Driftless Area

The Driftless Area is a region in southwestern Wisconsin, southeastern Minnesota, northeastern Iowa, the extreme northwestern corner of Illinois, of the American Midwest. The region escaped the flattening effects of glaciation during the last ice age and is characterized by steep, forested ridges carved river valleys, karst geology characterized by spring-fed waterfalls and cold-water trout streams. Ecologically, the Driftless Area's flora and fauna are more related to those of the Great Lakes region and New England than those of the broader Midwest and central Plains regions. Colloquially, the term includes the incised Paleozoic Plateau of southeastern Minnesota and northeastern Iowa; the region includes elevations ranging from 603 to 1,719 feet at Blue Mound State Park and covers 24,000 square miles. The rugged terrain is due both to the lack of glacial deposits, or drift, to the incision of the upper Mississippi River and its tributaries into bedrock. An alternative, less restrictive definition of the Driftless Area includes the sand Plains region northeast of Wisconsin's portion of the incised Paleozoic Plateau in the southwestern part of the state.

This part of the Driftless Area in the southwestern section of Wisconsin's Central Plain lacks evidence of glaciation, contains many isolated hills, mesas and pinnacles that are outlying eroded Cambrian bedrock remnants of the plateau to the southwest. Retreating glaciers leave behind silt, sand and boulders called drift. Glacial drift includes unsorted material called till and layers deposited by meltwater streams called outwash. While drift from early glaciations has been found in some parts of the region, much of the incised Paleozoic Plateau of Wisconsin and northwestern Illinois has no evidence of glaciation. Numerous glacial advances throughout the world occurred during the most recent Quaternary glaciation; the Upper Midwest and Great Lakes region of North America was covered by advancing and retreating glaciers throughout this period. The Driftless Area escaped much of the scouring and depositional action by the continental glaciers that occurred during the last ice age, which created significant differences in the topography and drainage patterns within the unglaciated area compared to adjacent glaciated regions.

The region has been subject to large floods from the melting Laurentide Ice Sheet and subsequent catastrophic discharges from its proglacial lakes, such as Glacial Lake Wisconsin, Glacial Lake Agassiz, Glacial Lake Grantsburg, Glacial Lake Duluth. The last phases of the Wisconsin Glaciation involved several major lobes of the Laurentide Ice Sheet: the Des Moines lobe, which flowed down toward Des Moines on the west; the northern and eastern lobes were in part diverted around the area by the Watersmeet Dome, an ancient uplifted area of Cambrian rock underlain by basalt in northern Wisconsin and western upper Michigan. The southward movement of the continental glacier was hindered by the great depths of the Lake Superior basin and the adjacent highlands of the Bayfield Peninsula, Gogebic Range, Porcupine Mountains, Keweenaw Peninsula, the Huron Mountains along the north rim of the Superior Upland bordering Lake Superior; the Green Bay and Lake Michigan lobes were partially blocked by the bedrock of the Door Peninsula, which presently separates Green Bay from Lake Michigan.

In earlier phases of the Wisconsinan, the Driftless Area was surrounded by ice, with eastern and western lobes joining together to the south of it. Another factor that may have contributed to the lack of glaciation of the Driftless area is the fractured, permeable bedrock within the paleozoic plateau underlying it, which would have promoted below-ground drainage of subglacial water that would otherwise have lubricated the underside of the glacial ice sheet; the dewatering of the underside of the ice sheet would have inhibited forward movement of the glacier into the Driftless Area from the west. The latest concept explaining the origin of the Driftless Area is the pre-Illinoian continental glacial ice flowing over the Driftless Area and depositing on it pre-Illinoian till, more than 790,000 years old; when the ice retreated and uncovered the area, intensive periglacial erosion removed it. Anticyclonic snow-bearing winds episodically dropped large amounts of snow, which gradually removed superficial sediment from slopes by solifluction and snowmelt overland flow, washing the deposits down to stream valleys that flowed into the Mississippi River.

In the adjacent glaciated regions, the glacial retreat left behind drift, which buried all former topographical features. Surface water was forced to carve out new stream beds; this process was absent in the Driftless Area, where the original Drainage systems persisted during and after the ice age. Water erosion continued carving the existing gullies, stream beds, river valleys deeper into the paleozoic plateau, following the original drainage patterns. Overall the region is characterized by an eroded plateau with bedrock overlain by varying thicknesses of loess. Most characteristically, the river valleys are dissected; the bluffs lining this reach of the Mississippi River climb to nearly 600 feet. In Minnesota, pre-Illinoian-age till was removed by natural means prior to the deposition of loess; the sedimentary rocks of the valley walls date to the Paleozoic Era and are covered with colluvium or loess. Bedrock


Elbląg is a city in northern Poland on the eastern edge of the Żuławy region with 120,142 inhabitants. It has been assigned to the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, it was the capital of Elbląg Voivodeship and a county seat within Gdańsk Voivodeship. Elbląg is one of the oldest cities in the province, its history dates back to 1237, when the Teutonic Order constructed their fortified stronghold on the banks of a nearby river. The castle subsequently served as the official seat of the Teutonic Order Masters. Elbląg became part of the Hanseatic League, which contributed much to the city's wealth. Through the Hansa agreement, the city was linked to other major ports like Gdańsk, Lübeck and Amsterdam. Elbląg joined Poland in 1454 and after the defeat of the Teutonic Knights in the Thirteen Years’ War was recognized as part of Poland in the Second Peace of Thorn in 1466, it flourished and turned into a significant trading point, but its growth was hindered by the Second Northern War and the Swedish Deluge.

