Holt, Renfrew & Co. Limited known as Holt Renfrew or Holt's, is a chain of high-end Canadian department stores. Compared to Barneys, Neiman Marcus and Saks Fifth Avenue in the United States, Holt Renfrew is controlled by Selfridges Group Limited, under the chairmanship of W. Galen Weston, which owns Selfridges in the United Kingdom, Brown Thomas in Ireland, de Bijenkorf in the Netherlands. Once "Furriers in Ordinary" to Queen Victoria, the chain was founded in 1837 as a fur shop in Quebec City. In 1837, William S. Henderson, an Irish-born merchant, bought his partners' interest in their Quebec City fur shop and went into business for himself, thereby marking the traditional founding date of Holt Renfrew. Three years earlier, Henderson had arrived by ship from Londonderry with a load of caps; the merchandise sold well and other overseas crossings followed. Henderson set up shop at Quebec under the name William Ashton & Co. An early company advertisement noted a line of wholesale and retail garments and accessories that included Ladies' fur muffs and tippets, in addition to Buffalo Robes and Bear skins, procured as well as "manufactured on this premises."
By 1847, the store renamed William S. Henderson & Co. had established itself at 12 Buade Street. The store moved to larger premises at 35 Buade where it remained for many years. Over the decades that followed, the store's ownership changed hands, as various partners came and went, the firm's name underwent revision. W. S. Henderson sold the store to his brother John, a Montreal businessman, it became John Henderson & Co. In 1862, with the addition of business partner George Richard Renfrew, the store's name changed to Henderson and Company. By the time of Confederation, in 1867, Henderson had retired and Renfrew and V. H. Marcou, whom Henderson had sent to Quebec to manage the business, had become the new principals, with the firm renamed Renfrew & Marcou. By the middle of the 19th century, the company had begun promoting its fur garments beyond Quebec to a larger North American and European market. An 1890 mail order fur catalogue listed nine different medals and diplomas won at London and Philadelphia exhibitions from 1851 to 1888.
During its history, the store served many notable patrons. Admirers of Sir John A. Macdonald, Canada’s first Prime Minister, had decided the coat he had worn during an 1883 visit to Quebec City was not befitting his status as first minister and bought him a new fur coat from the company. In 1886, G. R. Renfrew & Co. received its most prestigious honour, being named "Furriers in Ordinary" by Her Majesty Queen Victoria. The Queen had purchased a number of fur items from the company’s display at the Indian & Colonial Exhibition held that year at London, England; the Quebec Daily Telegraph wrote at length about the appointment: Visitors to the late provincial exhibition in this city will remember that lithographed copies in duplicate were shown of the royal letters patent from the Mistress of the Robes at Windsor Castle, notifying Messrs. G. R. Renfrew & Co. of their appointment as furriers to the Queen. At the same exhibition this firm exposed a duplicate set in sable to that purchased from them by Her Majesty the Queen in person, at the Indian & Colonial Exhibition in London.
In common with many of our readers, we are not of opinion that a firm, any more than a private individual is the better individually, for rubbing against royalty, but we are speaking of business affairs in a business sense, there is no doubt that Queen Victoria would not have patronized Messrs. G. R. Renfrew & Co. when she wanted a new muff, nor appointed them as her special furriers, unless she was satisfied that their articles were the best of the kind manufactured, that she could not do as well elsewhere. It is upon the knowledge of these facts that we congratulate Messrs. G. R. Renfrew & Co. and feel a legitimate pride in the success of our fellow citizens abroad. At home their success is exemplified by the large number of awards made their exhibits, by the splendid stock which they always keep on hand in the mammoth establishment, it was, in fact, the first of a series of royal warrants issued by members of the British Royal Family. In 1901, Renfrew & Co. was appointed furriers to Her Majesty Queen Alexandra and to His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales King Edward VII, in 1903.
In 1910, the company was appointed by royal warrant furriers to His Majesty King George V. The last of the royal warrants was issued by the Prince of Wales King Edward VIII, in 1921. In 1889, the company established its first store outside of Quebec City with a new retail outlet at 71 and 73 King Street East, Toronto. William Henderson had by this time retired and his nephew, Allen E. Renfrew, had become partner. In 1900, John Henderson Holt, who began his career as a company clerk, was appointed president and the firm became known as Holt, Renfrew & Co. By 1908, the company's structure had changed again and it had become Holt, Renfrew & Co. Limited. Meanwhile, the company continued to display its furs at various international expositions, such as the Franco-British Exhibition, held in London, that same year. Described as a "great merger of fur firms" by the press, in 1910 Holt Renfrew acquired Dunlop, Cook Co. Limited, established new premises at Montreal, on fashionable St. Catherine St. W. in addition to taking over the firm of W. J. Hammond, "the largest fur house in the West," at Winnipeg, Manitoba.
With the death of John H. Holt in 1915, A. E. Renfrew was appointed company president, a position he held until his retirement in 1919. In 1937, in conjunction with the company’s 100th anniversary, Holt Renfrew unveiled a new six-storey Montre
Underground City, Montreal
RÉSO referred to as The Underground City, is the name applied to a series of interconnected office towers, shopping centres and commercial complexes, convention halls and performing arts venues that form the heart of Montreal's central business district, colloquially referred to as Downtown Montreal. The name refers to the underground connections between the buildings that compose the network, in addition to the network's complete integration with the city's underground rapid transit system, the Montreal Metro. Moreover, the first iteration of the Underground City was developed out of the open pit at the southern entrance to the Mount Royal Tunnel, where Place Ville Marie and Central Station stand today. Though most of the connecting tunnels pass underground, many of the key passageways and principal access points are located at ground level, there is one skybridge. In this regard, the Underground City is more of an indoor city than a subterranean city, although there are vast commercial sectors located underground.
The network is useful during Montreal's long winters, during which time well over half a million people are estimated to use it every day. The network is climate controlled and well-lit, is arranged in a U-shape with two principal north–south axes connected by an east–west axis. Combined, there are 32 kilometres' worth of tunnels over twelve square kilometres of the most densely populated part of Montreal. In total, there are more than 120 exterior access points to the network, not including the sixty or so Metro stations located outside the official limits of the RÉSO, some of which have their own smaller tunnel networks; some of the city's larger institutions, namely McGill University, the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, Concordia University and the Université de Montréal have campus tunnel networks separate from the Underground City. In 2004, the downtown network of the underground city was re-branded and given the name RÉSO, a homophone of the French word réseau, or network; the "O" at the end of the word is the logo of the Montreal Metro.
Schematic maps bearing the RÉSO logo are found throughout the network. The largest and best-known segment is located in the centre of downtown, delimited by the Peel and Place-des-Arts Metro stations on the Green Line and the Lucien-L'Allier and Place-d'Armes stations on the Orange Line; the underground city is promoted as an important tourist attraction by most Montreal travel guidebooks, as an urban planning achievement it is impressive. For most Montrealers, however, it tends to be considered more as a large mall complex linking Metro stations — they may not know they are in it. Many Canadian cities have some kind of tunnel or skywalk system downtown to help people avoid the weather. Most parts of the Montreal underground city are open while the Metro is in operation, though some are closed outside of business hours. Maps of the underground city and the Metro can be obtained free of charge from all Metro stations, the network of buildings is indicated on most maps of the downtown core. Nearly 500,000 people use it per day.
It is the largest underground complex in the world. It covers 4 million square meters. According to official statistics, its corridors link up with 10 metro stations, 2 bus terminals, 1,200 offices, about 2,000 stores including 2 major department stores 1,600 housing units, 200 restaurants, 40 banks, 40 movie theatres and other entertainment venues, 7 major hotels, 4 universities, Place des Arts, a cathedral, the Bell Centre, 3 exhibition halls: the Place Bonaventure, the Convention Centre and the Olympic Centre; the vision for the underground city was that of urbanist Vincent Ponte, for whom a commemorative plaque was unveiled in November 2006 at Place Ville-Marie. The first link of the underground city arose with the construction of the Place Ville-Marie office tower and underground shopping mall, built in 1962 to cover an unsightly pit of railway tracks north of the Central Station. A tunnel linked it to the Queen Elizabeth Hotel; the advent of the Montreal Metro in 1966, in time for Expo 67, brought tunnels joining Bonaventure station to the Château Champlain hotel, the Place du Canada office tower, Place Bonaventure, Central Station, Windsor Station, forming the core of the Underground City.
