A drug cartel is any criminal organization with the intention of supplying drug trafficking operations. They range from loosely managed agreements among various drug traffickers to formalized commercial enterprises; the term was applied when the largest trafficking organizations reached an agreement to coordinate the production and distribution of cocaine. Since that agreement was broken up, drug cartels are no longer cartels, but the term stuck and it is now popularly used to refer to any criminal narcotics related organization; the basic structure of a drug cartel is as follows: Falcons: Considered as the "eyes and ears" of the streets, the "falcons" are the lowest rank in any drug cartel. They are responsible for supervising and reporting the activities of the police, the military, rival groups. Hitmen: The armed group within the drug cartel, responsible for carrying out assassinations, kidnappings and extortions, operating protection rackets, defending their plaza from rival groups and the military.
Lieutenants: The second highest position in the drug cartel organization, responsible for supervising the hitmen and falcons within their own territory. They are allowed to carry out low-profile murders without permission from their bosses. Drug lords: The highest position in any drug cartel, responsible for supervising the entire drug industry, appointing territorial leaders, making alliances, planning high-profile murders. There are other operating groups within the drug cartels. For example, the drug producers and suppliers, although not considered in the basic structure, are critical operators of any drug cartel, along with the financiers and money launderers. In addition, the arms suppliers operate in a different circle, are technically not considered part of the cartel's logistics. Cape Verdean organized crime Mungiki Nigerian organized crimeConfraternities in Nigeria Black Axe Confraternity Anini gang Mai-Mai militia gangs Moroccan hashish smugglers Ahmed organization Rivard organization Red Scorpions Bacon Brothers Montreal West End Gang Blass gang Dubois Brothers Indo-Canadian organized crime Punjabi Mafia जोहल गिरोह Canadian mafia families Rizzuto crime family Cuntrera-Caruana Mafia clan Cotroni crime family Musitano crime family Papalia crime family Luppino crime family Perri crime family Siderno Group Commisso'ndrina Not to be confused with the Mexican Mafia U.
S. prison gang. Mexican cartels refers to several, criminal organizations that are combated by the Mexican government in the Mexican War on Drugs: Gulf Cartel Los Zetas La Familia Michoacana Los Caballeros Templarios Guadalajara Cartel Sinaloa Cartel Colima Cartel Sonora Cartel Artistas Asesinos Gente Nueva Los Ántrax Milenio Cartel La Resistencia Jalisco New Generation Cartel Beltrán-Leyva Cartel Los Negros South Pacific Cartel Cártel del Centro Cártel Independiente de Acapulco La Barredora El Comando Del Diablo La Mano Con Ojos La Nueva Administración La Oficina Cártel de la Sierra Cártel de La Calle Los Chachos Tijuana Cartel Oaxaca Cartel Juárez Cartel La Línea Barrio Azteca Lesser-known small-criminal organizations: Los Mexicles Los Texas Government officials: Other organizations that have been involved in drug trade or traffic in Mexico: Mexican officials: Municipal and Federal police forces in Mexico Mexican Armed Forces Mexico City International Airport Club Xoloitzcuintles United States officials: Federal Bureau of Investigation Texas National Guard U.
S. Customs and Border Protection United States Immigration and Naturalization Service The United States of America is the world's largest consumer of cocaine and other illegal drugs; this is a list of American criminal organizations involved in illegal drug traffic, drug trade and other related crimes in the United States: National Crime SyndicateSeven Group Murder, Inc. Polish Mo
Film censorship in East Germany was common at a politically sensitive time in history. Despite the three consecutive constitutions of the German Democratic Republic proclaiming freedom from censorship, in practice certain films were regulated; the chief reason for censorship in East Germany in cinema was criticism of government policies which the government perceived as a threat to the future of the nation. Censorship of film and other media was de facto. However, several forms of soft censorship were used to prevent the public from viewing certain films. Films banned in the aftermath the 11th Plenum of the ZK-SED include: Spring Takes Its Times Trace of Stones Just Don't Think I'll Cry Born in 1945 The Rabbit Is Me Karla The Lost Angel When You're Older, Adam Mademoiselle Butterfly Hands Up or I'll Shoot Berlin, Around the Corner While censorship was, on the surface banned by the GDR constitution, in practice, it was used extensively when it came to the censorship of American and Western films.
During the immediate post WWII period, while the GDR was still working to establish legitimacy, direct censorship was not a viable option. The GDR worked hard to separate its own ideal from American and Western Ideals, which they viewed as a threat to the Communist ideals During the early years of the Republic, between the 1950s and 1970s the East German government employed what they called Freiwillige Selbstkontrolle der Filmwirtschaft, which translates to the Voluntary Self-Regulatory Body of the Film Industry. Though the name would suggest the organization was made up of volunteers, the actual members of the organization were appointed by the GDR government. Many of these members worked in the film industry prior to the split of West Germany; these members were tasked with screening each film. This organization censored numerous American and Western films claiming them to be unfit for public viewing. Although approval of the FSK was not supposed to be explicitly required, many theaters in the GDR refused to show films that were not on the FSK approved list.
The inner workings of the FSK were kept secret from German citizens. The GDR's government did not want the average citizen to know they were being censored, in an effort to distance itself from its recent fascist past. Germans in the pre WWII period were avid cinema goers. Over a billion cinema tickets were sold in 1943 alone in Germany. After Germany’s surrender during the second world war, German citizens continued to flock to cinemas in large numbers. Before the official split of East and West Germany, Allied films were shown; as the rift between East and West became deeper and deeper, fewer Allied films were shown and were replaced with Soviet films. German citizens became well acquainted with the pitfalls of fascism; as the Soviets began to withdraw, the East German Government re-vamped an old Nazi era film production company. They centralized all the former Germany film production companies in and around Berlin into one monopolized film company, DEFA; this company held a monopoly on every stage of film production in the GDR and was responsible for all film production released to the public
A gallery gun, Flobert gun, parlor gun or saloon gun is a type of firearm designed for recreational indoor target shooting. These guns were developed in 1845, when French inventor Louis-Nicolas Flobert created the first rimfire metallic cartridge by modifying a percussion cap to hold a small lead bullet. In the 20th, gallery guns were pump action rifles chambered in.22 short. Gallery guns are still manufactured, although by the late 20th century, they have been eclipsed by airguns for the purpose of indoor shooting. Gallery guns are smallbore, single-shot or pump action rifles chambered in.22 Short. Some of the more popular guns are the Winchester Model 1890, Colt Lightning Carbine, the Winchester Model 62. Home shooting parlors and galleries began to decline in the early 20th century. However, gallery guns went on to be used in shooting galleries in carnivals and amusement parks. By the late 20th century, gallery guns have been eclipsed by airguns for the purpose of indoor shooting. Gallery guns are still manufactured, although they are used for plinking and small game hunting.
Frenchman Louis-Nicolas Flobert invented the first rimfire metallic cartridge in 1845. The 6mm Flobert cartridge consisted of a percussion cap with a bullet attached to the top; these cartridges do not contain any powder, the only propellant substance contained in the cartridge is the percussion cap. In Europe, the.22 BB cap and the more powerful.22 CB cap are both called 6mm Flobert and are considered the same cartridge. These cartridges have a low muzzle velocity of around 700 ft/s to 800 ft/s. Flobert made what he called "parlor guns" for this cartridge, as these rifles and pistols were designed to be shot in indoor shooting parlors in large homes. Parlor pistols came into fashion in the mid-19th century, they were used for target shooting in homes with a dedicated gallery for this purpose. The Remington Rider Single Shot Pistol was one of the better-known American-made parlor guns. Saloon guns were smoothbore weapons that fired a 6mm Flobert rounds, but can refer to a large caliber firearm, made to shoot a smaller caliber round in indoor shooting galleries by use of a chamber insert called a Morris tube.
The Morris tube was shaped to the cartridge that the weapon was capable of firing and inside this tube was a smaller chamber for the round to fit..22 BB.22 CB.22 Short Winkler Parlor Pistol