Mount Royal

Mount Royal is a large volcanic-related hill or small mountain in the city of Montreal west of Downtown Montreal, Canada. The City of Montreal takes its name from Mount Royal; the hill is part of the Monteregian Hills situated between the Laurentians and the Appalachian Mountains. It gave Mons Regius, to the Monteregian chain; the hill consists of three peaks: Colline de la Croix at 233 m, Colline d'Outremont at 211 m, Westmount Summit at 201 m elevation above mean sea level. In June 2017, during the 375th anniversary of Montreal, the city formally renamed the Outremont peak Tiohtià:ke Otsira’kéhne, Mohawk for "the place of the big fire," reflecting how the hill had been used for a fire beacon by First Nations people. Mount Royal is the deep extension of a vastly eroded ancient volcanic complex, active about 125 million years ago; as a result, the tourist guidebook Michelin Guide to Montreal states. The mountain, along with the other mountains of the Monteregian Hills, was formed when the North American Plate moved westward over the New England hotspot.

By a process known as intrusion, magma intruded into the sedimentary rocks underneath the area, producing at least eight igneous stocks. The main rock type is a gabbro composed of pyroxene and variable amounts of plagioclase. During and after the main stage of intrusion, the gabbros and surrounding rocks were intruded by a series of volcanic dikes and sills. Subsequently, the surrounding softer sedimentary rock was eroded, leaving behind the resistant igneous rock that forms the mountain; the mineral montroyalite, discovered in Montreal, is named after the mountain that provided the definition sample. The first European to scale the mountain was Jacques Cartier, guided there in 1535 by the people of the village of Hochelaga, he named it in honour of his patron, Francis I of France. He wrote in his journal: "And among these fields is situated and seated the said town of Hochelaga, near to and adjoining a mountain.... We named this mountain Mount Royal." One theory is that the name of the Island of Montréal derives from Mont Réal, as the mountain's name was spelled in Middle French.

However, Cartier's 1535 diary entry refers to "le mont Royal." Another argument, mentioned by the Government of Canada on its website concerning Canadian place names, is that the name Montréal was adopted because a Venetian map from 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, "Monte Real." The name was first applied to the island and was unofficially applied to the city Ville-Marie, by the 18th century. In 1643, Paul de Chomedey, Sieur de Maisonneuve made a pilgrimage to the top of the mountain to fulfill a vow made in the winter season on occasion of a great flood that swept up to the town palisades. In 1876, land owner and farmer James Swail began planning residential subdivisions on the western slope of Mount Murray, in what is now the Cote-des-Neiges district. In 1906, a large housing development was started in the area, called Northmount Heights, with homes built along what is now Decelles Street by developer Northmount Land Company. Much of this area has since been expropriated by the Université de Montréal.

In 1914–1918, the Mount Royal Tunnel was dug under the mountain by the Canadian Northern Railway, a predecessor of the Canadian National Railway. It is used by the AMT's Deux-Montagnes commuter rail line; the area was considered as a candidate for the site of Expo 67 before the exposition grounds were built on adjoining islands in the Saint Lawrence River. For the 1976 Summer Olympics, the park itself hosted the individual road race cycling event. Mount Royal is 2.5 kilometers north to south. The mountain emerges from the plains occupied by neighboring regions. Two roads cross the territory: The Camillien-Houde Way Côte-des-Neiges Road Mount Royal is home to many animal species including: Gray squirrel Raccoon Fox Marmot Skunk Bee Bird species From the point of view of the flora, the mountain shelters a set of natural spaces and semi-natural rich in trees and herbaceous plants The first Mount Royal Cross was placed there in 1643 by Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve, the founder of the city, in fulfillment of a vow he made to the Virgin Mary when praying to her to stop a disastrous flood.

Today, the mountain is crowned by a 31.4-metre-high illuminated cross, installed in 1924 by the Société Saint-Jean-Baptiste and now owned by the city. It was converted to fibre-optic light in 1992, to LEDs in 2009; the cross is lit in white, but can now be changed to any colour, including the purple traditionally used upon the death of a pope. Beside the cross, a plaque marks the placement of a time capsule in 1992, during Montréal's 350th birthday celebration, it contains messages and drawings from 12,000 children, depicting their visions for the city in the year 2142, when the capsule is scheduled to be opened. The mountain is the site of one of Montreal's largest greenspaces; the park was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and was inaugurated in 1876, although not completed to his design. Olmsted had planned to emphasize the mountainous topography through the use of vegetation. Shade trees at the bottom of the carriage path would resemble a valley; as the visitor went higher, the vegetation would get more sparse to give the illusion of exaggerated height.