Square-Victoria-OACI station connected to Montreal's stock exchange building. Adding to the development of the underground city was the Montreal Urban Community Transit Commission's policy of offering the aerial rights above Metro station entrances for construction through emphyteutic leases, an advantageous way to acquire prime real estate; when the Metro began running in 1966, ten buildings were connected directly to Metro stations. In 1974, the Complexe Desjardins office tower complex was constructed, spurring the construction of a "second downtown" underground city segment between Place-des-Arts and Place-d'Armes station, via Place des Arts, Complexe Desjardins, the Complexe Guy Favreau federal government building, the Palais des Congrès. Between 1984 and 1992, the underground city expanded, with the construction of three major linked shopping centres in the Peel and McGill Metro station areas: Cours Mont-Royal, Place Montréal-Trust, the Promenades Cathédrale (built underneath
Rue de la Montagne
Rue de la Montagne is a north-south street located in downtown Montreal, Canada. It starts at Wellington Street in the south and continues to above Doctor Penfield Avenue in the north, where it stops in a dead end just short of Pine Avenue. Notable businesses located along the street include Ogilvy's, an upscale department store. According to the Quebec Toponymy Commission, the street is named after Mount Royal. A 1761 map shows a trail at the location of the current street called chemin des Sauvages de la montagne, it is found under the name chemin de la Montagne in maps, such as the map by surveyor Jean Péladeau in 1778. There is an urban legend that it was named after Jacob Mountain, first Anglican bishop of Quebec, or his son Bishop George Jehoshaphat Mountain. However, Jacob Mountain was neither the bishop nor resident in Quebec until 1793, long after the creation of maps bearing the name chemin de la Montagne
A skyscraper is a continuously habitable high-rise building that has over 40 floors and is taller than 150 m. The term first referred to buildings with 10 to 20 floors in the 1880s; the definition shifted with advancing construction technology during the 20th century. Skyscrapers may host both. For buildings above a height of 300 m, the term "supertall" can be used, while skyscrapers reaching beyond 600 m are classified as "megatall". One common feature of skyscrapers is having a steel framework; these curtain walls either bear on the framework below or are suspended from the framework above, rather than resting on load-bearing walls of conventional construction. Some early skyscrapers have a steel frame that enables the construction of load-bearing walls taller than of those made of reinforced concrete. Modern skyscrapers' walls are not load-bearing, most skyscrapers are characterized by large surface areas of windows made possible by steel frames and curtain walls. However, skyscrapers can have curtain walls that mimic conventional walls with a small surface area of windows.
Modern skyscrapers have a tubular structure, are designed to act like a hollow cylinder to resist wind and other lateral loads. To appear more slender, allow less wind exposure, transmit more daylight to the ground, many skyscrapers have a design with setbacks, which are sometimes structurally required; the term "skyscraper" was first applied to buildings of steel framed construction of at least 10 stories in the late 19th century, a result of public amazement at the tall buildings being built in major American cities like Chicago, New York City, Detroit, St. Louis; the first steel-frame skyscraper was the Home Insurance Building in Chicago, Illinois in 1885. Some point to Philadelphia's 10-story Jayne Building as a proto-skyscraper, or to New York's seven-floor Equitable Life Building, built in 1870, for its innovative use of a kind of skeletal frame, but such designation depends on what factors are chosen; the scholars making the argument find it to be purely academic. The structural definition of the word skyscraper was refined by architectural historians, based on engineering developments of the 1880s that had enabled construction of tall multi-story buildings.
This definition was based on the steel skeleton—as opposed to constructions of load-bearing masonry, which passed their practical limit in 1891 with Chicago's Monadnock Building. What is the chief characteristic of the tall office building? It is lofty, it must be tall. The force and power of altitude must be in it, the glory and pride of exaltation must be in it, it must be every inch a proud and soaring thing, rising in sheer exaltation that from bottom to top it is a unit without a single dissenting line. — Louis Sullivan's The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat defines skyscrapers as those buildings which reach or exceed 150 m in height. Others in the United States and Europe draw the lower limit of a skyscraper at 150 m; the Emporis Standards Committee defines a high-rise building as "a multi-story structure between 35–100 meters tall, or a building of unknown height from 12–39 floors" and a skyscraper as "a multi-story building whose architectural height is at least 100 m or 330 ft."
