A picnic is a meal taken outdoors as part of an excursion – ideally in scenic surroundings, such as a park, lakeside, or other place affording an interesting view, or else in conjunction with a public event such as preceding an open-air theatre performance, in summer. Picnics are meant for the late mornings or midday breakfasts, but could be held as a luncheonette or a dinner event. Descriptions of picnics show that the idea of a meal, jointly contributed and was enjoyed out-of-doors was essential to a picnic from the early 19th century. Picnics are family oriented but can be an intimate occasion between two people or a large get together such as company picnics and church picnics, it is sometimes combined with a cookout a form of barbecue: either grilling, baking, or a combination of all of the above. On romantic and family picnics, a picnic basket and a blanket are brought along. Outdoor games or some other form of entertainment are common at large picnics. In established public parks, a picnic area includes picnic tables and other items related to eating outdoors, such as built-in grills, water faucets, garbage containers, restrooms.
Some picnics are a potluck, an entertainment at which each person contributed some dish to a common table for all to share. When the picnic is not a cookout, the food eaten is hot, instead taking the form of deli sandwiches, finger food, fresh fruit, cold meats and accompanied by chilled wine or champagne or soft drinks; the first usage of the word is traced to the 1692 edition of Tony Willis, Origines de la Langue Française, which mentions pique-nique as being of recent origin. The term was used to describe a group of people dining in a restaurant; the concept of a picnic long retained the connotation of a meal to which everyone contributed something. Whether picnic is based on the verb piquer which means'pick' or'peck' with the rhyming nique meaning "thing of little importance" is doubted. Picnicking was common in France after the French Revolution, when it became possible for ordinary people to visit and mingle in the country’s royal parks. In 18th and 19th centuries, picnics were elaborate social events with complex meals and fancy drinks that sometimes took days to prepare.
The word picnic first appeared in English in a letter of the Gallicized Lord Chesterfield in 1748, who associates it with card-playing and conversation, may have entered the English language from this French word. The practice of an elegant meal eaten out-of-doors, rather than an agricultural worker's dinner in a field, was connected with respite from hunting from the Middle Ages. Though it may have appeared in a 17th-century dictionary as "pique-nique," the actual usage began as "pique un niche" meaning to "pick a place," an isolated spot where family or friends could enjoy a jolly meal together away from the distractions and public nature of a communal life; the term after years of usage entered the official French language. Despite having been debunked, a spurious etymology linking the origin of the word to lynchings of African-Americans in the American South continues to resurface from time to time. After the French Revolution in 1789, royal parks became open to the public for the first time.
Picnicking in the parks became a popular activity amongst the newly enfranchised citizens. Early in the 19th century, a fashionable group of Londoners formed the'Picnic Society'. Members met in the Pantheon on Oxford Street; each member was expected to provide a share of the entertainment and of the refreshments with no one particular host. Interest in the society waned in the 1850s. From the 1830s, Romantic American landscape painting of spectacular scenery included a group of picnickers in the foreground. An early American illustration of the picnic is Thomas Cole's The Pic-Nic of 1846. In it, a guitarist serenades the genteel social group in the Hudson River Valley with the Catskills visible in the distance. Cole's well-dressed young picnickers having finished their repast, served from splint baskets on blue-and-white china, stroll about in the woodland and boat on the lake; the image of picnics as a peaceful social activity can be utilised for political protest, too. In this context, a picnic functions as a temporary occupation of significant public territory.
A famous example of this is the Pan-European Picnic held on both sides of the Hungarian/Austrian border on the 19 August 1989 as part of the struggle towards German reunification. In 2000, a 600-mile-long picnic took place from coast to coast in France to celebrate the first Bastille Day of the new Millennium. In the United States the 4 July celebration of American independence is a popular day for a picnic. In Italy, the favorite picnic day is Easter Monday; the 1955 film Picnic, based on the Pulitzer Prize-winning play by William Inge, was a multiple Oscar winner. The film has been remade twice, in 1986 and 2000. Picnickers are used to illustrate the scale of one metre in the film Powers of Ten; the Office Picnic is a dark comedy set in an Australian Public Service office. It was written and produced by filmmaker Tom Cowan, now famous for his work on the series Survivor. In Peter Weir's myst
Nicholas I of Russia
Nicholas I reigned as Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855. He was the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland, he has become best known as a political conservative whose reign was marked by geographical expansion, repression of dissent, economic stagnation, poor administrative policies, a corrupt bureaucracy, frequent wars that culminated in Russia's defeat in the Crimean War of 1853–56. Nicholas had a happy marriage, his biographer Nicholas V. Riasanovsky says that Nicholas displayed determination, singleness of purpose, an iron will, along with a powerful sense of duty and a dedication to hard work, he saw himself as a soldier—a junior officer consumed by spit and polish. A handsome man, he was nervous and aggressive. Trained as an engineer, he was a stickler for minute detail. In his public persona, says Riasanovsky, "Nicholas I came to represent autocracy personified: infinitely majestic and powerful, hard as stone, relentless as fate." He was the younger brother of his predecessor, Alexander I.
Nicholas inherited his brother's throne despite the failed Decembrist revolt against him and went on to become the most reactionary of all Russian leaders. Nicholas I was instrumental in helping to create an independent Greek state, was successful against Russia's neighbouring southern rivals as he seized the last territories in the Caucasus held by Persia by ending the Russo-Persian War. By now, Russia had gained what is now Dagestan, Georgia and Armenia from Persia, had therefore at last gained the clear upper hand in the Caucasus, both geopolitically as well as territorially, he ended the Russo-Turkish War as well. On, however, he led Russia into the Crimean War, with disastrous results. Historians emphasize that his micromanagement of the armies hindered his generals, as did his misguided strategy. Fuller notes that historians have concluded that "the reign of Nicholas I was a catastrophic failure in both domestic and foreign policy." On the eve of his death, the Russian Empire reached its geographical zenith, spanning over 20 million square kilometers, but had a desperate need for reform.
Nicholas was born at Gatchina Palace in Gatchina to Grand Duke Paul, Grand Duchess Maria Feodorovna of Russia. Five months after his birth, his grandmother, Catherine the Great and his parents became emperor and empress of Russia, he was a younger brother of Emperor Alexander I of Russia, who succeeded to the throne in 1801, of Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich of Russia. Riasanovsky says he was, "the most handsome man in Europe, but a charmer who enjoyed feminine company and was at his best with the ladies."On 13 July 1817, Nicholas married Princess Charlotte of Prussia, who thereafter went by the name Alexandra Feodorovna when she converted to Orthodoxy. Charlotte's parents were Frederick William III of Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Nicholas and Charlotte were third cousins, as they were both great-great-grandchildren of Frederick William I of Prussia. With two older brothers, it seemed unlikely Nicholas would become Tsar. However, as Alexander and Constantine both failed to produce sons, Nicholas remained to rule one day.
In 1825, when Alexander I died of typhus, Nicholas was caught between swearing allegiance to Constantine and accepting the throne for himself. The interregnum lasted until Constantine, in Warsaw at that time, confirmed his refusal. Additionally, on 25 December, Nicholas issued the manifesto proclaiming his accession to the throne; that manifesto retroactively named 1 December, the date of Alexander I's death, as the beginning of his reign. During this confusion, a plot was hatched by some members of the military to overthrow Nicholas and to seize power; this led to the Decembrist Revolt on 26 December 1825, an uprising Nicholas was successful in suppressing. Nicholas lacked his brother's spiritual and intellectual breadth. Nicholas I began his reign on 14 December 1825; this particular Monday dawned cold, with temperatures of −8 degrees Celsius. This was regarded by the Russian people as a bad omen for the coming reign; the accession of Nicholas I was marred by a demonstration of 3000 young Imperial Army officers and other liberal-minded citizens.
This demonstration was an attempt to force the government to accept a constitution and a representative form of government. Nicholas ordered the army out to smash the demonstration; the "uprising" was put down and became known as the Decembrist Revolt. Having experienced the trauma of the Decembrist Revolt on the first day of his reign, Nicholas I was determined to restrain Russian society; the Third Section of the Imperial Chancellery ran a huge network of spies and informers with the help of Gendarmes. The government exercised censorship and other forms of control over education and all manifestations of public life, he appointed Alexander Benckendorff to head this Chancellery. Benckendorff employed 16 staff in his office, he began intercepting mail at a high rate. Soon, because of Benckendorff, the saying that it was impossible to sneeze in one's house before it is report
Charles XIV John of Sweden
Charles XIV John or Carl John, from 1818 until his death was King of Sweden and King of Norway and served as de facto regent and head of state from 1810 to 1818. He was the Sovereign Prince of Pontecorvo, in south-central Italy, from 1806 until 1810, he served a long career in the French Army. He subsequently acquired the full name of Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte, he was appointed as a Marshal of France by Napoleon. Napoleon made him Prince of Pontecorvo on 5 June 1806, but he stopped using that title in 1810 when his service to France ended and he was elected the heir-presumptive to the childless King Charles XIII of Sweden, his candidacy was advocated by Baron Carl Otto Mörner, a Swedish courtier and obscure member of the Riksdag of the Estates. Upon his Swedish adoption, he assumed the name Carl. Since he was a royal prince there, he did not use the surname of Bernadotte in Sweden, but founded the Swedish dynasty by that name. Bernadotte was born in Pau, France, as the son of Jean Henri Bernadotte, prosecutor at Pau, his wife Jeanne de Saint-Jean, niece of the Lay Abbot of Sireix.
The family name was du Poey, but was changed to Bernadotte – a surname of an ancestress at the beginning of the 17th century. Soon after his birth, Baptiste was added to his name, to distinguish him from his elder brother Jean Évangeliste. Bernadotte himself added Jules to his first names as a tribute to the French Empire under Napoleon I. At the age of 14, he was apprenticed to a local attorney. However, the death of his father when Bernadotte was just 17 stopped the youth from following his father's career. Bernadotte joined the army as a private in the Régiment Royal–La Marine on 3 September 1780, first served in the newly conquered territory of Corsica. Subsequently, the Régiment stationed in Besançon, Vienne and Ile de Re, he reached to the rank of Sergeant in August 1785 and was nicknamed Sergeant Belle-Jambe, for his smart appearance. In early 1790 he was promoted to Adjudant-Major, the highest rank for noncommissioned officers in the Ancien Régime. Following the outbreak of the French Revolution, his eminent military qualities brought him speedy promotion.
By 1794 he was promoted to brigadier, attached to the Army of Sambre-et-Meuse. After Jourdan's victory at Fleurus, he became a divisional general. At the Battle of Theiningen, Bernadotte contributed, more than anyone else, to the successful retreat of the French army over the Rhine after its defeat by the Archduke Charles of Austria. At the beginning of 1797 he was ordered by the Directory to march with 20,000 men as reinforcements to Napoleon Bonaparte's army in Italy, his successful crossing of the Alps through the storm in midwinter was praised but coldly received by the Italian Army. Upon receiving insult from Dominique Martin Dupuy, the commander of Milan, Bernadotte was to arrest him for insubordination. However, Dupuy was a close friend of Louis-Alexandre Berthier and this started a long-lasting feud between Bernadotte and Napoleon's Chief of Staff, he had his first interview with Napoleon in Mantua and was appointed the commander of the 4th division. During the invasion of Friuli and Istria, Bernadotte distinguished himself at the passage of the Tagliamento where he led the vanguard, at the capture of the fortress of Gradisca.
After the 18th Fructidor, Napoleon ordered his generals to collect from their respective divisions' addresses in favor of the coup d'état of that day. After the treaty of Campo Formio, Napoleon gave Bernadotte a friendly visit at his headquarters at Udine, but after deprived him of half his division of the army of the Rhine, commanded him to march the other half back to France. Paul Barras, one of five directors, was cautious that Napoleon would overturn the Republic, so he appointed Bernadotte commander-in-chief of the Italian Army in order to offset Napoleon’s power. Bernadotte was pleased with this appointment but Napoleon lobbied Talleyrand-Périgord, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, to appoint him to the embassy of Vienna instead. Bernadotte was dissatisfied. After returning from Vienna, he resided in Paris, he married Désirée Clary in August 1798, the daughter of a Marseilles merchant and Joseph Bonaparte's sister-in-law. In November of the same year he was made commander of the army of observation on the upper Rhine.
Although solicited to do so by Barras and Joseph Bonaparte, he did not take part in the coup d'état of the 30th Prairial. From 2 July to 14 September he was Minister of War. However, his popularity and contacts with radical Jacobins aroused antipathy towards him in the government. On the morning of 13 September he found his resignation announced in the Moniteur before he was aware that he had tendered it; this was a trick. He declined to help Napoleon Bonaparte stage his coup d'état of November 1799 but accepted employment from the Consulate, from April 1800 to 18 August 1801 commanded the army in the Vendée and successfully
Tsar spelled czar, or tzar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe Bulgarian monarchs from 10th century onwards. As a system of government in the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire, it is known as Tsarist autocracy, or Tsarism; the term is derived from the Latin word Caesar, intended to mean "Emperor" in the European medieval sense of the term—a ruler with the same rank as a Roman emperor, holding it by the approval of another emperor or a supreme ecclesiastical official —but was considered by western Europeans to be equivalent to king, or to be somewhat in between a royal and imperial rank. "Tsar" and its variants were the official titles of the following states: First Bulgarian Empire, in 919–1018 Second Bulgarian Empire, in 1185–1396 Serbian Empire, in 1346–1371 Tsardom of Russia, in 1547–1721 Tsardom of Bulgaria, in 1908–1946The first ruler to adopt the title tsar was Simeon I of Bulgaria. Simeon II, the last Tsar of Bulgaria, is the last person to have borne the title Tsar.
The title Tsar is derived from the Latin title for Caesar. In comparison to the corresponding Latin word "imperator", the Byzantine Greek term basileus was used differently depending on whether it was in a contemporary political context or in a historical or Biblical context. In the history of the Greek language, basileus had meant something like "potentate", it approached the meaning of "king" in the Hellenistic Period, it came to designate "emperor" after the inception in the Roman Empire. As a consequence, Byzantine sources continued to call the Biblical and ancient kings "basileus" when that word had come to mean "emperor" when referring to contemporary monarchs; as the Greek "basileus" was rendered as "tsar" in Slavonic translations of Greek texts, the dual meaning was transferred into Church Slavonic. Thus, "tsar" was not only used as an equivalent of Latin "imperator" but was used to refer to Biblical rulers and ancient kings. From this ambiguity, the development has moved in different directions in the different Slavic languages.
Thus, the Bulgarian language and Russian language no longer use tsar as an equivalent of the term emperor/imperator as it exists in the West European tradition. The term tsar refers to native sovereigns and Biblical rulers, as well as monarchs in fairy tales and the like; the title of king is sometimes perceived as alien and is by some Russian-speakers reserved for European royalty. Foreign monarchs of imperial status, both inside and outside of Europe, ancient as well as modern, are called imperator, rather than tsar. In contrast, the Serbocroatian language translate "emperor" as tsar and not as imperator, whereas the equivalent of king is used to designate monarchs of non-imperial status, Serbian as well as foreign ancient rulers—like Latin "rex". Biblical rulers in Serbian are called цар and in Croatian kralj. In the modern West Slavic languages and Slovene language, the use of the terms is nearly identical to the one in English and German: a king is designated with one term, an emperor is designated with another, derived from Caesar as in German, while the exotic term "tsar" is reserved for the Bulgarian and Serbian rulers.
In the Polish language however tsar is used as an equivalent to imperator, never as king. The term tsar is always used to refer to the Russian rulers before Peter the Great, often to those succeeding. In 705 Emperor Justinian II named Tervel of Bulgaria "Caesar", the first foreigner to receive this title, but his descendants continued to use Bulgar title "Kanasubigi"; the sainted Boris I is sometimes retrospectively referred to as tsar, because at his time Bulgaria was converted to Christianity. However, the title "tsar" was adopted and used for the first time by his son Simeon I, following a makeshift imperial coronation performed by the Patriarch of Constantinople in 913. After an attempt by the Byzantine Empire to revoke this major diplomatic concession and a decade of intensive warfare, the imperial title of the Bulgarian ruler was recognized by the Byzantine government in 924 and again at the formal conclusion of peace in 927. Since in Byzantine political theory there was place for only two emperors and Western, the Bulgarian ruler was crowned basileus as "a spiritual son" of the Byzantine basileus.
Some of the earliest attested occurrences of the titlo-contraction "tsar" from "tsesar" are found in the grave inscription of the chărgubilja Mostich, a contemporary of Simeon I and Peter I, from Presl
Ulrika Eleonora, Queen of Sweden
Ulrika Eleonora or Ulrica Eleanor known as Ulrika Eleonora the Younger, reigned as Queen of Sweden from 5 December 1718 until her abdication on 29 February 1720 in favour of her husband Frederick I of Sweden, which made her Queen consort of Sweden until her death. She was the youngest child of King Charles XI and Ulrika Eleonora of Denmark and named after her mother. After the death of her brother King Charles XII in 1718, she claimed the throne, her deceased older sister, Hedvig Sophia, had left a son, Charles Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp, who had the better claim by primogeniture. Ulrika Eleonora asserted that she was the closest surviving relative of the late king and cited the precedent of Queen Christina, she was recognized as successor by the Riksdag after she had agreed to renounce the powers of absolute monarchy established by her father. She abdicated in 1720 in favor of Landgrave Frederick I of Hesse-Kassel. After their mother's death in 1693, Ulrika Eleonora and her siblings were placed in the care of their grandmother, Hedwig Eleonora.
However, her grandmother was known to favor her elder sister. During her childhood, Eleonora was somewhat overlooked in favor of this elder, more extroverted and talented sister, princess Hedvig Sophia, her elder siblings enjoyed riding and dancing and somewhat looked down upon her as she did not have the courage to participate in their games and was brought to tears. She was described as friendly and dignified, with good posture and beautiful hands, but she was not regarded as either intelligent or attractive, her grandmother, Hedwig Eleonora, described her as stubborn, she was known to demonstrate her dislike of others or of events by simulating illness. She was a talented musician, when performing with her sister at court concerts, she would play the clavier while her sister sang. Ulrika Eleonora lived most of her life in the shadow of others, outshone by her brother the king, by her attractive sister. From 1700, she took care of her dominating grandmother, Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp, during her brother's absence in the Great Northern War.
Her older sister, Hedvig Sophia, was the heir presumptive to the throne. As their brother Charles XII was unmarried and childless, Hedwig Sophia was regarded as a future heir to the throne, was thereby attractive on the marriage market. In 1698, a marriage alliance was suggested by marrying her to Prince Charles of Denmark and her brother to Princess Sophia Hedwig of Denmark, but in 1700 this plan was discarded. In 1700, there were negotiations of a marriage to Frederick William I of Prussia, but nothing came of them; these plans were about to be put into effect when they were disrupted, without motivation, by her brother. She was made the god-mother of Louisa Ulrika of Prussia, named Ulrika after her. In 1702, a marriage to the future King George II of Great Britain was suggested, but was postponed, in the end nothing came of it. Duke John William of Saxe-Gotha was given permission by her brother to court her, but the marriage plans were interrupted after he engaged in a duel with Anders Lagercrona in the presence of the monarch.
In 1710, she received a proposal from Prince Frederick of Hesse. The negotiations were handled by confidante Emerentia von Düben; the marriage was supported by her grandmother Hedwig Eleonora, as the Queen Dowager thought this would force Ulrika Eleonora to leave Sweden for Hesse, increasing the chances for the son of Ulrika Eleonora's elder sister, Charles of Holstein-Gottorp, to become heir to the throne. The engagement was announced on 23 January 1714, the wedding took place 24 March 1715. During the wedding, her brother Charles XII remarked: "Tonight my sister is dancing away the crown". After her grandmother's death in 1715, she became the center of the court, this was one of the happiest periods of her life. In 1715, she married Landgrave Frederick I of Hesse-Kassel; the marriage, which on her side was a love-match, became another attempt to use her as a political puppet. Frederick had married her with the intent of reaching the throne, began plotting to have her named heir in place of her nephew.
The "Hesse Party" and the "Holstein Party" stood against each other in the struggle for the throne. Ulrika Eleonora's situation began to change after the death of her older sister, Hedvig Sophia, in 1708. Ulrika Eleonora became the only adult member of the royal house present in Sweden, aside from her grandmother, Queen Dowager Hedwig Eleonora. In late 1712, Charles XII had thoughts of making her regent during his absence; the royal council convinced her to give them her support. On 2 November 1713, she appeared at her first session, a decision was made to assemble the Riksdag to declare her regent in her capacity as the closest heir to the throne. In 1713, the government and her grandmother named her regent during the king's absence and thus she became a pawn of the many powers struggling for influence in a country without a real heir presumptive or heir apparent; the choice now stood between her nephew. Her accession as regent and president of the parliament was treated with great enthusiasm.
The Riksdag had opposed her brother as they wanted to abolish the absolute monarchy and reinstate their own power. As regent, she kept herself informed of state affairs and urged her brother to return, warning him of the effects if he did not. With his permission she signed all documents of state affairs except those written to him personally. However, she regarded herself only as her brother's representative, therefore made no suggestions of her own; as his sister, many times during the war she had asked her broth
Nicodemus Tessin the Elder
Nicodemus Tessin the Elder was an important Swedish architect. Nicodemus Tessin came to Sweden as a young man. There he worked with the architect Simon de la Vallée, he worked for the Swedish Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna before he travelled for further studies to Germany, France and in the Netherlands, where he got to know the new Baroque style in architecture. Back in Sweden he rebuilt Borgholm Castle built Skokloster Castle and the Wrangel Palace in Stockholm, his most important work was Drottningholm Palace, now a world heritage site. Upon his death his son Nicodemus Tessin. Borgholm Castle Drottningholm Palace Bonde Palace Skokloster Castle Strömsholm Palace Näsby castle Stenbock Palace Wrangel Palace Bååt Palace Kalmar Cathedral K. Neville, Nicodemus Tessin the Elder. Architecture in Sweden in the Age of Greatness, Brepols Publishers, 2009, ISBN 978-2-503-52826-7 Halltorps
John III of Sweden
John III was King of Sweden from 1568 until his death. He was the son of his second wife Margaret Leijonhufvud, he was quite autonomously, the ruler of Finland, as Duke John from 1556 to 1563. In 1581 he assumed the title Grand Prince of Finland, he attained the Swedish throne after a rebellion against his half-brother Eric XIV. He is remembered for his attempts to close the gap between the newly established Lutheran Church of Sweden and the Catholic church, his first wife was Catherine Jagellonica of the Polish-Lithuanian ruling family, their son Sigismund ascended both the Polish-Lithuanian and Swedish thrones. He was the second son of Gustav Vasa, his mother was a Swedish noblewoman. As a Duke of Finland, he opposed his half-brother Eric XIV of Sweden and was imprisoned in 1563. After his release from prison because of his brother's insanity, John again joined the opposition, deposed Eric and made himself the king, his important ally was his maternal uncle Sten Leijonhufvud, who at deathbed was made Count of Raseborg.
Shortly after this John executed his brother's most trusted counsellor, Jöran Persson, whom he held responsible for his harsh treatment while in prison. John further initiated peace talks with Denmark and Lübeck to end the Scandinavian Seven Years' War, but rejected the resulting Treaties of Roskilde where his envoys had accepted far-reaching Danish demands. After two more years of fighting, this war was concluded without many Swedish concessions in the Treaty of Stettin. During the following years he fought Russia in the Livonian War, concluded by the Treaty of Plussa in 1583, a war that meant a Swedish reconquest of Narva; as a whole his foreign policy was affected by his connection to Poland of which country his son Sigismund III Vasa was made king in 1587. In domestic politics John showed clear Catholic sympathies, inspired by his Polish queen, a fact that created frictions to the Swedish clergy and nobility, he sought to enlist the help of the papacy in gaining release of his wife's family assets, which were frozen in Naples.
He allowed Jesuits to secretly staff the Royal Theological College in Stockholm. However, John himself was a learned follower of the mediating theologian George Cassander, he sought reconciliation between Rome and Wittenberg on the basis of the consensus of the first five centuries of Christianity. John approved the publication of the Lutheran Swedish Church Order of Archbishop Laurentius Petri in 1571 but got the church to approve an addendum to the church order in 1575, Nova ordinantia ecclesiastica that displayed a return to patristic sources; this set the stage for his promulgation of the Swedish-Latin Red Book, which reintroduced several Catholic customs and resulted in the Liturgical Struggle, not to end for twenty years. In 1575, he gave his permission for the remaining Catholic convents in Sweden to start receiving novices again. From time to time he was at odds theologically with his younger brother Duke Charles of Sudermannia, who had Calvinist sympathies, did not promote King John's Liturgy in his duchy.
John III was an eager patron of architecture. In January 1569, John was recognized as king by the same riksdag that forced Eric XIV off the throne, but this recognition was not without influence from John. The nobilities' power and rights were extended and their responsibilities lessened. John was still concerned about his position as king as long; the fear of a possible liberation of the locked up king worried him to the point that in 1571 he ordered the guards to, in any suspicion of liberation attempt, murder the captured king. It is possible this is how his life ended in 1577. John III was reported like his father in propaganda, with repeated claims to have "liberated Sweden" from the "bloodhound" Christian II, as well as rescuing the population from the "tyrant" Eric XIV. John married his first wife, Catherine Jagellonica of Poland, house of Jagiello, in Vilnius on 4 October 1562. In Sweden, she is known as Katarina Jagellonica, she was the sister of king Sigismund II Augustus of Poland. Their children were: Isabella Sigismund, King of Sweden, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Finland and Lithuania Anna He married his second wife Gunilla Bielke on 21 February 1584.
The young duke married his first cousin Maria Elisabet, daughter of Charles IX of Sweden With his mistress Karin Hansdotter he had at least four illegitimate children: Sofia Gyllenhielm, who married Pontus De la Gardie Augustus Gyllenhielm Julius Gyllenhielm Lucretia Gyllenhielm John cared for Karin and their children after he married Catherine Jagellonica, in 1562. He got Karin a husband who would care for her and the children: in 1561, she married nobleman Klas Andersson, a friend and servant of John, they had a daughter named Brita. He continued supporting Karin and his illegitimate children as king, from 1568. In 1572 Karin married again, as her first husband was executed for treason by Eric XIV in 1563, to a Lars Henrikson, whom John ennobled in 1576 to care for his issue with Karin; the same year, he made his daughter Sofia a lady in the castle, as a servant to his sist