However, Montreal suffered a depression in the mid-1870s

Heterakis gallinarum

Heterakis gallinarum is a nematode parasite that lives in the cecum of some galliform birds in ground feeders such as domestic chickens and turkeys. It causes infection, mildly pathogenic. However, it carries a protozoan parasite Histomonas meleagridis which causes of histomoniasis. Transmission of H. meleagridis is through the H. gallinarum egg. H. gallinarum is about 1–2 cm in length with a pointed tail and a preanal sucker. The parasite is a diecious species with marked sexual dimorphism. Males are shorter, measuring around 9 mm in length, with a unique bent tail. Females are stouter and longer, measuring 13 mm in length, with a straight tail end. H. gallinarum has a direct lifecycle involving birds such as chickens, ducks, grouse, partridges and quails as definitive hosts. Eggs of H. gallinarum are passed in feces by the host. At optimal temperature, they remain infective for years in soil. Upon ingestion by a host, the embryonated eggs hatch into second-stage juveniles in the gizzard or duodenum, are passed to the cecum.

Their development is completed in the lumen, but some may enter the mucosa and remain for years without further development. The prepatent time is 24–30 days. Earthworms and houseflies are considered paratenic hosts, as they can ingest the egg in feces and a juvenile may hatch in tissues, which stays dormant until eaten by birds. H. gallinarum is geographically distributed worldwide found in chickens, domesticated turkeys, many other species of fowl of poultry. Their eggs are found to live for years in soil making it difficult to eliminate H. gallinarum from a domestic flock. Earthworms may ingest the eggs of H. gallinarum and contributes to the cause of infections in poultry. Although the eggs are themselves infective, they can develop further into a second infective larval stage; this development takes 2 -- 4 weeks. H. gallinarum infection is. However, H. gallinarum plays the role of carrier in the lifecycle of Histomonas meleagridis, the causal pathogen of enterohepatitis "blackhead" of turkeys.

H. meleagridis stays viable while inside the egg of H. gallinarum. Heavy infection in pheasants indicated gross lesions characterized by congestion, petechial haemorrhages of the mucosa and nodules in the cecal wall. In addition under microscopy, chronic diffuse typhlitis, granulomas with necrotic center in the submucosa and leiomyomas in the submucosa and serosa associated with immature H. gallinarum worms were observed. Primary infections are not apparent. Secondary infections are characterized by the formation of nodules in the cecum and the submucosa of the cecum. During heavy infections, intestinal walls may exhibit marked inflammation. In egg-laying hens, heavy infection reduces egg production. Diagnosis is through the presence of eggs in host feces. Effective treatment is by using mebendazole, distributed to a flock of birds in their food and water. In addition, rearing the birds on hardware cloth assists in the elimination this parasite. Free-range chickens can be infected. Organic Livestock Research Group, VEERU, The University of Reading Zipcodezoo BioLib Wildlife Information Information at Animal Diversity Web Information at VetPDA Galapagos Species Check List Classification in Encyclopedia of Life Fowl Facts Information Centre Taxonomy at UniProt

Persipura Jayapura

Persatuan Sepakbola Indonesia Jayapura, or Persipura, is an Indonesian football club based in Jayapura, Papua. The club was founded in 1963 and competes in the Liga 1. Persipura plays. Persipura is one of the giants of modern football in Indonesia with various league and tournament titles. Persipura is known as the producer of great footballers from the land of Papua such as Rully Nere, Jack Komboy, Eduard Ivakdalam, Boaz Solossa, Ian Louis Kabes and Imanuel Wanggai, they are known for playing style relying on the abilities of individual players. Persipura's history is mysterious; the club's administrators cannot make sure that the club was founded in 1963, since there are proof that suggests the club might have been founded in 1965, 1962, or 1950. Other than that, the administrators cannot make sure Persipura's original name; the early years were not filled with a lot of achievements. They only managed to win the Perserikatan First Division two times in 1979 and 1993, other than that they were runners-up in the 1980 Perserikatan season.

Their first achievement in the modern era is by winning the 2005 Liga Indonesia Premier Division under coach Rahmad Darmawan. PT. Persipura Papua was established to fulfill the requirement to compete in the Indonesia Super League. Persipura dominated Indonesian football under the control of Brazilian coach Jacksen F. Tiago by winning the Indonesia Super League in 2009, 2011 and 2013. Persipura uses Mandala Stadium as their home ground, their supporters are called Persipura Mania. They have hardline fans or ultras namely The Comen's and Black Pearl Curva Nord. Specs As of 5 April 2019Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality; as of 10 August 2018 Champion Runners-up 3rd place Promoted Relegated QR Qualification Round NP Not Particapated Note:^1 3rd position with Pupuk Kaltim. Knockout rounds are only statistics, not counting points.^2 PS Barito Putera did not take part in the league^3 Knockout rounds are only statistics, not counting points.^4 Knockout rounds are only statistics, not counting points.^5 League was suspended.^6 Indonesia Soccer Championship A is an unofficial competition replacing Indonesia Super League, suspended.

As of 6 February 2020. AFC Champions League 2010 – Group stage 2012 – Play-off roundAFC Cup 2011 – Quarter-finals 2014 – Semi-finals 2015 – Round of 16 List of football clubs in Indonesia Indonesian football league system Official fansite Persipura Jayapura at Liga Indonesia