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Dual in-line package

In microelectronics, a dual in-line package, or dual in-line pin package is an electronic component package with a rectangular housing and two parallel rows of electrical connecting pins. The package may be inserted in a socket; the dual-inline format was invented by Don Forbes, Rex Rice and Bryant Rogers at Fairchild R&D in 1964, when the restricted number of leads available on circular transistor-style packages became a limitation in the use of integrated circuits. Complex circuits required more signal and power supply leads. Furthermore and rectangular packages made it easier to route printed-circuit traces beneath the packages. A DIP is referred to as a DIPn, where n is the total number of pins. For example, a microcircuit package with two rows of seven vertical leads would be a DIP14; the photograph at the upper right shows three DIP14 ICs. Common packages have as many as 64 leads. Many analog and digital integrated circuit types are available in DIP packages, as are arrays of transistors, light emitting diodes, resistors.

DIP plugs for ribbon cables can be used with standard IC sockets. DIP packages are made from an opaque molded epoxy plastic pressed around a tin-, silver-, or gold-plated lead frame that supports the device die and provides connection pins; some types of IC are made in ceramic DIP packages, where high temperature or high reliability is required, or where the device has an optical window to the interior of the package. Most DIP packages are secured to a PCB by inserting the pins through holes in the board and soldering them in place. Where replacement of the parts is necessary, such as in test fixtures or where programmable devices must be removed for changes, a DIP socket is used; some sockets include a zero insertion force mechanism. Variations of the DIP package include those with only a single row of pins, e.g. a resistor array including a heat sink tab in place of the second row of pins, types with four rows of pins, two rows, staggered, on each side of the package. DIP packages have been displaced by surface-mount package types, which avoid the expense of drilling holes in a PCB and which allow higher density of interconnections.

DIPs are used for integrated circuits. Other devices in DIP packages include resistor networks, DIP switches, LED segmented and bargraph displays, electromechanical relays. DIP connector plugs for ribbon cables are common in other electronic equipment. Dallas Semiconductor manufactured integrated DIP real-time clock modules which contained an IC chip and a non-replaceable 10-year lithium battery. DIP header blocks on to which discrete components could be soldered were used where groups of components needed to be removed, for configuration changes, optional features or calibration; the original dual-in-line package was invented by Bryant "Buck" Rogers in 1964 while working for Fairchild Semiconductor. The first devices looked much like they do today; the rectangular shape allowed integrated circuits to be packaged more densely than previous round packages. The package was well-suited to automated assembly equipment. DIP packages were still large with respect to the integrated circuits within them.

By the end of the 20th century, surface-mount packages allowed further reduction in the size and weight of systems. DIP chips are still popular for circuit prototyping on a breadboard because of how they can be inserted and utilized there. DIPs were the mainstream of the microelectronics industry in the 1980s, their use has declined in the first decade of the 21st century due to the emerging new surface-mount technology packages such as plastic leaded chip carrier and small-outline integrated circuit, though DIPs continued in extensive use through the 1990s, still continue to be used as the year 2011 passes. Because some modern chips are available only in surface-mount package types, a number of companies sell various prototyping adapters to allow those SMT devices to be used like DIP devices with through-hole breadboards and soldered prototyping boards. For programmable devices like EPROMs and GALs, DIPs remained popular for many years due to their easy handling with external programming circuitry However, with In-System Programming technology now state of the art, this advantage of DIPs is losing importance as well.

Through the 1990s, devices with fewer than 20 leads were manufactured in a DIP format in addition to the newer formats. Since about 2000, newer devices are unavailable in the DIP format. DIPs can be mounted either in sockets. Sockets allow easy replacement of a device and eliminates the risk of damage from overheating during soldering. Sockets were used for high-value or large ICs, which cost much more than the socket. Where devices would be inserted and removed, such as in test equipment or EPROM programmers, a zero insertion force

Yu Juan

Yu Juan was a teacher in Fudan University and the writer of the book An Unfinished Life. Yu Juan was diagnosed with breast cancer at the age of 30. During her fight with cancer, her persistent efforts to the public for cancer prevention touched millions of people through her popular blog called To Live is the Permanent Truth. Born in Jining, Shandong, Yu Juan earned her Master degree from Universitetet i Oslo in Norway, Ph. D. from Fudan University. She led a happy life in a family with her husband and son, but when she was in the prime of her career, she was diagnosed with breast cancer. During the time she was hospitalized fighting the disease, she created a blog called To Live is the Truth, she kept a diary about her thoughts towards life. As she said, in the eye of a patient suffering from cancer, the most valuable thing in life was the optimistic state of mind and the most valuable time was when you stay with your family, while the other things were not worth anything, her strong will towards life and contribution to the society encouraged and inspired all her readers.

