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Drainage

Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and sub-surface water from an area with excess of water. The internal drainage of most agricultural soils is good enough to prevent severe waterlogging, but many soils need artificial drainage to improve production or to manage water supplies; the Indus Valley Civilization had advanced drainage systems. All houses in the major cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro had access to water and drainage facilities. Waste water was directed to covered gravity sewers; the invention of hollow-pipe drainage is credited to Sir Hugh Dalrymple, who died in 1753. New drainage systems incorporate geotextile filters that retain and prevent fine grains of soil from passing into and clogging the drain. Geotextiles are synthetic textile fabrics specially manufactured for civil and environmental engineering applications. Geotextiles are designed to retain fine soil particles while allowing water to pass through. In a typical drainage system, they would be laid along a trench which would be filled with coarse granular material: gravel, sea shells, stone or rock.

The geotextile is folded over the top of the stone and the trench is covered by soil. Groundwater flows through the stone to an outfell. In high groundwater conditions a perforated plastic pipe is laid along the base of the drain to increase the volume of water transported in the drain. Alternatively, a prefabricated plastic drainage system made of HDPE incorporating geotextile, coco fiber or rag filters can be considered; the use of these materials has become more common due to their ease of use which eliminates the need for transporting and laying stone drainage aggregate, invariably more expensive than a synthetic drain and concrete liners. Over the past 30 years geotextile, PVC filters and HDPE filters have become the most used soil filter media, they are cheap to produce and easy to lay, with factory controlled properties that ensure long term filtration performance in fine silty soil conditions. Seattle's Public Utilities created; the project focuses on designing a system "to provide drainage that more mimics the natural landscape prior to development than traditional piped systems".

The streets are characterized by ditches along the side of the roadway, with plantings designed throughout the area. An emphasis on non curbed sidewalks allows water to flow more into the areas of permeable surface on the side of the streets; because of the plantings, the run off water from the urban area does not all directly go into the ground, but can be absorbed into the surrounding environment. Monitoring conducted by Seattle Public Utilities reports a 99 percent reduction of storm water leaving the drainage projectDrainage has undergone a large-scale environmental review in the recent past in the United Kingdom. Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems are designed to encourage contractors to install drainage system that more mimic the natural flow of water in nature. Since 2010 local and neighbourhood planning in the UK is required by law to factor SUDS into any development projects that they are responsible for. Slot drainage has proved the most breakthrough product of the last twenty years as a drainage option.

As a channel drainage system it is designed to eliminate the need for further pipework systems to be installed in parallel to the drainage, reducing the environmental impact of production as well as improving water collection. Stainless steel, concrete channel, PVC and HDPE are all materials available for slot drainage which have become industry standards on construction projects; the civil engineer is responsible for drainage in construction projects. They set out from the plans all the roads, street gutters, drainage and sewers involved in construction operations. During the construction process he/she will set out all the necessary levels for each of the mentioned factors. Civil engineers and construction managers work alongside architects and supervisors, quantity surveyors, the general workforce, as well as subcontractors. Most jurisdictions have some body of drainage law to govern to what degree a landowner can alter the drainage from his parcel. Drainage options for the construction industry include: Point drainage, which intercepts water at gullies.

Gullies connect to drainage pipes beneath the ground surface and deep excavation is required to facilitate this system. Support for deep trenches is required in the shape of strutting or shoring. Channel drainage. Channel drainage is manufactured from concrete, polymer or composites; the interception rate of channel drainage is greater than point drainage and the excavation required is much less deep. The surface opening of channel drainage comes in the form of gratings or a single slot that runs along the ground surface. Earth retaining structures such as retaining walls need to consider groundwater drainage. Typical retaining walls are constructed of impermeable material which can block the path of groundwater; when groundwater flow is obstructed, hydrostatic water pressure buildups against the wall and may cause significant damage. If the water pressure is not drained appropriately, retaining walls can bow, move and seams separate; the water pressure can erode soil particles leading to voids behind the wall and sinkholes in the above soil.

Traditional retaining wall drainage systems

Anarchist economics

Anarchist economics is the set of theories and practices of economic activity within the political philosophy of anarchism. With the exception of anarcho-capitalists who accept private ownership of the means of production, anarchists are anti-capitalists, they argue that its characteristic institutions promote and reproduce various forms of economic activity which they consider oppressive, including private property, hierarchical production relations, collecting rents from private property, taking a profit in exchanges and collecting interest on loans. They endorse possession-based ownership rather than propertarianism; the early English anarchist William Godwin's views on economics could be summarized as follows: "e envisages the possibility of specialization in the various crafts, which would lead to a man's following the task for which he had the greatest aptitude, distributing his surplus products to whoever may need them, receiving what he himself needs of other things from the surplus produced by his neighbours, but always on the basis of free distribution, not of exchange.

It is evident that, despite his speculations on the future of machinery, Godwin's ideal society is based on the economics of handcrafts and cultivation". For the influential German individualist anarchist philosopher Max Stirner, "private property is a spook which "lives by the grace of law" and it "becomes'mine' only by effect of the law". In other words, private property exists purely "through the protection of the State, through the State's grace". Recognising its need for state protection, Stirner is aware that "t need not make any difference to the'good citizens' who protects them and their principles, whether an absolute King or a constitutional one, a republic, if only they are protected, and what is their principle, whose protector they always'love'? Not that of labour", rather it is "interest-bearing possession labouring capital, therefore labour yet little or none at all of one's own, but labour of capital and of the – subject labourers". Pierre-Joseph Proudhon was involved with the Lyons mutualists and adopted the name to describe his own teachings.

In What Is Mutualism?, Clarence Lee Swartz gives his own account of the origin of the term, claiming that "he word "mutualism" seems to have been first used by John Gray, an English writer, in 1832". Proudhon opposed government privilege that protects capitalist and land interests as well as the accumulation or acquisition of property which he believed hampers competition and keeps wealth in the hands of the few. Proudhon favoured a right of individuals to retain the product of their labour as their own property, but believed that any property beyond that which an individual produced and could possess was illegitimate, he thus saw private property as both essential to liberty and a road to tyranny, the former when it resulted from labour and was required for labour and the latter when it resulted in exploitation. He called the former "possession" and the latter "property". For large-scale industry, he supported workers associations to replace wage labour and opposed the ownership of land. Josiah Warren is regarded as the first American anarchist and the four-page weekly paper he edited during 1833, The Peaceful Revolutionist, was the first anarchist periodical published.

Warren termed the phrase "Cost the limit of price", with "cost" here referring not to monetary price paid but the labor one exerted to produce an item. Therefore, "e proposed a system to pay people with certificates indicating how many hours of work they did, they could exchange the notes at local time stores for goods that took the same amount of time to produce". Warren put his theories to the test by establishing an experimental "labor for labor store" called the Cincinnati Time Store where trade was facilitated by notes backed by a promise to perform labor; the store proved successful and operated for three years after which it was closed so that Warren could pursue establishing colonies based on mutualism. These included Modern Times. Warren said that Stephen Pearl Andrews' The Science of Society, published in 1852, was the most lucid and complete exposition of Warren's own theories. In Europe, an early anarcho-communist was Joseph Déjacque, the first person to describe himself as "libertarian".

Unlike and against Proudhon, he argued that "it is not the product of his or her labor that the worker has a right to, but to the satisfaction of his or her needs, whatever may be their nature". Returning to New York, he was able to serialise his book in his periodical Le Libertaire, Journal du Mouvement social. Published in twenty-seven issues from 9 June 1858 to 4 February 1861, Le Libertaire was the first anarcho-communist journal published in the United States; the anti-authoritarian sections of the First International proclaimed at the St. Imier Congress that "the aspirations of the proletariat can have no purpose other than the establishment of an free economic organization and federation, founded upon the labour and equality of all and independent of all political government" in which each worker will have the "right to the enjoyment of the gross product of his labours and thereby the means of developing his full intellectual and moral powers in a collective setting"; this revolutionary transformation could "only be the outcome of the spontaneous action of the proletariat itself, its trades bodies and the autonomous communes".

Due to its links to active workers' movements, the International became a significant organization. Karl Marx became a member of its General Council. Proudhon's followers, the mutualists, opposed Marx's state sociali

Cream City Brewing Company

The Cream City Brewing Company was an American brewery, located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin from 1853 until 1937. The brewery was one of seven to survive Prohibition in the city. One structure remains from the old brewery complex; the brewery was built in 1853 by Conrad Weir. It was owned by George Weir and Christopher Forster. Ownership of the brewery changed several times until John Beck bought out his partner Stephen Weber in 1861, retained ownership until 1877 when it was sold to Jacob Veldt. Two years it was sold to William Gerlach who renamed the brewery Cream City Brewing Company. During the 19th century, the brewery was emerging as a significant player in the Milwaukee beer market. In the 1880s, the facility produced 25,000 barrels of beer annually; the company was able to survive Prohibition by selling near beer. However, due to debt problems, the company was foreclosed by creditors in 1937. Big Boy Beer Blue Jay Beer Bock Beer Cream City Draft Beer Cream City Export Beer Cream City Pale Beer Cream City Pelham Club Beer Cream City Pilsener Beer Extra Stock Dark Beer Hanover Dark Beer Pelham Club Extra Brew Pale Beer Pilsener Beer Beer in Milwaukee

Let Me Talk

"Let Me Talk" is a song by the R&B band Earth, Wind & Fire, released as a single in August 1980 by ARC/Columbia Records. The single reached No. 8 on the US Billboard Hot R&B Singles chart and No. 29 on the UK Pop Singles chart. Let Me Talk was produced by EWF leader Maurice White; as well the song was composed by White, Ralph Johnson, Phillip Bailey, Larry Dunn, Al McKay and Verdine White. The B-side of the single was an instrumental version of Let Me Talk; the song has an allegro tempo of 112 beats per minute. Let Me Talk came off EWF's 1980 album Faces. Paul Rambali of NME noted that the song is "without a recognisable disco beat", has an "irresistible riff" and "gives off such a compulsive, frienzied noise that it's hard to sit still". Mike Nicholls of Record Mirror declared that Let Me Talk is a "positively frantic" song which "sets off at a punishing pace, never relinquished". Billboard described the song as EWF's "most rock oriented release to date with a clipped lead vocal and a steady rhythmic beat alternating choruses with the more fulsome melodious sound associated with the group".

David Hepworth of Smash Hits noted that the band "come over like a warm breeze of simple pleasure, spraying their champagne jazz all over the place" on the song. NME gave Let Me Talk an honourable mention in their list of the top singles of 1980. A music video for "Let Me Talk" was released in September 1980; the video had a duration of four minutes. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Muslim conquest of Azerbaijan

The Muslim conquest of Azerbaijan was the military struggle that led to Azerbaijan's incorporation in the Islamic caliphate. In AD 643, after the conquest of Rayy and Central Persia, Umar ordered the conquest of Azarbaijan; the Rashidun Caliphate continued the conquest toward Azerbaijan first under the force of Al Mughirah bin Shubah. This was reported by Abu Jafar. Umar appointed Hudheifa to the command of the campaign. Hudheifa first marched to Zanjan; the local garrison defended itself but was overpowered and the city fell. The Muslim forces proceeded to Ardabil where the Persians did not resist and surrendered on the usual terms of Jizya. From Ardabeel, the Muslim forces marched northward along the western coast of the Caspian Sea. A confrontation ensued at the Bab area, an important port on the Caspian Sea; the Muslims scored another victory. The Persians launched a counterattack, causing the Muslims to abandon their forward posts in Azarbaijan; as a response, Umar sent expeditionary forces to Azarbaijan, one led by Bukair ibn Abdullah and another by Utba bin Farqad.

The contingent under Bukair confronted the Persians at Jurmizan. The Persians were commanded by Isandiar; the battle was quite severe, the Persians were defeated and their commander Isandiar was captured alive. Isandiar asked Bukair, "Do you prefer war or peace?" to which Bukair replied that the Muslims preferred peace. Isandiar thereupon said, "Then keep me with you till I can help you in negotiating peace with the people of Azarbaijan"; the Persians shut themselves within. The Muslims captured the entire area in the plains. During the year of 25 Hijr, the Mushaf Uthmani of Quran was created in an attempt to avoid linguistic confusion of Qur'an, translated to local dialect of Azerbaijan and Armenia. Hudhaifa warned Uthman that the translation would lose its original Tafseer if it failed to standardise in the original Mushaf version first, before the locals could translate and give commentary. Bukair ibn Abdullah, who had subdued Azerbaijan, was assigned to capture Tiflis. From Bab at the western coast of the Caspian Sea, Bukair marched north.

Umar decided to practice his successful strategy of multi-pronged attacks. While Bukair was still miles away from Tiflis, Umar instructed him to divide his army into three corps. Umar appointed Habib ibn Muslaima to capture Tiflis, Abdulrehman to march north towards the mountains and Hudheifa to march towards the southern mountains. Habib captured the region up to the eastern coast of the Black Sea. Abdulrehman subdued the tribes. Hudheifa subdued the local tribes there; the advance into Armenia came to an end with Umar's death in November 644. By almost all of South Caucasus had been captured. After 645, forces under Walid Bin Uqba campaigned in four-year rotations in two frontier districts of Rayy and Azerbaijan. One quarter of their army consisting of 40,000 men from Kufa campaigned each year with around 4000 in Ray and 6000 in Azerbaijan

Orion Application Server

Orion Application Server is a Java EE application server developed by Swedish company IronFlare AB, founded by Magnus Stenman and Karl Avedal. First released in 1999, Orion claims to be the first commercially available application server with full Java EE support; the current stable version is 2.0.7, compliant with Java EE version 1.3. Oracle Corporation acquired license to the source of Orion in 2001, developed it as Oracle Application Server Containers for Java EE. OC4J and some of its documentation contains reference to the Orion server. Orion developers were involved in maintenance and enhancements of the source for Oracle. IronFlare became an official Java EE licensee in 2003, which enabled them to access the Sun Microsystems compatibility testing tools to ensure correct implementation of the Java EE specification by Orion. Orion is the only product of IronFlare, hence Orion has been marketed more than the company itself. 1.5.4, February 2002 1.6.0, July 2002 2.0, March 2003 2.0.1, April 2003 2.0.2, June 2003 2.0.3, May 2004 2.0.4, November 2004 2.0.5, November 2004 2.0.6, February 2005 2.0.7, March 2006 2.0.8 https://web.archive.org/web/20070723181214/http://forums.orionserver.com/viewlist.jsp?name=orion-announce-interest&first=484 https://web.archive.org/web/20090330131027/http://forums.orionserver.com/ Oracle licences Orion Server