click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Printing

Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template. The earliest non-paper products involving printing include cylinder seals and objects such as the Cyrus Cylinder and the Cylinders of Nabonidus; the earliest known form of printing as applied to paper was woodblock printing, which appeared in China before 220 AD. Developments in printing technology include the movable type invented by Bi Sheng around 1040 AD and the printing press invented by Johannes Gutenberg in the 15th century; the technology of printing played a key role in the development of the Renaissance and the scientific revolution, laid the material basis for the modern knowledge-based economy and the spread of learning to the masses. Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns, used throughout East Asia, it originated in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and on paper. As a method of printing on cloth, the earliest surviving examples from China date to before 220 A.

D. The earliest surviving woodblock printed fragment are from China, they are of silk printed with flowers in three colours from the Han Dynasty. They are the earliest example of woodblock printing on paper and appeared in the mid-seventh century in China. By the ninth century, printing on paper had taken off, the first extant complete printed book containing its date is the Diamond Sutra of 868. By the tenth century, 400,000 copies of some sutras and pictures were printed, the Confucian classics were in print. A skilled printer could print up to 2,000 double-page sheets per day. Printing spread early to Korea and Japan, which used Chinese logograms, but the technique was used in Turpan and Vietnam using a number of other scripts; this technique spread to Persia and Russia. This technique was transmitted to Europe via the Islamic world, by around 1400 was being used on paper for old master prints and playing cards. However, Arabs never used this to print the Quran because of the limits imposed by Islamic doctrine.

Block printing, called tarsh in Arabic, developed in Arabic Egypt during the ninth and tenth centuries for prayers and amulets. There is some evidence to suggest that these print blocks made from non-wood materials tin, lead, or clay; the techniques employed are uncertain and they appear to have had little influence outside of the Muslim world. Though Europe adopted woodblock printing from the Muslim world for fabric, the technique of metal block printing remained unknown in Europe. Block printing went out of use in Islamic Central Asia after movable type printing was introduced from China. Block printing first came to Europe as a method for printing on cloth, where it was common by 1300. Images printed on cloth for religious purposes could elaborate; when paper became easily available, around 1400, the technique transferred quickly to small woodcut religious images and playing cards printed on paper. These prints produced in large numbers from about 1425 onward. Around the mid-fifteenth-century, block-books, woodcut books with both text and images carved in the same block, emerged as a cheaper alternative to manuscripts and books printed with movable type.

These were all short illustrated works, the bestsellers of the day, repeated in many different block-book versions: the Ars moriendi and the Biblia pauperum were the most common. There is still some controversy among scholars as to whether their introduction preceded or, the majority view, followed the introduction of movable type, with the range of estimated dates being between about 1440 and 1460. Movable type is the system of printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices struck by letterpunches. Movable type allowed for much more flexible processes than block printing. Around 1040, the first known movable type system was created in China by Bi Sheng out of porcelain. Bi Sheng used clay type, which broke but Wang Zhen by 1298 had carved a more durable type from wood, he developed a complex system of revolving tables and number-association with written Chinese characters that made typesetting and printing more efficient. Still, the main method in use there remained woodblock printing, which "proved to be cheaper and more efficient for printing Chinese, with its thousands of characters".

Copper movable type printing originated in China at the beginning of the 12th century. It was used in large-scale printing of paper money issued by the Northern Song dynasty. Movable type spread to Korea during the Goryeo dynasty. Around 1230, Koreans invented a metal type movable printing using bronze; the Jikji, published in 1377, is the earliest known metal printed book. Type-casting was adapted from the method of casting coins; the character was cut in beech wood, pressed into a soft clay to form a mould, bronze poured into the mould, the type was polished. The Korean form of metal movable type was described by the French scholar Henri-Jean Martin as "extremely similar to Gutenberg's". Eastern metal movable type was spread to Europe between the late 14th century and the early 15th century. Around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg introduced the first movable type printing system in Europe, he advanced innovations in casting type based on a matrix and hand mould, adaptations to the screw-press, the use of an oil-based ink, the creation of a softer and more absorbent paper.

Gutenberg was the first to create his type pieces from an alloy of lead, antimony and bismuth – the same components still used today. Johannes Gutenberg started work on his printing press around 1436, in partnership with Andreas Dritzehe

Cape Hotham Light

Cape Hotham Light is an active lighthouse in the Northern Territory of Australia located on Cape Hotham on the coastline of the Van Diemen Gulf about 80 kilometres northeast of the territory capital of Darwin, The lighthouse marks the entrance to Clarence Strait, the eastern approach to Darwin. The lighthouse was constructed by the Commonwealth Lighthouse Service during the "Golden Age of Australian Lighthouses", between 1913 and 1920; the light characteristic shown is one every two seconds, repeating every 15 seconds. The color is red on 025 ° -070 white elsewhere; the red light is visible for 9 nautical miles while the white light is visible for 12 nautical miles. The site is accessible by boat from Darwin; the light is operated by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority. Cape Hotham was named by John Clements Wickham on 26 July 1839, honoring Admiral William Hotham, 1st Baron Hotham, it is listed in the Register of the National Estate as the "Cape Hotham Forest Reserve", listing "representative ecosystems of the Top End, including monsoon rainforest containing kentia palm".

List of lighthouses in Australia "List of Lighthouses of Northern Territory". Lighthouses of Australia. Lighthouses of Australia Inc. Media related to Cape Hotham Light at Wikimedia Commons

Landwirtschaftliche Produktionsgenossenschaft

The German expression Landwirtschaftliche Produktionsgenossenschaft, or — more — its acronym LPG was the official designation for large, collectivised farms in East Germany, corresponding to Soviet kolkhoz. The collectivisation of private and state owned agricultural land in East Germany was the progression of a policy of food security, it began in the years of Soviet occupation as part of the need to govern resources in the Soviet Sector. Beginning with the forced expropriation of all land holdings in excess of 100 ha, land was redistributed in small packets of around 5 to 7 ha to incoming landless refugees driven off German-held territories to the east; these Neubauern were given limited ownership rights to the land, meaning that they kept it as long as they worked it. In the early 1950s, remaining farmers with largish holdings were driven out of business through means such as denying access to pooled machinery and by setting production targets that rose exponentially with amount of land owned to levels that were impossible to meet.

Alongside these coercive actions of expropriation and new farmers with smaller land holdings were encouraged to pool resources in a constituted cooperative form, the LPG, in which just land but animals and machinery were shared and worked together. These were not "state-owned" farms - land, except as mentioned above, remained in private ownership and the LPG, although dominated by communist party cadres, was a distinct legal entity operating independently as far as was feasible within the constraints of a planned economy. However, from the early 1960s, pressure mounted on remaining independent farmers to join the LPGs and for existing LPGs to merge in more collectivised forms; this process, a drive to increased industrialisation, led in the 1970s to the separation of crop and animal production and the merging of each across villages to form much larger cooperative units in which, for example, one LPG for crop production with 3,000 ha of land would supply feed to two LPGs working in animal production.

Following German reunification in 1990, the LPG was no longer a legal form of business and regulations were introduced governing their dissolution and the restructuring of enterprises into other legal forms. Some former LPG members those with a strong family background in independent farming, reclaimed their land and started again as independent farmers building up to a viable farm size through renting. In most cases, former members or their children settled for some level of compensation in return for surrendering their membership rights to a smaller core group of former managers who took over the business in the new form of a limited company; this settlement and compensation process was at times fought over and at times accepted with resignation depending on the amount of wealth to be distributed and on the degree of trust by the general membership and village population in the ability of managers to carry on the enterprise as successful employers. In some cases, an eingetragene Genossenschaft, a form of cooperative farming, persisted as allowed under existing German law.

Volkseigener Betrieb Volkseigenes Gut RFE/RL East German Subject Files: Agriculture Open Society Archives, Budapest A press release on a German legal case involving a Landwirtschaftliche Produktionsgemeinschaft A glossary of German agriculture and Precision Farming terms & abbreviations translated to English

Robot tax

A robot tax is a legislative strategy to disincentivize the replacement of workers by machines and bolster the social safety net for those who are displaced. While the automation of manual labour has been contemplated since before the industrial revolution, the issue has received increased discussion in the 21st century due to newer developments such as machine learning. Assessments of the risk vary with one study finding that 47% of the workforce is automatable in the United States, another study finding that this figure is 9% across 21 OECD countries; the idea of taxing companies for deploying robots continues to be controversial with opponents arguing that such measures will stifle innovation and impede the economic growth that technology has brought in the past. Proponents have pointed to the phenomenon of "income polarization" which threatens the jobs of low-income workers who lack the means to enter the knowledge-based fields in high demand. Bank of England economist Andy Haldane has called the rise of automation "a regressive income tax on the unskilled".

Tax law professor Xavier Oberson has called for robots to be tax-compliant so that government spending can continue as the pool of taxable income for human workers decreases. Oberson's proposals suggest taxing robot owners until robots themselves have the ability to pay, pending further advances in artificial intelligence. In a 2015 Reddit discussion, Stephen Hawking criticized machine owners for initiating a "lobby against wealth resdistribution". Following Elon Musk's statement that universal basic income should offset the employment effects of robots, Bill Gates gave an interview in favour of a robot tax. Mark Cuban announced his support for a robot tax in 2017, citing an essay by Quincy Larson about the accelerating pace of technological unemployment. Support for an automation tax by American politicians can be traced back to 1940 in which Joseph C. O'Mahoney tabled one such bill in the Senate. In 2017, San Francisco supervisor Jane Kim made these strategies the subject of a task force, stating that income disparity attributable to robots is visible in her district.

In 2019, New York City mayor Bill de Blasio advocated for a robot tax during and after his presidential run. While crediting Andrew Yang for drawing attention to the issue, de Blasio stated that he had different policy goals and proposed making large corporations responsible for five years of income tax from jobs that are automated away. In 2017 in the UK, Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn called for a robot tax. Critics including Jim Stanford and Tshilidzi Marwala have discussed the futility of a robot tax given the malleability in the definition of "robot". In particular, autonomous elements are present in many 21st-century devices that are not considered robots. Economist Yanis Varoufakis has discussed the additional complication of determining how much a human worker would have hypothetically made in a labour sector, dominated by robots for decades, he has instead proposed a variation of universal basic income called the "universal basic dividend" to combat income polarization. Robotics companies including Savioke and the Advancing Automation trade group have fought robot taxes, calling them an "innovation penalty".

ABB Group CEO Ulrich Spiesshofer compared taxing robots to taxing software, pointed to the fact that countries with a low unemployment rate have a high automation rate. EU Commissioner Andrus Ansip rejected the idea of a robot tax, stating that any jurisdiction implementing one would become less competitive as technological companies are incentivized to move elsewhere; the 2019 World Development Report, prepared by Simeon Djankov and Federica Saliola of the World Bank, opposed a robot tax, arguing that it would result in reduced productivity and increased tax avoidance by large corporations and their shareholders. On August 6, 2017, South Korea, under President Moon, passed what has been called the first robot tax. Rather than taxing entities directly, the law reduces tax breaks that were awarded to investments into robotics. A robot tax had been part of Mady Delvaux's bill imposing ethical standards for robots in the European Union. However, the European Parliament rejected this aspect. Disruptive innovation Guaranteed basic income Income inequality Technological unemployment

Tales from the Empire

Tales from the Empire is an anthology of short stories set in the fictional Star Wars universe. The book is edited by Peter Schweighofer; the centerpoint of the anthology is a short novel by Timothy Zahn and Michael A. Stackpole entitled "Side Trip"; the short novel centers on Captain Haber Trell and Maranne Darmic. It features such prominent characters as Grand Admiral Thrawn and Corran Horn, Zekka Thyne, Kirtan Loor. "First Contact" by Timothy Zahn "Tinian on Trial" by Kathy Tyers "The Final Exit" by Patricia A. Jackson "Missed Chance" by Michael A. Stackpole "Retreat From Coruscant" by Laurie Burns "A Certain Point of View" by Charlene Newcomb "Blaze of Glory" by Tony Russo "Slaying Dragons" by Angela Phillips "Do No Harm" by Erin Endom "Side Trip" by Timothy Zahn and Michael A. Stackpole Official CargoBay Listing

1988 IAAF World Women's Road Race Championships

The 1988 IAAF World Women's Road Race Championships was the sixth edition of the annual international road running competition organised by the International Amateur Athletics Federation. The competition was hosted by Australia on 20 March 1988 in Adelaide and featured one race only: a 15K run for women. There were individual and team awards available, with the national team rankings being decided by the combined finishing positions of a team's top three runners. Countries with fewer than three finishers were not ranked; this was the only time. Norway's Ingrid Kristiansen defended her title with a winning time of 48:24 minutes. Wang Xiuting of China was runner-up nearly two minutes behind and was shortly followed by Zoya Ivanova, who took third place ten seconds later. Ivanova led a Soviets to a comfortable win in the team competition with a total of 21 points coming from her, Yekaterina Khramenkova and Lyudmila Matveyeva. China, entering the competition for the first time took second in the team race through Wang, fourth-placed Zhong Huandi and Wang Huabi in 25th.

Portugal, the defending team champions, were led to third place by Conceição Ferreira