SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Drew Barrymore

Drew Blythe Barrymore is an American actress, director, author and entrepreneur. She is a member of the Barrymore family of actors, the granddaughter of John Barrymore, she achieved fame as a child actress with her role in E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial. She is the recipient of numerous accolades, including a Golden Globe, a Screen Actors Guild Award, a BAFTA nomination. Following a publicized childhood marked by drug and alcohol abuse, Barrymore released an autobiography, Little Girl Lost, when she was 16 in 1991, she went on to appear in a string of successful films throughout the decade, including Poison Ivy, Boys on the Side, Mad Love, Ever After and The Wedding Singer. The latter was her first collaboration with Adam Sandler. Barrymore's other films include Never Been Kissed, Charlie's Angels, Donnie Darko, Riding in Cars with Boys, Confessions of a Dangerous Mind, Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle, Fever Pitch and Lyrics, Going the Distance, Big Miracle and Miss You Already. Barrymore made her directorial debut with Whip It, in which she starred, received a SAG Award and a Golden Globe for her performance in Grey Gardens.

She starred on the Netflix series Santa Clarita Diet until its cancellation in 2019. In 1995, Barrymore and Nancy Juvonen formed the production company Flower Films; the pair have produced several projects. In 2013, Barrymore launched a range of cosmetics under the Flower banner, which has grown to include lines in makeup and eyewear, her other business ventures include a range of a clothing line. In 2015, she released Wildflower. Barrymore received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2004. Barrymore was born in Culver City, California, to American actor John Drew Barrymore and aspiring actress Jaid Barrymore, born in a displaced persons camp in Brannenburg, West Germany to Hungarian World War II refugees. Barrymore is one of four children and has a half-brother, an actor, her parents divorced in 1984. Barrymore was born into an acting family. All of her paternal great-grandparents—Maurice and Georgie Drew Barrymore and Mae Costello —as well as her paternal grandparents, John Barrymore and Dolores Costello, were actors, with John being arguably the most acclaimed actor of his generation.

Barrymore is a niece of Diana Barrymore, a grandniece of Lionel Barrymore, Ethel Barrymore, Helene Costello, a great-great-granddaughter of Irish-born John and English-born Louisa Lane Drew, all of whom were actors. She was a great-grandniece of Broadway idol John Drew Jr. and silent film actor and director Sidney Drew. Barrymore's godmothers are Lee Strasberg's widow, Anna Strasberg, her godfather is director Steven Spielberg. Barrymore's first name, was the maiden name of her paternal great-grandmother Georgie Drew, her middle name, was the surname of the family first used by her great-grandfather Maurice Barrymore. In her 1991 autobiography Little Girl Lost, Barrymore recounted early memories of her abusive father, who left the family when Barrymore was 6 months old, she and her father never had anything resembling a significant relationship and spoke to each other. Barrymore grew up on Poinsettia Place in West Hollywood until the age of 7, when she moved to Sherman Oaks. In her 2015 memoir, she says she talks "like a valley girl" because she grew up in Sherman Oaks.

She moved back to West Hollywood upon becoming emancipated at 14. Barrymore attended elementary school at Fountain Day School in Country School. In the wake of her sudden stardom, Barrymore endured a notoriously troubled childhood, she was a regular at the racy Studio 54 as a young girl, her nightlife and constant partying became a popular subject with the media. She was placed in rehab at the age of 13, spent 18 months in an institution for the mentally ill. A suicide attempt at 14 put her back in rehab, followed by a three-month stay with singer David Crosby and his wife; the stay was precipitated, Crosby said, because she "needed to be around some people that were committed to sobriety." Barrymore described this period of her life in her autobiography, Little Girl Lost. After a successful juvenile court petition for emancipation, she moved into her own apartment at the age of 15. Barrymore's professional career began at 11 months, she was nipped by her canine co-star, to which she laughed and was hired for the job.

After her film debut with a small role in Altered States, she played Gertie in E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial, directed by Steven Spielberg. He felt that she had the right imagination for her role after she impressed him with a story that she led a punk rock band. E. T. is the highest-grossing film of the 1980s and made her one of the most famous child actors of the time. For her work, she won a Young Artist Award for Best Supporting Actress. In the 1984 horror film adaptation of Stephen King's 1980 novel Firestarter, Barrymore played a girl with pyrokinesis who becomes the target of a secret government agency known as The Shop; the same year, she played a young girl divorcing her famous parents in Irreconcilable Differences, for which she was nominated for her first Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress. In a review

