poor health for a period of time. In any case, he was replaced by Orlande de Lassus. Daser's music continued to be performed at the Munich chapel under de Lassus. Daser moved to Stuttgart in 1572 and became kapellmeister there converting as he found no resistance to his Lutheranism from the Duke of Württemberg.

Daser's "retirement" pension from Bavaria was thus revoked. He remained Kapellmeister at Stuttgart for seventeen years, he died in Stuttgart on 27 March 1589. His son-in-law Balduin Hoyoul succeeded him as Kapellmeister in Stuttgart. Daser's compositional output consisted of masses, of which 22 manuscripts are extant, he wrote motets. His works continued to be performed in a court context as last as 1616. Daser was influenced by the Franco-Flemish School, demonstrated by his methodology for tying the cantus firmus to the Ordinary; the sources of his melodies originate from the Netherlands. He employed a variety of methods of treating plainchant melody within his masses, including canon, cantus firmus, juxtaposition. Daser would move the cantus firmus from the tenor to the highest voicing, in order to highlight the main melody. Daser was respected by his contemporaries, receiving high commendation from Bavarian court chronicler Massimo Troiano. Much of his work is held in manuscript form at the Bavarian State Library.

His works are notable for their complexity. His contemporaries valued his lyrical abilities, his style was conservative in nature for his time, evidenced by his four-voice masses and his reliance on the cantus firmus technique. However, his style became more "modern" during his time at Stuttgart. Orlande de Lassus' mass number 40 Ecce nunc benedicite was directly modeled on a work by Daser. Ave Maria De virginibus Dominicalis Dominicalis Ecce nunc benedicite Grace et vertu Mins liefkins braun augen Paschalis Per signum crucis Qui habitat Un gay bergier Beati omnes Dixerunt discipuli Ferialis Fors seulement Jerusalem surge In feriis quadragesimae Inviolata Maria Magdalena Pater noster Sexti modi Praeter rerum seriem De Sancto Spiritu infra septuagesima De veneratione In addition to the masses, he composed a work for four voices entitled Patrocinium musices.