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Technical drawing

Technical drawing, drafting or drawing, is the act and discipline of composing drawings that visually communicate how something functions or is constructed. Technical drawing is essential for communicating ideas in engineering. To make the drawings easier to understand, people use familiar symbols, units of measurement, notation systems, visual styles, page layout. Together, such conventions constitute a visual language and help to ensure that the drawing is unambiguous and easy to understand. Many of the symbols and principles of technical drawing are codified in an international standard called ISO 128; the need for precise communication in the preparation of a functional document distinguishes technical drawing from the expressive drawing of the visual arts. Artistic drawings are subjectively interpreted. Technical drawings are understood to have one intended meaning. A drafter, draftsperson, or draughtsman is a person. A professional drafter who makes technical drawings is sometimes called a drafting technician.

A sketch is a executed, freehand drawing, not intended as a finished work. In general, sketching is a quick way to record an idea for use. Architect's sketches serve as a way to try out different ideas and establish a composition before a more finished work when the finished work is expensive and time-consuming. Architectural sketches, for example, are a kind of diagrams; these sketches, like metaphors, are used by architects as a means of communication in aiding design collaboration. This tool helps architects to abstract attributes of hypothetical provisional design solutions and summarize their complex patterns, hereby enhancing the design process; the basic drafting procedure is to place a piece of paper on a smooth surface with right-angle corners and straight sides—typically a drawing board. A sliding straightedge known as a T-square is placed on one of the sides, allowing it to be slid across the side of the table, over the surface of the paper. "Parallel lines" can be drawn by moving the T-square and running a pencil or technical pen along the T-square's edge.

The T-square is used to hold other devices such as set triangles. In this case, the drafter places one or more triangles of known angles on the T-square—which is itself at right angles to the edge of the table—and can draw lines at any chosen angle to others on the page. Modern drafting tables come equipped with a drafting machine, supported on both sides of the table to slide over a large piece of paper; because it is secured on both sides, lines drawn along the edge are guaranteed to be parallel. In addition, the drafter uses several technical drawing tools to draw circles. Primary among these are the compasses, used for drawing simple arcs and circles, the French curve, for drawing curves. A spline is a rubber coated articulated metal. Drafting templates assist the drafter with creating recurring objects in a drawing without having to reproduce the object from scratch every time; this is useful when using common symbols. Templates are sold commercially by a number of vendors customized to a specific task, but it is not uncommon for a drafter to create his own templates.

This basic drafting system requires an accurate table and constant attention to the positioning of the tools. A common error is to allow the triangles to push the top of the T-square down thereby throwing off all angles. Tasks as simple as drawing two angled lines meeting at a point require a number of moves of the T-square and triangles, in general, drafting can be a time-consuming process. A solution to these problems was the introduction of the mechanical "drafting machine", an application of the pantograph which allowed the drafter to have an accurate right angle at any point on the page quite quickly; these machines included the ability to change the angle, thereby removing the need for the triangles as well. In addition to the mastery of the mechanics of drawing lines and circles onto a piece of paper—with respect to the detailing of physical objects—the drafting effort requires a thorough understanding of geometry and spatial comprehension, in all cases demands precision and accuracy, attention to detail of high order.

Although drafting is sometimes accomplished by a project engineer, architect, or shop personnel, skilled drafters accomplish the task, are always in demand to some degree. Today, the mechanics of the drafting task have been automated and accelerated through the use of computer-aided design systems. There are two types of computer-aided design systems used for the production of technical drawings: two dimensions and three dimensions. 2D CAD systems such as AutoCAD or MicroStation replace the paper drawing discipline. The lines, circles and curves are created within the software, it is down to the technical drawing skill of the user to produce the drawing. There is still much scope for error in the drawing when producing first and third angle orthographic projections, auxiliary projections and cross-section views. A 2D CAD system is an electronic drawing board, its greatest strength over direct to paper technical drawing is in the making of revisions. Whereas in a conventional hand drawn te

L. W. Boynton

Lawrence William Boynton was an American football player, collegiate track and field athlete, lawyer. He served as the head coach at the University of Kansas in 1900, at Sewanee: The University of the South in 1902, at Washington University in St. Louis from 1903 to 1904, compiling a career college football record of 17–18–4. Boynton was born in Whitney Point, New York on August 12, 1877 to George G. and Eliza Ann Boynton where he grew up. He attended Cornell University from 1897 to 1900. While at Cornell he played on the varsity football team as well as the varsity track & field team. Boynton lettered in track & field in 1899 and 1900 competing in the hammer throw, he had the seventh best throw in the nation in 1900 with a distance of 44.9m in a meet in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Boynton became the head football coach at the University of Kansas the fall after he graduated from Cornell, he coached the 1900 Kansas Jayhawks football team to a record of 2–5–2 with wins over Ottawa University and the University of South Dakota and ties against Emporia State University and the Missouri.

After he finished coaching at Kansas in 1900 he returned to New York state where Boynton married Grace G. Stanton on September 6, 1902, just 2 months before he would head off to coach at Sewanee, he worked as a lawyer first in New York state starting in 1905 though he had passed the New York Bar exam in 1900 in Florida for four years starting in 1926, in North Carolina starting in 1929. Boynton died on June 1937, at the home of his parents in Whitney Point, New York, he was buried back in his hometown of New York in Riverside Cemetery. L. W. Boynton at Find a Grave


Adila Sedraïa, best known by her stage name Indila, is a French singer and songwriter. She collaborated with many musicians on vocals and songwriting prior to releasing her first single, Dernière danse, in December 2013, which reached SNEP Top 2 in France, she released her first album Mini World in February 2014. Indila was born in Paris on 26 June 1984, her grandmother sang at weddings. Indila describes herself as a "child of the world", she is of Algerian, Egyptian and Cambodian descent and says that her stage name Indila comes from her insatiable love for India. Prior to her singing career, she worked as a tour guide at the Marché international de Rungis, she claims Enrico Macias as her first musical influence, with others influences being Michael Jackson, Ismaël Lo, Warda Al-Jazairia, Lata Mangeshkar. In addition to her native French, Indila has provided vocals in English, including Dreamin' with Youssoupha and Bye Bye Sonyé with DJ Abdel, sung Hindi-language refrains in Criminel by TLF and Thug mariage by Rohff.

Her meeting with record producer Skalpovich allowed her to enter into the world of rap and collaborations with several French rappers. Indila began her music career around 2009, providing vocals for Invitaation by Vitaa, Trinité by L'Algérino, Thug mariage by Rohff, Hiro by Soprano, composing J'ai besoin d'y croire sung by Admiral T. Hiro was her first successful collaboration, reaching number 26 in the charts in France and 27 in Belgium, she continued to collaborate with several other French rappers and DJs over the next three years, including Poussière d'empire with Nessbeal, Criminel with TLF, Press pause with OGB, Bye Bye Sonyé with DJ Abdel, Dreamin' with Youssoupha—which peaked in July 2012 at number 14 in France's SNEP charts—and Ma Reine with Axel Tony. She composed the songs Plus Haut by Matt Pokora along with Avec Toi by Axel Tony featuring Tunisiano, in which she is credited by her real name "Adila Sedraïa". Avec toi, produced by Skalp, reached number 7 in the charts in France in November 2012.

In November 2013, Indila released her first single—Dernière danse, from the album Mini World—which found success. It reached the top 10 of the French charts on 4 January 2014 and reached number 2 on 18 January, where it remained through the week of 22 March; the song remained in the top 200 in France through April 2015, for a total of 77 weeks in the top 200. It was a success outside France; the music video for Dernière danse, released 4 December 2013, reached 100 million YouTube views on 30 July 2014 and has over 600 million views as of 2 February 2020. In February 2014, Indila released her first album, Mini World, produced by Skalp. In addition to Dernière danse, two other singles from the album reached the top-20 in the charts in France: Tourner dans le vide, which reached number 13, S. O. S, which reached number 8; the album was the number 1 best-selling album in France the week of its debut and remained in the top-10 best-selling albums through the week of 11 October. A limited-edition CD/DVD version of Mini World was released in November 2014, with two new songs, orchestral versions of Tourner dans le vide and Love story, an acoustic version of S.

O. S, videos of live performances of several tracks from the album. A second limited-edition release of Mini World in February 2015 contained the ten tracks from the original release, the two new songs from the first limited edition, another new song. Mini World found success both in France, where it was the third-best-selling album of 2014, outside the country, where it was the best-seller of 2014 in Poland and second-best-seller of 2014 in Belgium. In October 2014, Indila won the MTV Europe Music Award for Best French Artist of 2014, she won Best New Album of the Year award at the 30th Victoires de la Musique in February 2015. Indila was among the ten artists to receive the European Border Breakers Award in 2015. On 23 August 2019, Indila returned with her new song "Parle à ta tête". On 14 November 2019, the music video for "Parle à ta tête" was released. *Did not appear in the official Belgian Ultratop 50 charts, but rather in the bubbling under Ultratip charts. Besides songs appearing in Mini World and Parle à ta tête, Indila is credited as a songwriter in the following songs: 2010: "Poussière d'empire" by Nessbeal feat.