List of state leaders in 1643

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, other rulers in the year 1643. Kingdom of DahomeyDakodonou Ethiopian Empire – Fasilides Ayutthaya Kingdom – Prasat Thong China - Chongzhen Emperor Kingdom of Coorg - Muddu Raja I Empire of Japan – Monarch - Meishō Go-Kōmyō Tokugawa shogunateTokugawa Iemitsu Ryukyu KingdomShō Ken JoseonInjo Mughal Empire – Shah Jahan Qing dynasty - Hong Taiji Kingdom of Sikkim – Phuntsog Namgyal Kingdom of Denmark–Norway – Christian IV Kingdom of England – Charles I Kingdom of France Louis XIII Louis XIV Principality of Catalonia – Louis I, Count of Barcelona Holy Roman Empire – Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen – Frederick II, Lutheran Administrator of the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen Archduke Leopold William of Austria, rivalling Catholic Administrator of the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen Prince-Bishopric of Halberstadt – Archduke Leopold William of Austria, Catholic Administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Halberstadt Prince-Archbishopric of MagdeburgAugustus, Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels, Lutheran Administrator of the Prince-Archbishopric of Magdeburg Bishopric of Olomouc – Archduke Leopold William of Austria, Catholic Administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Olomouc Prince-Bishopric of Passau – Archduke Leopold William of Austria, Catholic Administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Passau Prince-Bishopric of Strasbourg – Archduke Leopold William of Austria, Catholic Administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Strasbourg Prince-Bishopric of Verden – Frederick II, Lutheran Administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Verden Ottoman Empire – İbrahim, Ottoman Sultan Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves – John IV Tsardom of Russia – Michael I Kingdom of Spain – Philip IV Kingdom of Sweden – Christina United Provinces Estates of Friesland, Guelders, Overijssel, Zeeland Stadtholder - Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, Stadtholder of Gelre, Holland and Zeeland.

Holland – Grand Pensionary - Jacob Cats

Deformation (mechanics)

Deformation in continuum mechanics is the transformation of a body from a reference configuration to a current configuration. A configuration is a set containing the positions of all particles of the body. A deformation may be caused by external loads, body forces, or changes in temperature, moisture content, or chemical reactions, etc. Strain is a description of deformation in terms of relative displacement of particles in the body that excludes rigid-body motions. Different equivalent choices may be made for the expression of a strain field depending on whether it is defined with respect to the initial or the final configuration of the body and on whether the metric tensor or its dual is considered. In a continuous body, a deformation field results from a stress field induced by applied forces or is due to changes in the temperature field inside the body; the relation between stresses and induced strains is expressed by constitutive equations, e.g. Hooke's law for linear elastic materials.

Deformations which are recovered after the stress field has been removed are called elastic deformations. In this case, the continuum recovers its original configuration. On the other hand, irreversible deformations remain after stresses have been removed. One type of irreversible deformation is plastic deformation, which occurs in material bodies after stresses have attained a certain threshold value known as the elastic limit or yield stress, are the result of slip, or dislocation mechanisms at the atomic level. Another type of irreversible deformation is viscous deformation, the irreversible part of viscoelastic deformation. In the case of elastic deformations, the response function linking strain to the deforming stress is the compliance tensor of the material. Strain is a measure of deformation representing the displacement between particles in the body relative to a reference length. A general deformation of a body can be expressed in the form x = F where X is the reference position of material points in the body.

Such a measure does not distinguish between rigid body changes in shape of the body. A deformation has units of length. We could, for example, define strain to be ε ≐ ∂ ∂ X = F ′ − I. Hence strains are dimensionless and are expressed as a decimal fraction, a percentage or in parts-per notation. Strains measure. A strain is in general a tensor quantity. Physical insight into strains can be gained by observing that a given strain can be decomposed into normal and shear components; the amount of stretch or compression along material line elements or fibers is the normal strain, the amount of distortion associated with the sliding of plane layers over each other is the shear strain, within a deforming body. This could angular distortion; the state of strain at a material point of a continuum body is defined as the totality of all the changes in length of material lines or fibers, the normal strain, which pass through that point and the totality of all the changes in the angle between pairs of lines perpendicular to each other, the shear strain, radiating from this point.

However, it is sufficient to know the normal and shear components of strain on a set of three mutually perpendicular directions. If there is an increase in length of the material line, the normal strain is called tensile strain, otherwise, if there is reduction or compression in the length of the material line, it is called compressive strain. Depending on the amount of strain, or local deformation, the analysis of deformation is subdivided into three deformation theories: Finite strain theory called large strain theory, large deformation theory, deals with deformations in which both rotations and strains are arbitrarily large. In this case, the undeformed and deformed configurations of the continuum are different and a clear distinction has to be made between them; this is the case with elastomers, plastically-deforming materials and other fluids and biological soft tissue. Infinitesimal strain theory called small strain theory, small deformation theory, small displacement theory, or small displacement-gradient theory where strains and rotations are both small.

In this case, the undeformed and deformed configurations of the body can be assumed identical. The infinitesimal strain theory is used in the analysis of deformations of materials exhibiting elastic behavior, such as materials found in mechanical and civil engineering applications, e.g. concrete and steel. Large-displacement or large-rotation theory, which assumes small strains but large rotations and displacements. In each of these theories the strain is defined differently; the engineering strain is the most common definition applied to materials used in mechanical and structural engineering, which are subjected to small deformations. On the other hand, for some materials, e.g. elastomers and polymers, subjected to large deformations, the engineering definition of strain is not applicable, e.g. typical engineering strains greater than 1%, thus other more complex definitions of strain are required, such as stretch, logarithmic strain, Green strain, Almansi strain. The Cauchy strain or engineering strain is expressed as the