Old master print
An old master print is a work of art produced by a printing process within the Western tradition. Fifteenth-century prints are rare that they are classed as old master prints even if they are of crude or merely workmanlike artistic quality. A date of about 1830 is usually taken as marking the end of the period whose prints are covered by this term, the main techniques used, in order of their introduction, are woodcut, etching and aquatint, although there are others. Different techniques are combined in a single print. With rare exceptions printed on textiles, such as silk, or on vellum, many great European artists, such as Albrecht Dürer and Francisco Goya, were dedicated printmakers. In their own day, their international reputations largely came from their prints, influences between artists were mainly transmitted beyond a single city by prints, for the same reason. Prints therefore are frequently brought up in detailed analyses of individual paintings in art history, thanks to colour photo reproductions, and public galleries, their paintings are much better known, whilst their prints are only rarely exhibited, for conservation reasons.
But some museum print rooms allow visitors to see their collection, the oldest technique is woodcut, or woodblock printing, which was invented as a method for printing on cloth in China, and perhaps separately in Egypt in the Byzantine period. This had reached Europe via the Byzantine or Islamic worlds before 1300, religious images and playing cards are documented as being produced on paper, probably printed, by a German in Bologna in 1395. However, the most impressive printed European images to survive from before 1400 are printed on cloth, for use as hangings on walls or furniture, including altars, some were used as a pattern to embroider over. Some religious images were used as bandages, to speed healing, the earliest print images are mostly of a high artistic standard, and were clearly designed by artists with a background in painting. Whether these artists cut the blocks themselves, or only inked the design on the block for another to carve, is not known, the great majority of surviving 15th-century prints are religious, although these were probably the ones more likely to survive.
Their makers were sometimes called Jesus maker or saint-maker in documents, as with manuscript books, monastic institutions sometimes produced, and often sold, prints. No artists can be identified with specific woodcuts until towards the end of the century, the little evidence we have suggests that woodcut prints became relatively common and cheap during the fifteenth century, and were affordable by skilled workers in towns. For example, what may be the earliest surviving Italian print, the school caught fire, and the crowd who gathered to watch saw the print carried up into the air by the fire, before falling down into the crowd. This was regarded as an escape and the print was carried to Forlì Cathedral. Like the majority of prints before approximately 1460, only a single impression of this print has survived, Woodcut blocks are printed with light pressure, and are capable of printing several thousand impressions, and even at this period some prints may well have been produced in that quantity.
Many prints were hand-coloured, mostly in watercolour, in fact the hand-colouring of prints continued for many centuries, Germany and the Netherlands were the main areas of production, England does not seem to have produced any prints until about 1480
David Milne (artist)
David Milne, was a Canadian painter and writer. David Milne was born in the southwestern Ontario, village of Burgoyne (near in 1882 and he was the last of 10 children born to Scottish immigrant parents. His early education was in Paisley, followed by school in Walkerton, Ontario he performed well in school. During 1902 and 1903 he studied art through correspondence, eventually deciding to move to New York City in 1903 at the age of 21 In New York, he spent two years studying at the Art Students League. He had five paintings exhibited in the Armory Show of 1913, in 1912, he married Frances May and they moved to Boston Corners, a small hamlet where Milne painted with oils and watercolours. Milne left Boston Corners in 1917 for basic training in Toronto for World War I and he was stationed in Quebec and quarantined in England for a month, during which time World War I ended. Because of his background as an artist, he was asked to complete paintings and drawings as a war artist, Milne produced artworks of battlefields in France and Belgium as well as of soldiers in Kinmel Park Camp in England.
Between the years of 1919 and 1929, Milne lived in Boston Corners, in 1929, Milne returned to Canada to paint in Temagami and Palgrave. He separated from his wife in 1933, moved to Port Severn and sold many of his paintings to prominent art patrons Vincent Massey and Alice Massey. In the late 1930s, Milne settled down in Uxbridge, Ontario with Kathleen Pavey, a nurse, during the years of his life, Milne worked again in watercolours, and changed his subject matter to more whimsical and childlike inspirations. He continued to travel to Algonquin Park and Baptiste Lake to paint the Canadian landscape, on November 14,1952, Milne had a stroke. Over the next year he continued to suffer from strokes and died in the hospital in Bancroft. The prestigious American art critic Clement Greenberg described Milne as one of the three greatest North American artists of his generation, although he was overshadowed by the Group of Seven during his early career, David Milne is now recognized as one of Canadas foremost artists.
After his death, the National Gallery of Canada organized a retrospective of his work, in 2005, an exhibit of Milnes watercolours traveled from the British Museum to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and finally to the Art Gallery of Ontario. In 1952, works by David Milne along with those of Emily Carr, Goodridge Roberts, on June 29,1992 Canada Post issued Red Nasturtiums, David B. Milne,1937 in the Masterpieces of Canadian art series, the stamp was designed by Pierre-Yves Pelletier based on a painting Red Nasturtiums by David Brown Milne in the National Gallery of Canada, Ontario. The 50¢ stamps are perforated 13 X13.5 and were printed by Ashton-Potter Limited, David Milne worked predominantly in oil paint and drypoint printmaking. Milne was influenced in part by the European and American modernists exhibited through Alfred Stieglitzs gallery,291 and he pushed himself to develop his own particular style that was stark yet beautiful and very expressively realized
Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface by cutting grooves into it. Wood engraving is a form of printing and is not covered in this article. Engraving was an important method of producing images on paper in artistic printmaking, in mapmaking. Other terms often used for printed engravings are copper engraving, copper-plate engraving or line engraving, hand engraving is a term sometimes used for engraving objects other than printing plates, to inscribe or decorate jewellery, trophies and other fine metal goods. Traditional engravings in printmaking are engraved, using just the same techniques to make the lines in the plate. Each graver is different and has its own use, engravers use a hardened steel tool called a burin, or graver, to cut the design into the surface, most traditionally a copper plate. Modern professional engravers can engrave with a resolution of up to 40 lines per mm in high grade work creating game scenes, dies used in mass production of molded parts are sometimes hand engraved to add special touches or certain information such as part numbers.
In addition to engraving, there are engraving machines that require less human finesse and are not directly controlled by hand. They are usually used for lettering, using a pantographic system, there are versions for the insides of rings and the outsides of larger pieces. Such machines are used for inscriptions on rings, lockets. Gravers come in a variety of shapes and sizes that yield different line types, the burin produces a unique and recognizable quality of line that is characterized by its steady, deliberate appearance and clean edges. The angle tint tool has a curved tip that is commonly used in printmaking. Florentine liners are flat-bottomed tools with multiple lines incised into them, ring gravers are made with particular shapes that are used by jewelry engravers in order to cut inscriptions inside rings. Flat gravers are used for work on letters, as well as wriggle cuts on most musical instrument engraving work, remove background. Knife gravers are for line engraving and very deep cuts, round gravers, and flat gravers with a radius, are commonly used on silver to create bright cuts, as well as other hard-to-cut metals such as nickel and steel.
Square or V-point gravers are typically square or elongated diamond-shaped and used for cutting straight lines, V-point can be anywhere from 60 to 130 degrees, depending on purpose and effect. These gravers have very small cutting points, other tools such as mezzotint rockers and burnishers are used for texturing effects. Burnishing tools can be used for stone setting techniques
Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. Printmaking normally covers only the process of creating prints that have an element of originality, except in the case of monotyping, the process is capable of producing multiples of the same piece, which is called a print. Each print produced is not considered a copy but rather is considered an original, a print may be known as an impression. Printmaking is not chosen only for its ability to multiple impressions. Prints are created by transferring ink from a matrix or through a screen to a sheet of paper or other material. Screens made of silk or synthetic fabrics are used for the screenprinting process, other types of matrix substrates and related processes are discussed below. Multiple impressions printed from the matrix form an edition. Prints may be printed in book form, such as illustrated books or artists books, Printmaking techniques are generally divided into the following basic categories, where ink is applied to the original surface of the matrix.
Relief techniques include woodcut or woodblock as the Asian forms are known, wood engraving. Intaglio, where ink is applied beneath the surface of the matrix. Intaglio techniques include engraving, mezzotint, planographic, where the matrix retains its original surface, but is specially prepared and/or inked to allow for the transfer of the image. Planographic techniques include lithography and digital techniques, where ink or paint is pressed through a prepared screen, including screenprinting and pochoir. Other types of printmaking techniques outside these groups include collagraphy and viscosity printing, collagraphy is a printmaking technique in which textured material is adhered to the printing matrix. This texture is transferred to the paper during the printing process, Contemporary printmaking may include digital printing, photographic mediums, or a combination of digital and traditional processes. Many of these techniques can be combined, especially within the same family, for example, Rembrandts prints are usually referred to as etchings for convenience, but very often include work in engraving and drypoint as well, and sometimes have no etching at all.
Woodcut, a type of print, is the earliest printmaking technique. It was probably first developed as a means of printing patterns on cloth, woodcuts of images on paper developed around 1400 in Japan, and slightly in Europe. These are the two areas where woodcut has been most extensively used purely as a process for making images without text, the artist draws a design on a plank of wood, or on paper which is transferred to the wood
René Georges Hermann-Paul was a French artist. He was born in Paris and died in Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, recent efforts to catalog the work of Hermann-Paul reveal an artist of considerable scope. He was an illustrator whose work appeared in numerous newspapers. His fine art was displayed in gallery exhibitions alongside Vuillard, early works were noted for their satiric characterizations of the foibles of French society. His points were made with simple caricature and his illustrations relied on blotches of pure black with minimum outline to define his animated marionettes. His exhibition pieces were carried by large splashes of color and those same lines of black. Hermann-Paul worked in Ripolin enamel paint, woodcuts, drypoint engraving, oils, on the eve of the First World War, he made quite an impression as part of M. Druets First Group. The Great War soon intervened and Hermann-Paul would document its tragedy as well as its foibles, after the war, he underwent several stylistic changes. In his years, he produced works in dry point.
Despite great elegance and beauty, his work was imbued with social criticism from the start, although the bourgeoisie received the brunt of his mockery, Hermann-Paul prodded all aspects of Parisian society. He was critical of rich and poor alike and he attacked monarchs, politicians and elements of the established order. Peripheral players in the art world received particular attention, by 1900 most Parisians familiar with the local news weeklies were aware of the artists work. He was a defender of Captain Alfred Dreyfus, whom he considered an innocent man. The artists suspicions were substantiated after one of Dreyfuss accusers broke down under interrogation, hubert-Joseph Henry confessed that the damning documents were actually forged. After Henry slit his throat in prison, Hermann-Paul produced a cartoon in which two people stand over the grave of Major Henry. One says to the other, This one, at least, avec celui-là au moins on est tranquille. During this time, Hermann-Paul produced work in the style which often depicted bourgeois settings populated by women sipping tea or quietly sewing.
The term was coined – derisively, it seems – by Édouard Vuillard who used it to describe his own style, other practitioners include Maurice Lobre, Hughes de Beaumont, Henri Matisse, Rene Prinet and Ernest Laurent
A burr is a raised edge or small piece of material remaining attached to a workpiece after a modification process. It is usually a piece of material and is removed with a deburring tool in a process called deburring. Burrs are most commonly created by machining operations, such as grinding, milling, engraving or turning. It may be present in the form of a wire on the edge of a freshly sharpened tool or as a raised portion of a surface. Deburring accounts for a significant portion of manufacturing costs, there are three type of burrs that can be formed from machining operations, Poisson burr, rollover burr, and breakout burr. The rollover burr is the most common, burrs may be classified by the physical manner of formation. Plastic deformation of material includes lateral flow and tearing of material from the workpiece, solidification or redeposition of material results in a recast bead. Incomplete cutoff of material causes a cutoff projection, burrs can be minimized or prevented by considering materials, function and processing in the design and manufacturing engineering phases of product development.
Burrs in drilled holes cause fastener and material problems, burrs cause more stress to be concentrated at the edges of holes, decreasing resistance to fracture and shortening fatigue life. They interfere with the seating of fasteners, causing damage to fastener or the assembly itself, cracks caused by stress and strain can result in material failure. Burrs in holes increase the risk of corrosion, which may be due to variations in the thickness of coatings on a rougher surface, sharp corners tend to concentrate electrical charge, increasing the risk of static discharge. Burrs in moving parts increase unwanted friction and heat, rough surfaces result in problems with lubrication, as wear is increased at the interfaces of parts. This makes it necessary to them more frequently. Electrical charge buildup can cause corrosion, manual deburring is the most common deburring process because it is the most flexible process. It only requires low cost tools and allows for instant inspection, electrochemical deburring is the use of electrochemical machining to deburr precision work pieces and edges that are hard-to-reach, such as intersecting holes.
The process uses a salt or glycol solution and electricity to dissolve the burr, the electric current is applied with a specialized tool to reach the burr location. Burrs are removed in 5 to 10 seconds, while the rest of the piece is unaffected. Thermal energy method, known as thermal deburring, is a process used to remove hard-to-reach burrs or burrs from multiple surfaces at the same time
Aquatint is an intaglio printmaking technique, a variant of etching. In intaglio printmaking, the artist makes marks on the plate that are capable of holding ink, the inked plate is passed through a printing press together with a sheet of paper, resulting in a transfer of the ink to the paper. This can be repeated a number of times, depending on the particular technique, like etching, aquatint uses the application of a mordant to etch into the metal plate. Where the engraving uses a needle to make lines that print in black. The rosin is acid resistant and typically adhered to the plate by controlled heating, the tonal variation is controlled by the level of mordant exposure over large areas, and thus the image is shaped by large sections at a time. Another tonal technique, begins with a surface that is evenly indented so that it will carry a fairly dark tone of ink. The mezzotint plate is smoothed and polished to make areas carry less ink, beginning with a smooth plate, areas are roughened to make them darker.
Occasionally these two techniques are combined, the painter and printmaker Jan van de Velde IV invented the aquatint technique in Amsterdam, around 1650. The cartographer Peter Perez Burdett introduced his secret aquatint technique to England in the 1770s, an aquatint requires a metal plate, an acid, and something to resist the acid. Traditionally copper or zinc plates were used, the artist applies a ground that will resist acid. Ground is applied by either dissolving powdered resin in spirits, applying the powder directly to the surface of the plate, in all forms of etching the acid resist is commonly referred to as the ground. An aquatint box is used to apply resin powder, the powder is at the bottom of the box, a crank or a bellows is used to blow the powder up into the air of the box. A window allows the engraver to see the density of flowing powder, when the powder covers the plate, it can be extracted from the box for the next operations. The plate is heated, if the plate is covered with powder, the resin melts forming a fine and even coat, if it is in spirits, the spirits evaporate and the result is essentially the same.
Now the plate is dipped in acid, producing an even, at this point, the plate is said to carry about a 50% halftone. This means that, were the plate printed with no further biting, at some point the artist will etch an outline of any aspects of the drawing s/he wishes to establish with line, this provides the basis and guide for the tone work. S/he may have applied an acid-resistant stop out if s/he intends to keep any areas totally white and free of ink, the artist begins immersing the plate in the acid bath, progressively stopping out any areas that have achieved the designed tonality. These tones, combined with the limited line elements, give aquatints a distinctive, aquatints, like mezzotints, provide ease in creating large areas of tone without laborious cross-hatching, but aquatint plates, it is noted, are generally more durable than mezzotint plates
Mary Stevenson Cassatt was an American painter and printmaker. She was born in Pennsylvania, but lived much of her life in France. Cassatt often created images of the social and private lives of women and she was described by Gustave Geffroy in 1894 as one of les trois grandes dames of Impressionism alongside Marie Bracquemond and Berthe Morisot. Cassatt was born in Allegheny City, which is now part of Pittsburgh and she was born into an upper-middle-class family, Her father, Robert Simpson Cassat, was a successful stockbroker and land speculator. He was descended from the French Huguenot Jacques Cossart, who came to New Amsterdam in 1662 and her mother, Katherine Kelso Johnston, came from a banking family. Katherine Cassatt and well-read, had a influence on her daughter. The ancestral name had been Cossart, a distant cousin of artist Robert Henri, Cassatt was one of seven children, of whom two died in infancy. One brother, Alexander Johnston Cassatt, president of the Pennsylvania Railroad. The family moved eastward, first to Lancaster, Pennsylvania, to the Philadelphia area, Cassatt grew up in an environment that viewed travel as integral to education, she spent five years in Europe and visited many of the capitals, including London and Berlin.
While abroad she learned German and French and had her first lessons in drawing and it is likely that her first exposure to French artists Ingres, Delacroix and Courbet was at the Paris World’s Fair of 1855. Also in the exhibition were Degas and Pissarro, both of whom were her colleagues and mentors, though her family objected to her becoming a professional artist, Cassatt began studying painting at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia at the early age of 15. Part of her parents concern may have been Cassatts exposure to feminist ideas, although about 20 percent of the students were female, most viewed art as a socially valuable skill, few of them were determined, as Cassatt was, to make art their career. She continued her studies from 1861 through 1865, the duration of the American Civil War, among her fellow students was Thomas Eakins, the controversial director of the Academy. Impatient with the pace of instruction and the patronizing attitude of the male students and teachers.
She said, There was no teaching at the Academy, female students could not use live models, until somewhat later, and the principal training was primarily drawing from casts. Cassatt decided to end her studies, At that time, no degree was granted, after overcoming her fathers objections, she moved to Paris in 1866, with her mother and family friends acting as chaperones. The museum served as a place for Frenchmen and American female students. In this manner, fellow artist and friend Elizabeth Jane Gardner met, toward the end of 1866, she joined a painting class taught by Charles Chaplin, a noted genre artist
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Etching is traditionally the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal. In modern manufacturing, other chemicals may be used on other types of material, as a method of printmaking, it is, along with engraving, the most important technique for old master prints, and remains in wide use today. In a number of variants such as microfabrication etching and photochemical milling it is a crucial technique in much modern technology. In traditional pure etching, a plate is covered with a waxy ground which is resistant to acid. The artist scratches off the ground with an etching needle where he or she wants a line to appear in the finished piece. The échoppe, a tool with an oval section, is used for swelling lines. The plate is dipped in a bath of acid, technically called the mordant or etchant. The acid bites into the metal where it is exposed, leaving behind lines sunk into the plate, the remaining ground is cleaned off the plate.
The plate is inked all over, and the ink wiped off the surface, the plate is put through a high-pressure printing press together with a sheet of paper. The paper picks up the ink from the lines, making a print. The process can be repeated many times, typically several hundred impressions could be printed before the shows much sign of wear. The work on the plate can be added to by repeating the whole process, Etching has often been combined with other intaglio techniques such as engraving or aquatint. The process as applied to printmaking is believed to have been invented by Daniel Hopfer of Augsburg, Hopfer was a craftsman who decorated armour in this way, and applied the method to printmaking, using iron plates. Apart from his prints, there are two examples of his work on armour, a shield from 1536 now in the Real Armeria of Madrid. The switch to copper plates was made in Italy. On the other hand, the handling of the ground and acid need skill and experience, prior to 1100 AD, the New World Hohokam independently utilized the technique of acid etching in marine shell designs.
Jacques Callot from Nancy in Lorraine made important technical advances in etching technique and he developed the échoppe, a type of etching-needle with a slanting oval section at the end, which enabled etchers to create a swelling line, as engravers were able to do. Callot appears to have responsible for an improved, recipe for the etching ground