Indila 2010: "J'ai besoin d'y croire" by Admiral T feat. Awa Imani 2010: "Thug mariage" by Rohff feat. Indila 2011: "Bye Bye Sonyé" by DJ Abdel feat. Indila 2012: "Avec toi" by Axel Tony featuring Tunisiano 2012: "Plus haut" by M. Pokora 2012: "Plus jamais" by Sultan 2012: "Dreamin'" by Youssoupha feat. Indila & Skalpovitch 2013: "Ma reine" by Axel Tony feat. Admiral T 2016: "Baila" by Ishtar 2016: "Pour toi et moi" by Ishtar Official website

Miramax Books

Miramax Books was a publishing company started by Bob and Harvey Weinstein of Miramax Films and was known for the Percy Jackson & the Olympians series. It published the memoirs of many major celebrities, including David Boies, Madeleine Albright, Former Mayor of New York Rudy Giuliani, TV's Tim Russert, others. In November 1998, the tentatively named Miramax/Talk Media Books, a division of Miramax's Talk Media, was started with the naming of its Jonathan Burnham president and editor-in-chief. Miramax Books was dissolved into this new unit. Burnham would start on December 7. Miramax/Talk would published 10 to 15 total books a year and non-fiction, starting in 2000. Tina Brown, chair of Talk Media recruited a number of high profile authors, historian the British novelist Martin Amis and Simon Schama for the imprint. Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani was paid $3 million in advance for his autobiography prior to 9-11. By April 2002, Talk Miramax Books had published 30 books, five of which made a national best-seller lists.

The unit was profitable. In 2004, Miramax Books won the auction for Riordan's Percy the Olympians manuscript; when the Weinsteins broke from Disney in 2005, five years before Miramax Films went for sale by Disney, the book division was still owned by the Weinsteins. So, a joint operation agreement for the company was made ending on September 30, 2007. Weinstein Brothers brought in CEO, Rob Weisbach, for Miramax Books while he ran the Weinstein Books imprint at The Weinstein Company. Hyperion Books president Robert Miller, Disney Publishing Worldwide president Deborah Dugan would be acquiring new books. A financial stake in any books on the publication schedule from April 2005 to September 2007 would remain with The Weinsteins. Hyperion Books for Children's official site Hyperion's official site

Emil Rudolf WeiƟ

Emil Rudolf Weiß, or Weiss, was a German painter, graphic artist and poet. His father was a police officer and he grew up in Breisach and Baden-Baden. From 1893 to 1896, he studied at the Academy of Fine Arts, with Robert Poetzelberger. In 1895, he published a volume of lyric poetry. After leaving Karlsruhe, he studied at the Académie Julian in Paris. Together with Félix Vallotton, he illustrated, he returned to Karlsruhe before going to Stuttgart, where he worked with Hans Thoma and Leopold Graf von Kalckreuth. In 1899, he went back to Paris with Karl Hofer. From 1902 to 1909, he enjoyed the patronage of Theodor Reinhart. During that time, he designed trading cards for the Stollwerck chocolate company, he married a singer named Johanna Schwan in 1903. After his marriage, Karl Ernst Osthaus employed him at the painting school of the Folkwang-Museums in Hagen, he was involved in designing books for S. Fischer Verlag. In 1904, he participated in the first exhibition of the Deutscher Künstlerbund at the Staatliche Antikensammlungen and provided illustrations for Der Buntscheck, a children's book by Richard Dehmel.

In 1907, with a recommendation from Bruno Paul, he was appointed to the teaching center at the Kunstgewerbemuseum Berlin and he joined the Berlin Secession. He was named a Professor at the Kunstgewerbemuseum's school in 1910, where he taught decorative painting and sketching until 1933, he divorced Johanna in 1914 and was conscripted in 1917, although he was dismissed from service due to a heart problem. That same year, he married Renée Sintenis, he became a member of the Prussian Academy of Arts in 1922. Two years he designed the reverse of the new 1, 2, 3 and 5 Reichsmark coins. Several publishers collaborated on a Festschrift on the occasion of his fiftieth birthday, he created numerous fonts, including: Weiß-Fraktur, Weiß-Antiqua, Weiß-Gotisch und Weiß-Rundgotisch. Only a few of them are still in use. In 1933, the Nazi régime revoked his Lehramt and he withdrew to his home in Baden-Baden, where he concentrated on writing. In 1936, he took part in the last annual exhibition of the Deutscher Künstlerbund in Hamburg, closed by the "Reichskammer der bildenden Künste", a division of the Reichskulturkammer.

The following year, he was expelled from the Academy of Arts. He was buried, at his request, in Bernau im Schwarzwald. A memorial exhibition was held in Freiburg im Breisgau, after its liberation in 1944. Many of his works were lost during the war. "Weiß, Emil Rudolf" in: Thieme-Becker: Allgemeines Lexikon der Bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. Vol.44 Hans Vollmer in: Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler des XX. Jahrhunderts. E. A. Seemann, Leipzig 2008. ISBN 978-3-86502-177-9 Barbara Stark: Emil Rudolf Weiss 1875–1942. Galerie der Stadt, Sindelfingen, 1992 ISBN 3-928222-08-2 Exhibition catalog, Traum und Tod. Zwischen Symbolismus und Expressionismus. Die frühe Grafik von Karl Hofer, Wilhelm Laage und Emil Rudolf Weiß, Wessenberg-Galerie, Imhof Verlag, 2012 ISBN 978-3-86568-772-2 E. R. WEISS: the typography of an artist by Gerald Cinamon @ Incline Press ArtNet: More works by Weiß. Biographical notes @ LinoType Weiß-Gotisch font @ Moor Station Weiß-Fraktur font @ Moor Station Literature by and about Emil Rudolf Weiß in the German National Library catalogue

Police station

A police station is a building which serves to accommodate police officers and other members of staff. These buildings contain offices and accommodation for personnel and vehicles, along with locker rooms, temporary holding cells and interview/interrogation rooms. Large departments may have many stations to cover the area; the names used for these facilities include: Barracks for many American state police and highway patrol stations and in Ireland. District office for the California Highway Patrol. Precinct house, or informally precinct, for some urban police departments in the United States such as the New York City Police Department, Memphis Police Department, Newark Police Department, where stations are in charge of precincts. Police house Police office in Scotland. Station house Substations are smaller facilities used by many departments county sheriffs. Multiple informal names exist, such as "cop shop", "cophouse" or "nick"; the area a police station serves has a variety of different names, such as precinct, district and zone.

However, in some police forces such as Hampshire Constabulary, police stations do not serve a specific area and the officers have great flexibility over where they can operate. Typical facilities at police stations include: Office space where officers and administrative staff can work. Cells for detainees. In the UK, the area with cells is known as a custody suite. Interview rooms, for both detainees and non-detained visitors. Property rooms for storing evidence and seized property. Lockers and storerooms for storing equipment. A reception desk for public visitors. Car park for different vehicles. A room for personnel from other emergency servicesSpecialized stations exist in a number of countries. An example includes women's police stations in Latin America; the police stations of the Garda Síochána come in the following types, in ascending order of size: Sub-district stations: Stations in small towns and villages, led by an officer, no higher in rank than a sergeant. Since the 1980s, many of these small stations have been reduced to operating part-time.

District headquarters: Located in the largest town in a Garda district, with the most senior officer being a superintendent. Divisional headquarters: Located in the largest town or city within a Garda division, which in turn comprises multiple districts; the most senior officer is a chief superintendent. Garda headquarters: Located in Phoenix Park and includes the office of the Garda Commissioner, as well as other senior officers; the county constabularies in Great Britain were organised on a village basis. Most villages of any size had a "police house". Police houses in small villages were staffed by a single uniformed constable, with larger stations being staffed by more. Local police stations were grouped together under the command of a uniformed sergeant, whose station was known as a "sergeant's station". Larger towns in the county constabulary areas had police stations staffed by a number of officers under the command of an inspector or superintendent also commanding a sub-division or division and therefore giving the names of "sub-divisional station" or "divisional station" to their stations.

In Scotland a police station may be referred to as a police office. There are Dubai Smart Police Stations in the UAE. List of police stations, about notable individual ones Custody suite Dubai Smart Police Stations Property room