Some structural engineers define a highrise as any vertical construction for which wind is a more significant load factor than earthquake or weight. Note that this criterion fits not only high-rises but some other tall structures, such as towers; the word skyscraper carries a connotation of pride and achievement. The skyscraper, in name and social function, is a modern expression of the age-old symbol of the world center or axis mundi: a pillar that connects earth to heaven and the four compass directions to one another; the tallest building in ancient times was the 146 m Great Pyramid of Giza in ancient Egypt, built in the 26th century BC. It was not surpassed in height for thousands of years, the 160 m Lincoln Cathedral having exceeded it in 1311–1549, before its central spire collapsed; the latter in turn was not surpassed until the 555-foot Washington Monument in 1884. However, being uninhabited, none of these structures comply with the modern definition of a skyscraper. High-rise apartments flourished in classical antiquity.
Ancient Roman insulae in imperial cities reached 10 and more stories. Beginning with Augustus, several emperors attempted to establish limits of 20–25 m for multi-story buildings, but met with only limited success. Lower floors were occupied by shops or wealthy families, the upper rented to the lower classes. Surviving Oxyrhynchus Papyri indicate that seven-story buildings existed in provincial towns such as in 3rd century AD Hermopolis in Roman Egypt; the skylines of many important medieval cities had large numbers of high-rise urban towers, built by the wealthy for defense and status. The residential Towers of 12th century Bologna numbered between 80 and 100 at a time, the tallest of, the 97.2 m high Asinelli Tower. A Florentine law of 1251 decreed that all urban buildings be reduced to less than 26 m. Medium-sized towns of the era are known to have proliferations of towers, such as the 72 up to 51 m height in San Gimignano; the medieval Egyptian city of Fustat housed many high-rise residential buildings, which Al-Muqaddasi in the 10th century described as resembling minarets.
Nasir Khusraw in the early 11th century described some of them rising up to 14 stories, with roof gardens on t
The McCord Museum is a public research and teaching museum dedicated to the preservation, study and appreciation of Canadian history. The museum, whose full name is McCord Museum of Canadian History, is located next to McGill University, in downtown Montreal, Canada. On October 13, 1921, the McCord National Museum, as it was called, moved to the former McGill Union building, designed by Percy Erskine Nobbs in the Arts and Crafts tradition; the collection was based on the McCord family collection. Since 1878, David Ross McCord had been adding to the considerable collection assembled by his family since their arrival in Canada. Over the years, he developed the plan of founding a national history museum in Montreal, at that time Canada's metropolis; the building that now houses the museum was administered by McGill University for over sixty years, when it was the seat of the student government. After riots targeted at SSMU led to the building's storming and several executives being taken hostage, McGill University set out to build a more secure building, University Center, the current seat of SSMU.
Leading members of the community lent their support to the museum over the years. Today, the McCord Museum is supported by the governments of Canada and Montreal, by a large network of members and sponsors; the museum was founded in 1921 based on his own family collection of objects. Since the museum's holdings have increased substantially; this collection of 15,800 objects documents many aspects of the ways of life, arts and traditions of the Aboriginal people of Canada. It includes a number of objects from communities living in Alaska and the northern United States. In this collection, there are more than 7,300 historical aboriginal objects, dating from the early 1800s to 1945 and more than 8,500 archaeological objects dating from about 10,000 years ago to the 16th century; this collection of 18,845 objects consists of women’s dresses, hats and footwear, many created by some of Montreal’s greatest 20th century designers. The menswear in the collection includes suits and accessories. There is an important selection of embroidered samplers and other textiles, including North America's oldest known patchwork quilt.
This collection includes 1,300,000 photographs and various items of early photographic equipment and accessories. It provides a visual history of Montreal and Canada from the 1840s to the present; the collection contains the William Notman & Son Photographic Studio fond constituting more than 600,000 photographic images dating from 1840 to 1935. The collection includes 700,000 images taken by other photographers; this collection of 69,000 iconographical pieces illustrates the personalities and events that made the history of Montreal and Canada, from the 18th to the 21st centuries. It includes paintings, silhouettes and caricatures from the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries; the 38,900 objects included in this collection documents the material environment within which Montrealers and Canadians lived in past centuries. This collection consists of furniture, ceramics, sculpture, hunting equipment, sports equipment, items of folk art and a major collection of 19th century toys; this collection, which total 262 running meters, includes manuscripts, personal journals and other documents showing the history of Canada from the 18th century to the present.
The documents come from families. The museum's exterior features the sculpture Totem urbain / histoire en dentelle, an allegorical representation of Montreal history, by Pierre Granche; the Museum is affiliated with: CMA, CHIN, Virtual Museum of Canada. Exhibition Catalogue. Wrapped in the Colours of the Earth. Cultural Heritage of the First Nations. McCord Museum. ISBN 1-895615-07-0. Exhibition Catalogue. Form and Fashion. Nineteenth-Century Montreal Dress. McCord Museum. ISBN 1-895615-00-3. Exhibition Catalogue; the McCord Family. A Passionate Vision. McCord Museum. ISBN 978-0-7735-6373-5. Exhibition Catalogue. Eclectic Tastes. Fine and Decorative Arts from the McCord. McCord Museum. ISBN 1-895615-02-X. McCord Museum
De Maisonneuve Boulevard
De Maisonneuve Boulevard is a major westbound boulevard located in downtown Montreal, Canada. It is named after the founder of Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve, it is a one-way street westbound. De Maisonneuve Boulevard is about 11 kilometres long and begins on Du Havre Street in the east end, ends at West Broadway in the city's west end near Concordia University's Loyola Campus; the street runs through the wealthy enclave of Westmount, where it is one-way, is cut in two by Westmount Park. De Maisonneuve was created as a single street in 1966, following the construction of the Montreal Metro. From west to east, De Maisonneuve took the route of: Western, from Decarie to Atwater Street. Today, Ontario Street still remains, as does a small section of de Montigny, from Saint Laurent to Saint Urbain Street. During the last 20 years, the multifunctional character of De Maisonneuve Boulevard increased. Institutions located along the street such as the Université du Québec à Montréal, Place des Arts and Concordia University have built new buildings.
Other institutions have built new buildings on the street such as the Grande Bibliothèque, the Cinémathèque québécoise and the Salle Pierre-Mercure. In the central business district, residential condominium buildings, such as Le Roc Fleuri and Le 1200 Ouest, have been constructed in the mid-2000s between the office towers which were built in the late 1980s and early 1990s. In 2007, the city completed a 3.4 km year-round bicycle path along De Maisonneuve through downtown Montreal, from Berri Street to Atwater Street. As of the 2009-2010 winter season, it is the only bike path cleared of snow. A report blamed the path's construction for damage to an underground pedestrian tunnel, part of Montreal's Underground City. On June 16, 2008, Montreal city council voted unanimously to name the path after the late Montreal cycling activist Claire Morissette. Westmount Square, Dawson College and the seven linked. Other notable buildings include the Grande Bibliothèque, Université du Québec à Montréal, Place des Arts, Les Cours Mont-Royal, both of Concordia University's campuses and Montreal Forum.
The Green line of the Montreal Metro runs under this street in between Atwater. The Metro was constructed under this street to serve Saint Catherine Street, to the south, to avoid a prolonged disruption of commercial activity on that street. Vendôme station, on the Orange line, is located on this boulevard
Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city; the city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of, Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with cold, snowy winters. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal; the broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927. French is the city's official language and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages. In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.
The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, it is situated 258 kilometres south-west of Quebec City. The commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s, it remains an important centre of commerce, transport, pharmaceuticals, design, art, tourism, fashion, gaming and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings. Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.
It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city; as of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi, it is a name referring to the Lachine Rapids to the island's Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang which means "the first stopping place" and is part of the seven fires prophecy; the city was first named Ville Marie by European settlers from La Flèche, or "City of Mary", named for the Virgin Mary. Its current name comes from the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal,. A possibility by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real.
Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages; the Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century; the French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have been removed. Seventy years the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley.
This is believed to be due to epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary, seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury; the colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal is