Lozère is a department in the region of Occitanie in southern France near the Massif Central. It is named after Mont Lozère. Lozère was created in 1790 during the French Revolution, when the whole of France was divided into departments, replacing the old provinces. Lozère was formed with part of the old province of Languedoc. Les Sources and Hautes-Cèvennes were two other names proposed for this department but they were not accepted. Pliny's Natural History praised the cheese of Lozère: The kinds of cheese that are most esteemed at Rome, where the various good things of all nations are to be judged of by comparison, are those that come from the provinces of Nemausus, more the area there of Lesura and Gabalis. During the period 1764-67, the Beast of Gévaudan, a creature believed to be a wolf, terrorized the general area in the Margeride Mountains of the former province of Gévaudan. Lozère has an area of 5,166.9 km2. It is the northernmost department of the current Occitanie region and is surrounded by 5 departments belonging to 2 regions: Cantal, Haute-Loire and Ardèche departments of the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, Gard and Aveyron departments of the Occitanie region.
The geography of Lozère is complicated. In the north-west, the basalt plateau of Aubrac rises between 1,000 and 1,450 m, with a cold humid climate influenced by the Atlantic; the north and north-east of the department contains the Margeride mountains, which are formed of granite, have peaks between 1,000 and 1,550 m. The climate here is cold, but drier than in Aubrac, with less snow; the Causses are a series of dry limestone plateaus in the south-west, the south-east contains the Cévennes, which include the highest point in the department, the granite Mont Lozère at 1,702 m. The department contains numerous rivers and below ground, including the Tarn, whose source is on Mont Lozère, which flows through the Gorges du Tarn in the Causses; the département is managed by the General Council of Lozère in Mende. As of 2015, the President of the Council is Sophie Pantel. Lozère is part of the region of Occitanie. There are 13 cantons and 158 communes in Lozère; the following is a list of the 13 cantons of the Lozère department, following the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015: The main activities are cattle farming and tourism.
There is any agricultural farming in Lozère due to poor soil quality. The hardy Aubrac is the most farmed cattle breed here; the region has one of the lowest rates of unemployment in France, which may be attributed to the enforced long-standing tradition whereby young people emigrate to cities such as Lyon, Montpellier when they reach working age. Lozère is a rural department, with little land taken up by roads and buildings. Overall the land use is divided as follows: Forest 43.81% Heath & other open land 31.19% Arable land 12.74% Fields 11.36% Roads and buildings 0.54% Rivers and ponds 0.36% Lozère is the least populated French department. It has a population, in 2016, of 76,422, for a population density of 14.8 inhabitants/km2. The arrondissement of Mende, with 63,613 inhabitants, is by far the largest; the other arrondissement, has 13,276 inhabitants. The only important town is Mende with 11,908 people living there in 2012. Other cities are Saint-Chély-d'Apcher; the inhabitants of Lozère are known, as Lozériens.
Tourist activities include a variety of sports, such as skiing and kayaking. Lozère contains a part of the Cévennes National Park. Lozère is considered one of the best areas in France for trout fishing. Rivers such as the Lot and Truyère are noted for their trout populations. Cantons of the Lozère department Communes of the Lozère department Arrondissements of the Lozère department General Council of Lozère Prefecture website Comité Départemental du Tourisme en Lozère
Henry V of England
Henry V called Henry of Monmouth, was King of England from 1413 until his early death in 1422. He was the second English monarch of the House of Lancaster. Despite his short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes in the Hundred Years' War against France, most notably in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe. Immortalised in the plays of Shakespeare, Henry is known and celebrated as one of the great warrior kings of medieval England. In his youth, during the reign of his father Henry IV, Henry gained military experience fighting the Welsh during the revolt of Owain Glyndŵr and against the powerful aristocratic Percy family of Northumberland at the Battle of Shrewsbury. Henry acquired an increasing share in England's government due to the king's declining health, but disagreements between father and son led to political conflict between the two. After his father's death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and asserted the pending English claim to the French throne.
In 1415, Henry embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years' War between the two nations. His military successes culminated in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt and saw him come close to conquering France. Taking advantage of political divisions within France, he conquered large portions of the kingdom and Normandy was occupied by the English for the first time since 1345–1360. After months of negotiation with Charles VI of France, the Treaty of Troyes recognised Henry V as regent and heir apparent to the French throne and he was subsequently married to Charles's daughter, Catherine of Valois. Following this arrangement, everything seemed to point to the formation of a union between the kingdoms of France and England, in the person of King Henry, his sudden and unexpected death in France two years condemned England to the long and difficult minority of his infant son and successor, who reigned as Henry VI in England and Henry II in France. Henry was born in the tower above the gatehouse of Monmouth Castle in Wales, for that reason was sometimes called Henry of Monmouth.
He was the son of Henry of Bolingbroke and Mary de Bohun, thus the paternal grandson of the influential John of Gaunt, great-grandson of Edward III of England. At the time of his birth, Richard II, his first cousin once removed, was king. Henry's grandfather, John of Gaunt, was the king's guardian; as he was not close to the line of succession to the throne, Henry's date of birth was not documented. However, records indicate that his younger brother Thomas was born in the autumn of 1387 and that his parents were at Monmouth in 1386 but not in 1387, it is now accepted that he was born on 16 September 1386. Upon the exile of Henry's father in 1398, Richard II took the boy into his own charge and treated him kindly; the young Henry accompanied King Richard to Ireland. While in the royal service, he visited Trim Castle in County Meath, the ancient meeting place of the Irish Parliament. In 1399, Henry's grandfather died. In the same year, King Richard II was overthrown by the Lancastrian usurpation that brought Henry's father to the throne and Henry was recalled from Ireland into prominence as heir apparent to the Kingdom of England.
He was created Prince of Wales at his father's coronation and Duke of Lancaster on 10 November 1399, the third person to hold the title that year. His other titles were Duke of Earl of Chester and Duke of Aquitaine. A contemporary record notes that during that year, Henry spent time at The Queen's College, Oxford under the care of his uncle Henry Beaufort, the chancellor of the university. From 1400 to 1404, he carried out the duties of High Sheriff of Cornwall. Less than three years Henry was in command of part of the English forces, he led his own army into Wales against Owain Glyndŵr and joined forces with his father to fight Henry "Hotspur" Percy at the Battle of Shrewsbury in 1403. It was there that the sixteen-year-old prince was killed by an arrow that became stuck in his face. An ordinary soldier might have died from such a wound, but Henry had the benefit of the best possible care. Over a period of several days, John Bradmore, the royal physician, treated the wound with honey to act as an antiseptic, crafted a tool to screw into the broken arrow shaft and thus extract the arrow without doing further damage, flushed the wound with alcohol.
The operation was successful, but it left Henry with permanent scars, evidence of his experience in battle. For eighteen months in 1410–11, Henry was in control of the country during his father's ill health and took full advantage of the opportunity to impose his own policies; when the king recovered, he dismissed the prince from his council. The Welsh revolt of Owain Glyndŵr absorbed Henry's energies until 1408; as a result of the king's ill health, Henry began to take a wider share in politics. From January 1410, helped by his uncles Henry Beaufort and Thomas Beaufort, legitimised sons of John of Gaunt, he had practical control of the government. Both in foreign and domestic policy he differed from the king, who discharged the prince from the council in November 1411; the quarrel of father and son was political only, though it is probable that the Beauforts had discussed the abdication of Henry IV. Their opponents endeavoured to defame the prince, it may be that the tradition of Henry's riotous youth, immortalised by Shakespeare, is due to political enmity.
Henry's record of involvement in war and politics in his youth, disproves this tradition. The most famous incident, his quarrel wi
Nilpena Station is a pastoral lease that operates as a sheep station in South Australia. It is situated 44 kilometres west of Blinman and 99 kilometres north of Hawker in the Flinders Ranges and bounded by Lake Torrens, it occupies an area of 800 square kilometres. Thomas Elder and Robert Barr Smith acquired Nilpena in 1859. William James Browne owned the property in 1879 when he had the drover Giles take 12,000 sheep from Nilpena and overland them all the way to his new properties Newcastle Waters and Delamere Stations. Only 8000 sheep survived the journey, but it was still regarded as one of the most remarkable droving feats in Australian history. Browne appointed Roderick John Matheson to manage the property, along with Arkaba Station. Matheson and John Lewis bought Nilpena, with Matheson buying out Lewis. In 1925, the Old Nilpena Station was placed on the market for auction. At this time it was stocked with over 3000 merino sheep, it failed to reach the reserve price of £11,750. Matheson still owned the property in 1926, along with neighbouring Warrioota Station, which together occupied an area of 350 square miles.
He was running about 15,000 sheep across the two properties. By 1944 the property was carrying 7000 sheep. In 1950, the station was run by the Nilpena Pastoral Company. In that year, the station received 18 months' worth of rain over some 11.6 inches. The 216,000 acres property had over 10,000 acres under water. Mr Toll estimated at the time that the property would have sufficient feed guaranteed for the next two years; some time prior to the 1980s, the Fargher family acquired the property. Ross Fargher discovered a pristine Ediacaran fossil site in the 1980s that became the focus of groundbreaking research. In 2009, the fossils and the property featured on the David Attenborough program First Life. List of ranches and stations
Roma is a town and the administrative centre in the Maranoa Region, Australia. The town was incorporated in 1867 and is named after Lady Diamantina Bowen, the wife of Sir George Bowen, the Governor of Queensland at the time. At the 2016 census, Roma had a population of 6,848.. Roma is in the Maranoa district of Australia, 515 km by rail WNW of Brisbane, it is situated at the junction of the Carnarvon highways. It is the centre of wheat-growing district. Prior the European settlement the Aboriginal peoples of the Mandandanji Nation occupied this region. Roma was named after Lady Diamantina Bowen, wife of the first Governor of Queensland, George Bowen, in 1867. In 1863 Samuel Symons Bassett brought Queensland's vine cuttings to Roma and established the Romaville Winery and a century Roma was the site of Australia's first oil and gas discoveries. Captain Starlight, a cattle rustler, was tried and acquitted in the Roma Courthouse in February 1873. No successful conviction for cattle rustling has been made in Roma.
Roma has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 75 Arthur Street: State Butchers Shop 42 Bungil Street: Roma Government Complex 38–44 Hawthorne Street: Hibernian Hall McDowall Street: Roma Court House and Police Buildings 86 McDowell Street: Hunter's Emporium 77 Northern Road: Romavilla Winery Warrego Highway, Bungeworgorai: Mount Abundance Homestead Wyndham Street: War Memorial and Heroes Avenue Roma has a humid subtropical climate, which gets enough precipitation to avoid the semi-arid climate. Its location on the far south of the Carnarvon Range at an elevation of 299 metres above sea level means that it is cooler and wetter than the plains to the south and west, while being warmer and drier than areas to the north and east. Temperatures in Roma range from 34 °C in summer to 20 °C in winter and winter minimums can drop below freezing. Rainfall is mild and distributed evenly throughout the year, with an annual average of 587.9 mm, however it peaks in summer due to frequent showers and thunderstorms.
Roma is too far inland to experience the influence of tropical cyclones and monsoonal rain depressions, however there are exceptions, these systems have caused significant flooding in the town. Extremes have ranged from 45.8 °C to −5.8 °C. The town is situated on a tributary of the Condamine River. In March 2010, Roma experienced its worst floods in over 100 years. Flooding occurred in April 2011, a year of record rainfall in Roma. In early February 2012, Roma was devastated by its worst floods in history, eclipsing the level reached in 2010. Having experienced three successive years of flooding, in May 2012, one insurer, announced it would not issue new policies to Roma residents, unless action was taken to mitigate the flood risk in Roma. Roma is the major provisional centre for the Maranoa District, South West Queensland for government and industry business, it is on the western fringe of the Surat Basin energy / resources boom. The Maranoa's agriculture industry is worth $620 million annually, 64.3% being generated from crops.
58.7% of businesses in the Maranoa are in the agriculture and fishing sector, which employs 32.7% of the region's workforce. 2005 was a record year for Roma saleyards processing 390,000 head of cattle. Roma is home to the largest store cattle saleyards in the Southern Hemisphere. We sell heaps and offer tours on saledays, which are Tuesday and Thursday Forestry plantations include Hardwood and Cypress Pines. Roma and the Maranoa region is home to Australia's most active native Cypress Pine sawmilling. In 1906 natural gas was used for lighting in Roma; the industry has expanded. Origin Energy's Spring Gully Coal Seam Gas Development is about 80 kilometres north of Roma and its projects include an 87 kilometres gas pipeline to Roma's neighbour town of Wallumbilla to connect with the 434 kilometres Roma-to-Brisbane gas pipeline hub there. Origin Energy is proposing Spring Gully Power Station as an $870 Million, 1,000 MW power station that will provide electricity to South-East Queensland. With a base at the Spring Gully CSG site, the power station will have the benefit of being close to the source of gas and able to use the waste-water left over from the other CSG operations.
Santos GLNG, is developing CSG fields in the district and is undertaking the project on behalf of a joint venture arrangement with Santos Limited, Petroliam Nasional Berhad and Korean Gas Corporation. The projects are spatially intensive and include production and monitoring wells, underground gas storage, injection wells, fixed above-ground gas field facilities, water management infrastructure, above and below-ground gas and water pipelines; the groundbreaking study, known as the Roma Managed Aquifer Recharge Study, is the first of its kind in Australia. It is considered experimental in nature as the risks are unknown; the Roma CSG Field pilot trial Stage 4 is in operation and Roma CSG Field Stage 4 operation is due to commence Q3/Q4 2014. The project will allow for the injection of up to 24 ML/d of treated coal seam gas water into the Gubberamunda Sandstone aquifer for up to 20 yearsIn 2010, a SANTOS project study investigated the possibility of introducing treated CSG produce water into Roma's existing underground aquifer which supplies the town's water needs, including drinking water Water bores have been s
Tyrol is a federal state in western Austria. It comprises the Austrian part of the historical Princely County of Tyrol, it is a constituent part of the present-day Euroregion Tyrol–South Tyrol–Trentino. The capital of Tyrol is Innsbruck; the state of Tyrol is separated into two parts, divided by a 7-kilometre wide strip. The larger territory is called the smaller area is called East Tyrol; the neighbouring Austrian state of Salzburg stands to the east, while on the south Tyrol has a border with the Italian province of South Tyrol, part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire before the First World War. With a land area of 12,683.85 km2, Tyrol is the third-largest state in Austria. Tyrol shares its borders with the federal state of Vorarlberg in the west. In the north, it adjoins to the German state of Bavaria. East Tyrol shares its borders with the federal state of Carinthia to the east and Italy's Province of Belluno to the south; the state's territory is located within the Eastern Alps at the Brenner Pass.
The highest mountain in the state is the Großglockner, part of the Hohe Tauern range on the border with Carinthia. It has a height of 3,797 m, making it the highest mountain in Austria. In ancient times, the region was split between the Roman provinces of Noricum. From the mid-6th century, it was resettled by Germanic Bavarii tribes. In the Early Middle Ages it formed the southern part of the German stem duchy of Bavaria, until the Counts of Tyrol, former Vogt officials of the Trent and Brixen prince-bishops at Tyrol Castle, achieved imperial immediacy after the deposition of the Bavarian duke Henry the Proud in 1138, their possessions formed a state of the Holy Roman Empire in its own right; when the Counts of Tyrol died out in 1253, their estates were inherited by the Meinhardiner Counts of Görz. In 1271, the Tyrolean possessions were divided between Count Meinhard II of Görz and his younger brother Albert I, who took the lands of East Tyrol around Lienz and attached it to his committal possessions around Gorizia.
The last Tyrolean countess of the Meinhardiner Dynasty, bequeathed her assets to the Habsburg duke Rudolph IV of Austria in 1363. In 1420, the committal residence was relocated from Merano to Innsbruck; the Tyrolean lands were reunited when the Habsburgs inherited the estates of the extinct Counts of Görz in 1500. In the course of the German mediatization in 1803, the prince-bishoprics of Trent and Brixen were secularized and merged into the County of Tyrol, but Tyrol was ceded to the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1805. Andreas Hofer led the Tyrolean Rebellion against the Bavarian occupiers. South Tyrol was ceded to the Kingdom of Italy, a client state of the First French Empire, by Bavaria in 1810. After Napoleon's defeat, the whole of Tyrol was returned to Austria in 1814. Tyrol was a Cisleithanian Kronland of Austria-Hungary from 1867; the County of Tyrol extended beyond the boundaries of today's state, including North Tyrol and East Tyrol. After World War I, these lands became part of the Kingdom of Italy according to the 1915 London Pact and the provisions of the Treaty of Saint Germain.
Since November 1918 it was occupied by 20,000–22,000 soldiers of the Italian Army. After World War II, Tyrol was governed by France until Austria regained independence again in 1955; the capital, Innsbruck, is known for its university, for its medicine. Tyrol is popular for its famous ski resorts, which include Ischgl and St. Anton; the 15 largest towns in Tyrol are: Tyrol has long been a central hub for European long-distance routes and thus a transit land for trans-European trade over the Alps. As early as the 1st century B. C. Tyrol had one of the most important north-south links of the Via Claudia Augusta. Roman roads crossed the Tyrol from the Po Plain in present-day Italy, following the course of the Etsch and Eisack in present South Tyrol over the Brenner and following the northern Wipp valley to Hall. From there roads branched along the River Inn; the Via Raetia went westwards and up onto the Seefeld Plateau, where it crossed into Bavaria where Scharnitz is today. The Porta Claudia, built in the early 17th century is a fortification that underlines the importance of the road in the Early Modern Period.
Today Tyrol has international road and air connections. Innsbruck Airport is Tyrol's international airport. In addition there are several smaller airports in various places such as St. Johann in Tirol, Höfen in the Außerfern or Langkampfen. Many ÖPNV companies operate a common tariff scheme as part of the Tyrol Transport Association; the state is divided into nine districts. The districts and their administrative centres, from west to east and north to south, are: North Tyrol: Landeck District, Reutte District, Imst District, Innsbruck-Land, Innsbruck Stadt Schwaz District, Kufstein District, Kitzbühel District, East Tyrol: Lienz District, Tyrol History of Tyrol North Tyrol East Tyrol Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino
In Australia, the Travelling Stock Route is an authorised thoroughfare for the walking of domestic livestock such as sheep or cattle from one location to another. The TSRs are known collectively as "The Long Paddock". A Travelling Stock Route may be distinguished from an ordinary country road by the fact that the grassy verges on either side of the road are much wider, the property fences being set back much further from the roadside than is usual; the reason for this is so that the livestock may feed on the vegetation that grows on the verges as they travel. Other types of Travelling Stock Routes include the rugged remote TSR that follows the Guy Fawkes River through Guy Fawkes River National Park and is part of the Bicentennial National Trail. By law, the travelling stock must travel "six miles a day"; this is to avoid all the roadside grass from being cleared in a particular area by an individual mob. Bores, equipped with windmills and troughs, may be located at regular intervals to provide water in regions where there are no other reliable water sources.
A Travelling Stock Reserve is a fenced paddock set aside at strategic distances to allow overnight watering and camping of stock. Reserves may be located on many roadways that are not the typical wide TSRs; the travelling stock are driven by a stockmen using Australian Stock Horses or vehicles. Other working animals include working dogs such as Kelpies, or their crosses which have been bred for working sheep and cattle; the stockman may be accompanied by a packhorse, carrying supplies and equipment, or a wagon with supplies might follow the stock. More travelling stock has been accompanied by four-wheel drive vehicles and mobile homes; the purpose of "droving" livestock on such a journey might be to move the stock to different pastures. It was the only way that most livestock producers had of getting their product to the markets of the towns and cities; the beef cattle were transported to a rail siding or abattoirs "on the hoof". The rigors of the journey, the availability of feed and water and the reliability of those "droving" the stock were all factors in the condition of the livestock when it was slaughtered.
An early stock route, the Snowy TSR, was pioneered during the drought of 1828, when the supply of water and fodder failed around Lake George, near Canberra. The local Aboriginals, realising the plight of the stock, led the stock and their owners into the country now known as Berridale. Colonial explorers and overlanders pioneered many of the present-day stock routes along corridors that followed river systems, indigenous trade routes and trails. Before the railways were extended cattle were driven up to 3,220 kilometres on the main stock routes; these early drovers sometimes had to contend with crocodile-infested rivers, dust storms, poisonous plants and hostile Aborigines. These established routes were dedicated as roads between the 1860s and 1890s. From the early 1900s the state Governments established a program to develop stock route water facilities throughout the stock route network. Most stock routes now have designated watering points, each located the distance of a droving day apart. With the establishment of railways in country areas from the 1880s onwards, livestock reached the major destinations in cattle trucks.
There were stock-yards and livestock ramps at nearly all rural railway stations to facilitate this transportation, meaning that it was only necessary to drove stock to the nearest rail transport depot. Travelling stock routes and reserves have been administered by Rural Lands Protection Boards, since 1902. There are about 600,000 hectares of travelling stock reserves in NSW and 2.6 million hectares running for 72,000 kilometres across Queensland. Between 1906 and 1910 Alfred Canning opened up the Canning Stock Route, one of the most famous overland routes in the world. During World War II good highways were constructed in the Northern Territory where the railway had not been extended. After the war the road transport of cattle proved successful with trucks carrying 80 head of fat cattle on each trip. Droving though, was continued until well into the 1950s as these units required sealed roads. From about 1980 the road transport of livestock by road trains became common and has replaced the transport of stock either by foot or by rail.
But the days of the travelling stock route are not past. In times of extreme drought, when paddocks lack feed and/or water, stockowners have been forced to reduce their livestock numbers radically or take the remaining beasts to travel their six miles a day, along the stock routes, surviving on the roadside grass. Uses of Travelling Stock Reserves include emergency refuge during floods and drought, as well as some local agistment. Today, TSRs are valued as corridors for native vegetation ecosystems and providing a habitat for flora and fauna. During 1997, 125 head of cattle died after eating Kalanchoe delagoensis on a travelling stock reserve near Moree, New South Wales; the Strzelecki Track, from Lyndhurst in the south to Innamincka, South Australia and beyond in the north used to be one of the driest and loneliest tracks to transport mobs of fat cattle to the Adelaide market. It was Captain Starlight, of Robbery Under Arms fame. In 1870 Henry Arthur Readford, better known as Harry Redford, or Starlight, drove a thousand head of stolen cattle from Queensland, down the Barcoo and Cooper past Mount Hopeless, to Blanchewater where he sold them for $10,000.
Although he was caught and went on trial for his crime, he was found not guilty by a jury impressed with his audacious feat of blazing a new cattle stock r