As an warm-hearted person, she sacrificed her recovering time to keep the diary to remind people of unhealthy living habits that might result in cancer. After one and a half years’ illness, Yu Juan died on April 19, 2011; the matter received news coverage, thousands of people sent their wishes for Yujuan. To everyone’s surprise, her final wish was to protect energy forests in northeast China, her family collected her articles and published the book An Unfinished Life in her memory

The Son of the Sun

"The Son of the Sun" is the first Scrooge McDuck comic by Don Rosa, first published in Uncle Scrooge #219 in July 1987. It is a well-known comic book story that features Disney's Scrooge McDuck, Donald Duck, Huey and Louie, most notable for establishing Don Rosa as a major talent in the Disney comic book industry, as well as fulfilling Rosa's childhood dream of becoming a writer and illustrator of stories featuring Scrooge McDuck; the combination of homage to Carl Barks and intelligent writing, appealing art, dependence of the resolution of the plot on one of Scrooge's most redeeming character traits were instrumental in the reception of this storyline as a modern classic. Don Rosa had idolized Barks, the best-loved writer and illustrator of Scrooge McDuck comic books, since childhood, had drawn several comics with strong stylistic influences from Barks' work during his early career. One such story, appearing in a series called the Pertwillaby Papers, was called "Lost In the Andes", was in no small part an homage to a Barks story called Lost in the Andes!.

When Rosa began working with Gladstone Publishing, a publisher of Disney comics, he asked for and was granted permission to draw a Scrooge McDuck story. Rosa updated the plot for Lost In the Andes to feature Scrooge and his nephews instead of the original protagonist, this story became Son of the Sun, he has since stated that the original conception of the story in his mind had always featured the Disney ducks, that Son of the Sun is a return to the original conception. The story met with critical acclaim and was nominated for a Harvey Award, established Rosa as a major talent in writing and illustrating Scrooge McDuck; the opening panels of the story are set in the Duckburg museum, where Scrooge McDuck is opening a museum exhibit featuring the greatest wonders he has collected during his travels around the world. As Scrooge is bragging to his nephews, Donald Duck and Huey and Louie, Flintheart Glomgold, about to open his own exhibit, overhears Scrooge and the conversation between the two rivals turns into a bragging match as to, the greatest adventurer and treasure-seeker.

Scrooge challenges Glomgold to think of something he could find. Soon Scrooge and his nephews are off on a race with Glomgold to see who can find, claim the "greater Incan treasure"; the first clue comes as soon as Glomgold has left, as Donald picks up an Incan vase, knocked over during the bragging match. They find a metal plaque baked inside, providing a map to a temple of Manco Capac in the Andes mountains. Glomgold is eavesdropping. Arriving at a village near Cuzco, Scrooge hires a plane to fly them to its location; the pilot of the plane turns out to be Glomgold, who relieves them of the plaque at gunpoint and parachutes out. Scrooge tries to regain control of the plane and, in a comic episode, inadvertently rips out the belly of the plane while flying too low, dumping his nephews onto the valley floor, still in their seats; as the plane flies off, Glomgold approaches and informs the ducks that Scrooge has frightened away the porters he hired, so they will have to do. A week Glomgold and his reluctant helpers reach a remote mountain, on the summit of, the temple, built around a large volcanic fumarole.

Glomgold enters the temple's treasure chamber and is beside himself with glee to discover an enormous store of golden Inca artifacts. Scrooge appears, calmly informing Glomgold that he crash-landed the plane on the mountaintop several days ago, has filed his claim on the gold using the plane's radio, it seems that Scrooge has won, but Huey and Louie are confused about one thing: the plaque makes reference to an Incan "treasure" being moved to the temple, but it predates the time of the conquistadors, when the gold would have been moved there. Realising there must be another Incan treasure in the temple, Glomgold investigates further and discovers the "Eye" of Manco Capac: an enormous, disc-shaped sunburst festooned with enormous gemstones. Since Scrooge claimed the gold, not the temple, there's no gold on the sunburst, that makes it Glomgold's; as Scrooge and Glomgold begin to argue about whose treasure is of greater value, Glomgold begins taking it down from its wall mounting, but it falls and rolls down the temple steps and into the fumarole.

It wedges into the hole convex side down. As the volcanic gases build up an enormous pressure, Scrooge notices that the back of the sunburst is sheathed in gold, starting another furious argument between him and Glomgold, causing them to wedge the sunburst down more firmly. Before the others can stop them, the pressure mounts and the entire mountaintop and all, is blown into the sky like a cork from a bottle; the ducks are able to use a tapestry as a makeshift parachute before the temple lands squarely in a nearly bottomless volcanic lake, next to the village they started from. The massive splash of water irrigates the villagers’ crop fields, relieving them from the effects of recent drought. All of the treasure is now irretrievable; as the dispirited ducks begin their journey back to civilisation, Scrooge is seen emerging from

Lloyd Cross

Lloyd Cross is an American physicist and holographer. As a physicist, Cross' research started in the 1950s, focused on masers and lasers at Willow Run Laboratories, at the University of Michigan, he first demonstrated maser action in a ruby crystal in 1957 and, as of 1960, Cross co-led a project group to design and operate a ruby maser preamplifier for a new radio telescope located at Peach Mountain, about 20 miles north of Ann Arbor. In 1968, he and Canadian sculptor Jerry Pethick, developed a simplistic stabilization system for holographic cameras, that for the first time did not require expensive optics and an isolation table making the medium accessible to artists. During the same year, Cross founded Editions Inc. in Ann Arbor which, in effect, became the world's first nonindustrial holographic studio focused on producing and selling art holograms. In 1970, he organized the first exhibition of holographic art at Cranbrook Academy of Art in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan; this success, laser research turning to military applications which he didn't want to be part of, prompted him to leave the laboratory and tour for a short time with a laser and sound show.

By 1971, Cross had made his way to San Francisco and founded the San Francisco Holography School, to teach his hologram techniques, setting up a studio in the basement of Project One. In 1972 he developed the "integral hologram" by combining holography with conventional cinematography to produce three-dimensional images that appeared to move. Sequential frames of two-dimensional movie footage of a rotating subject are recorded on holographic film; when viewed, the composite images are interpreted by the human eye as 3-D image, in the same way that stereoscopy works. His most famous work in this form was a hologram of a woman that appeared to wink and blow a kiss as the viewer walked by, entitled The Kiss; this historic piece can be viewed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Museum, Massachusetts In the mid 1970s, Cross founded the Multiplex Corporation, to find commercial applications and further develop his holographic techniques. HoloNet: Lloyd Cross Holophile, Inc; the History and Development of Holography Holography timeline, 1947-2012 Holographic Visions: A History of New Science: A History of New Science The San Francisco School of Holography by John Fairstein

Ronnie Mathews

Ronald Mathews was an American jazz pianist who worked with Max Roach from 1963 to 1968 and Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers. He acted as lead in recording from 1963 and 1978–79, his most recent work was in 2008, as both a mentor and musician with Generations, a group of jazz musicians headed by veteran drummer Jimmy Cobb. He contributed two new compositions for the album, released by San Francisco State University's International Center for the Arts on September 15, 2008. Critics have compared him to pianists Thelonious Monk, Bud Powell, McCoy Tyner. In his twenties, Mathews toured internationally and recorded with Roach, Freddie Hubbard and Roy Haynes, he was a member of Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers in the late 1950s through the 1960s. By thirty, he began teaching jazz piano and led workshops and master classes at Long Island University in New York City. Besides Dexter Gordon and Clark Terry, he toured and recorded on two Louis Hayes projects in the 70's. One of the highlights of his career, one of his longest associations, was with the Johnny Griffin Quartet.

For five years he was an integral part of this band and forged lasting relationships with Griffin, Kenny Washington and Ray Drummond. The New York Times described Mathews as "a constant and provocative challenge to Mr. Griffin. is the energizer of the group". One of the few Johnny Griffin recordings that features Mathews' original compositions is "To the Ladies". In the 1980s, Mathews began honing his role as a front man, he performed as a leader in duo and quartet configurations around the world. He toured with Freddie Hubbard and Dizzy Gillespie's United Nations Band. Mathews was involved in cross-media projects: he was pianist for the Tony Award winning Broadway musical and Blue in 1989, and, in 1990, he was one of the artists who recorded for Spike Lee's movie, Mo' Better Blues. After a stint touring and recording with the Clifford Jordan Big Band in the early 1990s, Mathews joined T. S. Monk for eight years of touring and recording; the Chicago Tribune stated that "The soul of the band is pianist Ronnie Mathews, whose angular romanticism provides the horn players with a lush and spicy foundation for their improvising".

Three albums were recorded with the T. S. Monk, Jr. Band, including Charm. Mathews died of pancreatic cancer on June 2008 in Brooklyn. In 1998, Hal Leonard Books published his collection of student arrangements: "Easy Piano of Thelonious Monk". 1963: Doin' the Thang! with Freddie Hubbard 1975: Trip to the Orient, with Louis Hayes, Yoshio Suzuki 1978: Roots, Branches & Dances with Ray Drummond, Al Foster, Frank Foster, Azzedin Weston 1979: Legacy with Ricky Ford, Bill Hardman, Walter Booker, Jimmy Cobb 1980: Song for Leslie with Ray Drummond, Kenny Washington 1985: So Sorry Please with Ray Drummond, Alvin Queen 1988: Selena's Dance with Stafford James, Tony Reedus 1988: Stella by Starlight with Stafford James, Tony Reedus 1989: At Cafe Des Copains 1990: Dark Before the Dawn with Ray Drummond, Billy Higgins 1992: Lament for Love 1995: Shades of Monk 2001: Once I Love with Walter Booker, Alvin Queen 2008: Fortuna with Roni Ben-Hur With Roland Alexander Pleasure Bent With Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers Live! at Slug's NYC Moanin' With Thomas Chapin I've Got Your Number With Larry Coryell New High With Kenny Dorham The Flamboyan Queens NY 1963 with Joe HendersonWith Teddy Edwards Ladies Man With Dexter Gordon Homecoming Live At The Village Vanguard With Johnny Griffin Return of the Griffin NYC Underground To the Ladies Live / Autumn Leaves With Bill Hardman Saying Something With Louis Hayes Breath of Life Ichi-Ban with Junior Cook Woody Shaw The Real Thing Blue Lou With Roy Haynes Cracklin' with Booker Ervin Cymbalism with Frank StrozierWith Joe Henderson Big Band With Freddie Hubbard Breaking Point!

At Jazz Jamboree Warszawa'91: A Tribute to Miles With Sam Jones Visitation With Clifford Jordan Play What You Feel Down Through the Years With T. S. Monk Take One Changing of the Guard The Charm Monk on Monk With Frank Morgan Mood Indigo Reflections With Lee Morgan The Rumproller With Sal Nistico Neo/Nistico With Charlie Persip Charles Persip and the Jazzstatesmen With Max Roach Drums Unlimited With Woody Shaw Little Red's Fantasy The Woody Shaw Concert Ensemble at the Berliner Jazztage The Tour – Volume One With James Spaulding Blues Nexus With Sonny Stitt Rearin' Back Primitivo Soul! All Music

Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee

The Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee is an American government commission that provides recommendations to the United States government on regulations and communications related to children's health. CHPAC was created under Executive Order 13045 by President Bill Clinton in April 1997; the committee has provided recommendations and advice on topics including water pollution, air pollution, chemical safety, risk assessment, environmental health, ADHD, childhood obesity, child development, prenatal development, child health. The committee is composed of researchers, business representatives, health care providers, environmentalists and tribal government employees, members of the public. Committee members meet throughout the year and provide recommendations to the EPA Administrator as well as the U. S. Office of Children's Health Protection. Members serve for three-year terms with a two-term limit. Official website