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Drafter

A drafter, draughtsman/draughtswoman, draftsman/draftswoman, drafting technician makes detailed technical drawings or plans for machinery, electronics, sections, etc. Drafters use computer software and manual sketches to convert the designs and layouts of engineers and architects into a set of technical drawings. Drafters operate as the supporting developers and sketch engineering designs and drawings from preliminary design concepts. In the past, drafters sat at drawing boards and used pencils, compasses, protractors and other drafting devices to prepare a drawing by hand. From the 1980s through 1990s, board drawings were going out of style as the newly developed computer-aided design system was released and was able to produce technical drawings at a faster pace. Many modern drafters now use computer software such as AutoCAD, SolidWorks to flesh out the designs of engineers or architects into technical drawings and blueprints but board drafting still remains the base of the CAD system. Many of these drawings are utilized to create tools or machines.

In addition, the drawings include design specifications like dimensions and procedures. Drafters may be casually referred to as CAD operators, engineering draftspersons, or engineering technicians. With CAD systems, drafters can create and store drawings electronically so that they can be viewed, printed, or programmed directly into automated manufacturing systems. CAD systems permit drafters to prepare variations of a design. Although drafters use CAD extensively, it is only a tool. Drafters still need knowledge of traditional drafting techniques, in addition to CAD skills. Despite the near global use of CAD systems, manual drafting and sketching are used in certain applications. Drafters' drawings show how to construct a product or structure. Drawings include technical details and specify dimensions and procedures. Drafters fill in technical details using drawings, rough sketches and calculations made by engineers, architects, or scientists. For example, drafters use their knowledge of standardized building techniques to draw in the details of a structure.

Some use their understanding of engineering and manufacturing theory and standards to draw the parts of a machine. Drafters use technical handbooks, tables and computers to complete their work. Drafting work has many specialities such as: Aeronautical drafters prepare engineering drawings detailing plans and specifications used in the manufacture of aircraft and related parts. Architectural drafters draw structural features of buildings and other structures; these designs are used in the construction or remodeling of homes, commercial buildings and power stations. These workers may specialize in a type of structure, such as residential or commercial, or in a kind of building material used, such as reinforced concrete, steel, or timber. Civil drafters prepare drawings and topographical and relief maps used in major construction or civil engineering projects such as buildings, bridges, flood-control projects, water and sewage systems. Electrical drafters prepare wiring and layout diagrams used by workers who erect and repair electrical equipment and wiring in communication centers, power plants, electrical distribution systems, buildings.

Electronics drafters draw wiring diagrams, circuit board assembly diagrams and layout drawings used in the manufacture and repair of electronic devices and components. Mechanical drafters prepare drawings showing the detail and assembly of a wide variety of machinery and mechanical devices, indicating dimensions, fastening methods, manufacturing equipment, mechanical installation infrastructure. Process piping or pipeline drafters prepare drawings used in the layout and operation of oil and gas fields, chemical plants, process piping systems. Photovoltaic drafters prepare drawings showing inverter Pad location drawings and slab construction drawings prepare specific photovoltaic system assembly details and some wiring diagrams. Drafters work in architectural offices, manufacturing companies, engineering firms, CAD-specific work-groups, construction companies, engineering consultancy firms, the government, natural resource companies or are independently self-employed. Drafting technologists and technicians work as part of a broader multidisciplinary engineering team in support of engineers, architects or industrial designers or they may work on their own.

The position of a drafter is one of a skilled assistant to engineers. Drafters work in offices, seated at adjustable drawing boards or drafting tables when doing manual drawings, although modern drafters work at computer terminals much of the time, they work in an office environment, but some may have to travel and spend time on manufacturing plants or construction sites. As drafters spend long periods in front of computers doing detailed technical work, they may be susceptible to eyestrain, back discomfort, hand and wrist problems. Most drafters work standard 40-hour weeks. High school courses in English, science, computer technology and design, visual arts, computer graphics are useful for people considering a drafting career. Attributes required by drafters include technical writing skills, problem-solving skills, the ability to visualize three-di

Tindale, Cumbria

Tindale or Tindale Fell is a hamlet in the parish of Farlam in the City of Carlisle district of the English county of Cumbria. It is to the south of the A689 Brampton to Alston road, it is a former mining village- both coal and lead were mined here. Limestone was quarried here. Tindale is 15 miles east of the Carlisle, it was here. Though located in Brampton, the Gairs mine NY 585 554 is described as being in Hallbankgate in 1925, it had 55 working underground and 28 above, though two years earlier it had employed 148 underground and 44 above. It output 70,000 tons of steam coal, it was a safe mine and worked two seams, known as the Little Limestone Coal and the Little Limestone seam. It was abandoned in 1936, it was operated by the Naworth Coal Company. There were other mines in the area notably the Tindale Drift Mine and the Black Syke Mine in Haltwhistle, Roachburn and Bishops Hill Colliery at Brampton and the Naworth Colliery and drift mines at Midgeholme. Limestone was quarried at the Silvertop Quarry.

Hallbankgate stood at the top of a railway incline on'Lord Carlisle's Railway' which linked Brampton Junction with the various mines and quarries in the vicinity of Hallbankgate. The Brampton Railway originated as a wooden wagonway on Tindale Fell; the mainline to Brampton Coal Staithe was built in 1798, it was in operation in 1799. In 1808 the track was relaid using wrought iron rails, This was the first place where they were used commercially. In 1836, the route below Hallbankgate was realigned to it could link with the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway at Brampton Junction station; the rails were re-spaced to Stephenson's 4' 8 1/2¨ gauge. The line was worked by steam, the engine used was Stephenson's Rocket, bought for £300. There was a passenger service but the line was used to get the coal from the neighbouring mines to Brampton. There was an engine shed built at Hallbankgate, above the village lines were laid to each pit; the line continued to Halton Lea Gate, but was extended to Lambley and Lambley Junction in 1852.

The line closed in 1953. Blacksyke junction is just to the east of the village and the site on a level crossing to the west

The Colossus of Detroit

The Colossus Of Detroit is an album by jazz saxophonist Billy Mitchell, released in 1978 by Xanadu Records. The Allmusic review by Scott Yanow stated "Veteran tenor saxophonist Billy Mitchell could not ask for a better rhythm section than he has here... The results are quite boppish and one of Mitchell's better recordings of the past 20 years". "Recorda-Me" - 8:25 "I Had the Craziest Dream" - 6:07 "I Should Care" - 7:06 "Unforgettable" - 9:25 "How Am I to Know?" - 5:05 "Be My Guest" - 6:08 Billy Mitchell - saxophone Barry Harris - piano Sam Jones - bass Walter Bolden - drums