Printmaking is the process of creating artworks by printing on paper. Printmaking covers only the process of creating prints that have an element of originality, rather than just being a photographic reproduction of a painting. Except in the case of monotyping, the process is capable of producing multiples of the same piece, called a print; each print produced is considered an "original" work of art, is referred to as an "impression", not a "copy". Impressions vary whether intentionally or not; the images on most prints are created for that purpose with a preparatory study such as a drawing. A print that copies another work of art a painting, is known as a "reproductive print". Prints are created by transferring ink from a matrix to a sheet of paper or other material, by a variety of techniques. Common types of matrices include: metal plates copper or zinc, or polymer plates and other thicker plastic sheets for engraving or etching. Screens made of silk or synthetic fabrics are used for the screen printing process.

Other types of matrix substrates and related processes are discussed below. Multiple impressions printed from the same matrix form an edition. Since the late 19th century, artists have signed individual impressions from an edition and number the impressions to form a limited edition. Prints may be printed in book form, such as illustrated books or artist's books. Printmaking techniques are divided into the following basic categories: Relief, where ink is applied to the original surface of the matrix. Relief techniques include woodcut or woodblock as the Asian forms are known, wood engraving and metalcut. Intaglio, where ink is applied beneath the original surface of the matrix. Intaglio techniques include engraving, mezzotint, aquatint. Planographic, where the matrix retains its original surface, but is specially prepared and/or inked to allow for the transfer of the image. Planographic techniques include lithography and digital techniques. Stencil, where ink or paint is pressed through a prepared screen, including screen printing and pochoir.

Other types of printmaking techniques outside these groups include collagraphy and viscosity printing. Collagraphy is a printmaking technique; this texture is transferred to the paper during the printing process. Contemporary printmaking may include digital printing, photographic mediums, or a combination of digital and traditional processes. Many of these techniques can be combined within the same family. For example, Rembrandt's prints are referred to as "etchings" for convenience, but often include work in engraving and drypoint as well, sometimes have no etching at all. Woodcut, a type of relief print, is the earliest printmaking technique, the only one traditionally used in the Far East, it was first developed as a means of printing patterns on cloth, by the 5th century was used in China for printing text and images on paper. Woodcuts of images on paper developed around 1400 in Japan, later in Europe; these are the two areas where woodcut has been most extensively used purely as a process for making images without text.

The artist draws a design on a plank of wood, or on paper, transferred to the wood. Traditionally the artist handed the work to a specialist cutter, who uses sharp tools to carve away the parts of the block that will not receive ink; the surface of the block is inked with the use of a brayer, a sheet of paper slightly damp, is placed over the block. The block is rubbed with a baren or spoon, or is run through a printing press. If in color, separate blocks can be used for each color, or a technique called reduction printing can be used. Reduction printing is a name used to describe the process of using one block to print several layers of color on one print; this involves cutting a small amount of the block away, printing the block many times over on different sheets before washing the block, cutting more away and printing the next color on top. This allows the previous color to show through; this process can be repeated many times over. The advantages of this process is that only one block is needed, that different components of an intricate design will line up perfectly.

The disadvantage is. Another variation of woodcut printmaking is the cukil technique, made famous by the Taring Padi underground community in Java, Indonesia. Taring Padi Posters resemble intricately printed cartoon posters embedded with political messages. Images—usually resembling a visually complex scenario—are carved unto a wooden surface called cukilan smothered with printer's ink before pressing it unto media such as paper or canvas; the process was developed in Germany in the 1430s from the engraving used by goldsmiths to decorate metalwork. Engravers use a hardened steel tool called a burin to cut the design into the surface of a metal plate, traditionally made of copper. Engraving using a burin is a difficult skill to learn. Gravers come in a variety of sizes that yield different line types; the burin produces a unique and recognizable quality of line, characterized by its steady, deliberate appearance and clean edges. Other tools such as mezzotint rockers, roulettes (a tool with a fine-toothe

Mahabharata (comics)

Mahabharata is a comic adaptation of the Indian epic poem Mahabharata. The 42-issue best-selling series by Amar Chitra Katha, Mumbai was illustrated by Dilip Kadam; the team of script writers included Kamala Chandrakant, TMP Nedungadi, Subba Rao, Yagya Sharma, Mihir Lal Mitra, Sumona Roy, Mohan Swaminathan, Shubha Kandhekar and Margie Sastry. The Mahabharata is regarded as one of the most popular titles in the history of Amar Chitra Katha, it is the longest series to have been produced by the ACK. The series was planned for 60 albums, but it was cut short to 42. Amar Chitra Katha had a strong commitment to the Mahabharata from the beginning. Many of its titles were from based on particular characters from the Mahabharata. In March 1985, the new project began, "in response to a persistent demand from our readers for a comprehensive account of the epic." The ambitious series by Anant Pai was decided as a 60 volume project, with one issue in every fortnight. However, in 1988, Amar Chitra Katha issued only one issue a month, so that Mahabharata numbers came out only in every two months.

The Mahabharata comics was based on, A Sanskrit text with Hindi translation by Pundit Ramnarayan Dutt Shastri Pandey A Malayalam verse version by Kunjikkuttan Tampuram Pratap Chandra Roy's English prose version Pune critical edition The comics does not include the Harivamsha, the romance of Damayanti, the legend of Savitri and the abbreviated version of the Ramayana. It omits the character Ugrasrava Sauti and the first issue begins with sage Vyasa acquiring the elephant god Ganesha as his scribe and starting the dictation, it soon moves on to Vaisampayana narrating the epic to Janamejaya. This latter pair persist till the last panel of the series, appearing from time to time in panels colored differently; the comics included various footnotes explaining the meaning Sanskrit terms, the few issues consisted a pronunciation guide and glossary. Issues start with a page containing a summary of the last few issues, in the backdrop illustrations of the Gita setting, with Arjuna kneeling before Krishna in the battlefield.

Amar Chitra Katha series on Mahabarata coincided with Baldev Raj Chopra's famous television drama series Mahabharat. Although, some fans took great pleasure in encountering Mahabharata in both mediums, the television series spelled big trouble for the comic book series. Amar Chitra Katha and the state-run Doordarshan television channel competed for the same urban middle class audience, it is accepted that visual and narrative "homogenization" occurs between the ACK'S Mahabharata and Baldev Raj Chopra's Mahabharat. Television producers have turned to the Amar Chitra Katha series as reference material for costume design, set production, subject matter. "When the Mahabharat television series was made, I had friend, a cameraman at the set. And he told me that they brought the ACK Mahabharata series onto the set and used it as reference material-for dress, the building, for the episodes, the content, it is Kamala Chandrakant. She was thorough and very careful with regards to authenticity." The advertisements of the comic series contained the exhortation "Read it to enjoy your Sunday viewing!".

It seems possible that the comic series was hastened to 42 issues from 60 to take advantage of the television series. The late 1980s saw the first of the collected format of the Mahabharata with a 7 volume "Library Edition". A 14 volume special edition was published in the late 1990s. A hard-bounded 3 volume edition in 1998 Mahabharata- Amar Chitra Katha Mahabharata Complete Collection 42 Title Comics Set in Apple iBooks Mahabharata Complete Collection 42 Title Comics Set inApp in Apple IndiaComics iPad App Dilip Kadam website

Rick Keene

Richard J. "Rick" Keene is a former Republican member of the California State Assembly representing the 3rd district from 2002 to 2008. Keene served on the Chico, California City Council from 1994 to 2002, including a term as mayor from 1997 to 1998. Keene was raised in Hayfork, a small community in Trinity County, he is the son of a logger. He worked in many varied vocations in his youth, he set chokers in a logging operation, drove a forklift at a nut processing plant and, for 10 years, worked at United Parcel Service. He began practicing law in Chico at a general law practice specializing in criminal defense, workers' compensation, personal injury law. Keene was first elected to the Chico City Council in 1994, he served on the Internal Affairs Committee, Butte County Association of Governments and the Local Agency Formation Commission. In 1996, his fellow Councilmember Ted Hubert died after re-election, but prior to the first meeting of the new session; this left the council evenly split 3 to 3 between conservative members.

They stalemated on the selection of a mayor for six months before appointing Bill Johnston to fill the vacancy, selecting Keene as mayor. Keene was elected to the State Assembly in 2002, he represented the 3rd District including Lassen, Yuba, Nevada and portions of Butte and Placer Counties for six years. In his second term in the Assembly, Keene assumed several leadership positions, including being selected as Republican Whip and the Vice Chair of the Committee on Water and Wildlife. Chosen as Assistant Republican Leader 10 months after being first elected, Keene served as principal consultant to three successive Republican Leaders on major policy issues and political strategy, he was selected to be lead Republican and Vice Chair on the Budget and Utility and Commerce Committees and served on the Natural Resources Committee, the Joint Legislative Committee on Emergency Services and Homeland Security, the Joint Legislative Audit Committee, the legislature's watchdog committee. While in the Assembly, he focused much of his time and effort on the State Budget, Workers' Compensation Reform and addressing the State's infrastructure, including working to prevent failing levees in the North State and negotiating to construct new water storage.

Keene was a candidate for the California State Senate 4th District in 2010. Incumbent Sam Aanestad was term-limited. Former 4th District Senator Sam Aanestad, former Senators Rico Oller and Tim Leslie and Congressman Tom McClintock endorsed Keene's candidacy. On June 8, 2010 Doug LaMalfa defeated him in the primary. After serving in the legislature in 2009, Keene joined the Sacramento Law firm of Wilke Fleury as "Of Counsel." In the summer of 2010 he created a business, "Keene Consulting. In 2012 he was hired in house by SAS Institute to assist them with business development within the State of California. In 2015 he restarted Keene Consulting as a senior strategic advisor, assisting various IT technologies with matching their capabilities with State priorities and needs and helping State entities navigate the states procurement and approval processes, which he still does currently. Rick Keene website