The city was transferred to Prussia after the first partition of Poland in 1772. Its trading role weakened, until the era of industrialization, which occurred in the 19th century, it was that the famous Elbląg Canal was commissioned. After World War II the city again became part of Poland; the war casualties were catastrophic the severe destruction of the Old Town district, one of the grandest and most beautiful in East Prussia. Today, Elbląg has over 120,000 inhabitants and is a "vibrant city with an attractive tourist base", it serves as an academic and financial center and among its numerous historic monuments is the Market Gate from 1309 and St. Nicholas Cathedral. Elbląg is known for its archaeological sites and the largest brewery in the country; the Elbląg Canal, built in 1825–44 under Prussia, is a tourist site of Elbląg. The canal is believed to be one of the most important monuments related to the history of engineering and has been named one of the Seven Wonders of Poland; the canal was named one of Poland's official national Historic Monuments in 2011.

Its listing is maintained by the National Heritage Board of Poland. Elbląg derives from the earlier German-language Elbing, the name by which the Teutonic Knights knew both the river here and the citadel they established on its banks in 1237; the purpose of the citadel was to prevent the Old Prussian settlement of Truso from being reoccupied, the German crusaders being at war with the pagan Prussians. The citadel was named after itself of uncertain etymology. One traditional etymology connects it to the name of the Helveconae, a Germanic tribe mentioned in Ancient Greek and Latin sources, but the etymology or language of the tribal name remains unknown; the oldest known mention of the river or town Elbing is in the form Ylfing in the report of a sailor Wulfstan from the end of the 9th century, in The Voyages of Ohthere and Wulfstan, written in Anglo-Saxon in King Alfred's reign. Elbing was completely destroyed at the end of World War II; the city became the Polish Elbląg after the war, when the area was ceded to Poland under border changes promulgated at the Potsdam Conference.

Parts of the inner city were rebuilt, around 2000 rebuilding was begun in a style emulating the previous architecture, in many cases over the same foundations and utilizing old bricks and portions of the same walls. The western suburbs of the old city have not been reconstructed; the modern city adjoins about half the length of the river between Lake Drużno and Elbląg Bay, spreads out on both banks, though on the eastern side. To the east is the Elbląg Upland, a dome pushed up by glacial compression, 390 km2 in diameter and 200 m high at its greatest elevation, it parkland. Views to the west show flat fields extending to the horizon. To the south are the marshes and swamps of Drużno; the Elbląg River has been left in a more natural state through the city, but elsewhere it is a controlled channel with branches. One of them, the Jagiellonski Channel, leads to the Nogat River, along which navigation to Gdańsk is common; the Elbląg Canal connecting Lake Drużno with Drwęca River and Lake Jeziorak is a popular tourist site.

Elbląg is not a deep-water port. The draft of vessels using its waterways must be no greater than 1.5 m by law. The turning area at Elbląg is 120 m diameter and a pilot is required for large vessels. Deep water vessels cannot manoeuvre. Traffic of smaller vessels at Elbląg is within the river and marginal, while larger vessels cannot reach the open Baltic Sea because the channel, once built in East-Prussia to go through the peninsula, has belonged to Russia since 1945; the city features three quay complexes, movable cranes, railways. Ancient and recent views of Elbląg Elbląg is located about 55 kilometres south-east of Gdańsk and 90 km south-west of Kaliningrad, Russia; the city is a port on the river Elbląg, which flows into the Vistula Lagoon about 10 km to the north, thus giving the city access to the Baltic Sea via the Russian-controlled Strait of Baltiysk. The Old Town is located on the river Elbląg connecting Lake Drużno to the Vistula Lagoon, about 10 km from the lagoon and 60 km from Gdańsk.

The settlement was first mentioned as "Ilfing"

Michael J. O'Farrell

Michael Joseph O'Farrell was an Irish-born prelate of the Roman Catholic Church who served as the first Bishop of Trenton. Michael O'Farrell was born in Limerick, studied the classics and philosophy at All Hallows College in Dublin, he studied theology at the Seminary of Saint-Sulpice in Paris, France. After his ordination in Ireland on August 18, 1855, he returned to Paris where he joined the Society of Saint-Sulpice. After completing his novitiate, he was made professor of dogmatic theology, he was sent by his superiors to teach at the Grand Seminary of Montreal in Canada. He served as pastor of St. Patrick's Church, he was incardinated into the Diocese of New York in the United States. He served as a curate at St. Peter's Church until 1872, when he became pastor of St. Mary's Church in Rondout, New York. After a brief tenure at St. Mary's, he returned to St. Peter's in 1873 as its pastor. On August 11, 1881, O'Farrell was appointed the first Bishop of the newly erected Diocese of Trenton, New Jersey, by Pope Leo XIII.

He received his episcopal consecration on the following November 1 from Cardinal John McCloskey, with Archbishop Michael Corrigan and Bishop John Loughlin serving as co-consecrators. Bishop O'Farrell designated St. Mary's Church as his cathedral. According to historian John Gilmary Shea, O'Farrell's efforts to establish institutions to develop religion in the southern part of New Jersey "...did not fail to excite hostility". St. John's Church, the oldest Catholic church in the diocese burned down in 1883. During his tenure, O'Farrell erected several new parishes and missions, established an orphanage in New Brunswick and a home for the aged in Beverly, he attended the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore in 1884. At the beginning of his tenure, the diocese contained 51 priests, 60 churches, 24 parochial schools. O'Farrell died at age 61; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Trenton". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton