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Muhammad Thakurufaanu Al Auzam

Al-Sulṭaan al-Ghaazee Muhammad Thakurufaanu al-A'uẓam or Al-Sultan Ghazi Muhammad Bodu Thakurufaanu ruled over the Maldive Islands from 1573 to 1585 AD. He was environmentalist and a military strategist, he is considered as the national hero of the Maldives for driving out the Portuguese who ruled over the Maldives from 1558-1573 after killing Sultan Ali VI in Malé. His victory is commemorated in the Maldives as National Day, he was the first Maldivian king to form the'Lashkaru.. Muhammad Thakurufaanu was the son of a khatib, Husain of Utheemu in Thiladhummathi Atoll and Amina Dio of Ihavandhoo. Muhammad Thakurufan learned hevikan After killing Sultan Ali VI, the Maldives was ruled by Andiri Andiri and his Portuguese invaders. Andiri Andirin was a regent of the, the first Maldivian and the only member of its royalty to renounce Islam and convert to Christianity upon his deposition he took refuge in Goa, India. After the invasion, the Portuguese ruled most cruelly over the Maldive islands in a period which the Tharikh describes as ‘‘a time when intolerable enormities were committed by the invading infidels, a time when the sea grew red with Maldivian blood, a time when people were sunk in despair…’’To bring an end to this, Muhammad Thakurufaanu, left the Maldive Islands with his brothers Ali and Hasan to Maliku off the coast of India in the Laccadive Archipelago.

The three Utheemu brothers built the ship Kalhuoffummi. It is said that Muhammad Thakurufaanu received a lot of help from the renowned Maroshi Raaveribe in his fight for national independence, it was his job to mend and maintain the sail of the Kalhuoffummi - the ship used in the'battle' and supply water to the vessel every time it docked at Maroshi, an important port during this fight. The sails of the ship were made on the island of Shaviyani Atoll; this island is historic as it has the tree that grew from the Kaani Mudi used to make the sail of Kalhuoffummi. It is the largest tree of its kind in the country, the oldest as well. They, three brothers landed on a different island every night, fought the Portuguese and set sail into the ocean before daybreak, they reached the capital island Malé on the night before the day fixed by the Portuguese garrison of Andiri Andirin for the forcible conversion of the inhabitants to Christianity, on the penalty of death for non-compliance. The Utheemu brothers along with other Maldivians who were determined to die for their country and faith, slew the whole Portuguese garrison and gained independence for the country from its invaders.

Andiri Andirin was killed by a musket shot of Muhammad Thakurufaanu himself. After killing the Andiri Andiri, as per a treaty he got refuge from Ali Raja of India. Muhammad Thakurufaanu's base of operation was Maliku under the sovereignty of Cannanore; the Ali Raja demanded dominion over the Maldives. However, Muhammad Thakurufaanu did not honor this promise; the nature of the relationship between Muhammad Thakurufan and the Ali Raja of Cannanore was outlined in a letter sent by a Ali Raja, Mariambe Ali-Adi Raja Bibi, to the Sultan Muhammad Mueenuddine I of the Maldives. The letter was dated Friday 17 Jamada-el-oula Anno Hegirae 1243. According to the letter Muhammad Thakurufan had entered into a treaty ceding sovereignty of the Maldives to the Ali Raja of Cannanore in the event Thakurufan was established in power in Male. Muhammad Thakurufan concluded a treaty with the King Dom Manoel who lives in Goa, in order to ward off the Ali Raja of Cannanore. Although Muhammad Thakurufan was made a regent of King Dom Manoel, the Maldivians assigned Muhammad Thakurufaanu as the Sultan of the Maldives, no longer recognizing the sovereignty of the self-exiled Christian kings in Goa or their regents.

The chronicles report him to have ruled wisely, being just and considerate, protecting the poor, solicitous for the people’s interests. Muhammed Thakurufaanu died a natural death on August 26, 1585. British author Royston Ellis's novel A Hero in Time is about the life and adventures of Muhammad Thakurufaanu; the Islamic Centre, largest mosque in the Maldives is named after him. The Lashkaru organized by him has evolved into the Maldives National Defence Force. List of Sultans of the Maldives Islamic Centre Qaumee Dhuvas Origin of the Security Force in Maldives

C. V. Madhukar

C. V. Madhukar is Investment Partner with Omidyar Network, he is the global lead for their work on Digital Identity. He has been founder and director of PRS Legislative Research, a research institution that focuses on making the legislative process in India better informed, more transparent and participatory. PRS publishes "Legislative Briefs" of Bills in Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha and other articles about to work of the Indian parliament. Prior to this, Madhukar had worked at the World Bank in Washington, D. C. with a group focussed on building parliamentary capacities in various countries. Madhukar started his professional career in 1993 as an investment banker with ICICI Securities and Finance Company in Mumbai, where he worked on disinvestment of large public sector enterprises. Being an employee of ICICI, he spent significant time as a volunteer and made various contributions to the growth of Pratham in its formative years, now a large not-for-profit organisation focused on basic education in India: CV Madhukar was part of the original Executive Group of Pratham in Mumbai.

At the invitation of the Government of Karnataka in early 2000, he co-founded and managed Akshara Foundation, a basic education initiative focussed on Bengaluru's children. He concurrently helped set up the Azim Premji Foundation, an initiative of Azim Premji, Chairman of Wipro, one of the wealthiest corporate leaders in India; the initiative supports technology in rural schools in India. Madhukar was an Edward S. Mason Fellow at Harvard University, where he earned a Master in Public Administration degree from the John F. Kennedy School of Government, he has an MBA from the University of Houston and a Bachelor of Engineering degree from Bangalore University. Madhukar is Ashoka Fellow and Eisenhower Fellow. In March 2008, Madhukar was one of the Indians to be named a Young Global Leader by the World Economic Forum. According to the WEF Press Release, "this honour is bestowed each year by the World Economic Forum to recognise and acknowledge the top 200–300 young leaders from around the world for their professional accomplishments, commitment to society and potential to contribute to shaping the future of the world."

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