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Dubliners is a collection of fifteen short stories by James Joyce, first published in 1914. They form a naturalistic depiction of Irish middle class life in and around Dublin in the early years of the 20th century; the stories were written when Irish nationalism was at its peak, a search for a national identity and purpose was raging. They centre on Joyce's idea of an epiphany: a moment where a character experiences a life-changing self-understanding or illumination, the idea of paralysis where Joyce felt Irish nationalism stagnated cultural progression, placing Dublin at the heart of this regressive movement. Many of the characters in Dubliners appear in minor roles in Joyce's novel Ulysses; the initial stories in the collection are narrated by child protagonists, as the stories continue, they deal with the lives and concerns of progressively older people. This is in line with Joyce's tripartite division of the collection into childhood and maturity. Between 1905, when Joyce first sent a manuscript to a publisher, 1914, when the book was published, Joyce submitted the book 18 times to a total of 15 publishers.

The London house of Grant Richards agreed to publish it in 1905. Its printer, refused to set one of the stories, Richards began to press Joyce to remove a number of other passages that he claimed the printer refused to set. Joyce protested, but did agree to some of the requested changes. Richards backed out of the deal. Joyce thereupon resubmitted the manuscript to other publishers, about three years he found a willing candidate in Maunsel & Roberts of Dublin. Yet, a similar controversy developed and Maunsel too refused to publish it threatening to sue Joyce for printing costs incurred. Joyce offered to pay the printing costs himself if the sheets were turned over to him and he was allowed to complete the job elsewhere and distribute the book, but when Joyce arrived at the printers they refused to surrender the sheets, they burned them the next day. Joyce managed to save one copy, which he obtained "by ruse", he returned to submitting the manuscript to other publishers, in 1914 Grant Richards once again agreed to publish the book, using the page proofs saved from Maunsel as copy.

"The Sisters" – After the priest Father Flynn dies, a young boy, close to him and his family deals with his death superficially. "An Encounter" – Two schoolboys playing truant encounter a middle-aged man. "Araby" – A boy falls in love with the sister of his friend, but fails in his quest to buy her a worthy gift from the Araby bazaar. "Eveline" – A young woman weighs her decision to flee Ireland with a sailor. "After the Race" – College student Jimmy Doyle tries to fit in with his wealthy friends. "Two Gallants" – Two con men and Corley, find a maid, willing to steal from her employer. "The Boarding House" – Mrs Mooney manoeuvres her daughter Polly into an upwardly mobile marriage with her lodger Mr Doran. "A Little Cloud" – Little Chandler's dinner with his old friend Ignatius Gallaher casts fresh light on his own failed literary dreams. The story reflects on Chandler's mood upon realising that his baby son has replaced him as the centre of his wife's affections. "Counterparts" – Farrington, a lumbering alcoholic scrivener, takes out his frustration in pubs and on his son Tom.

"Clay" – The old maid Maria, a laundress, celebrates Halloween with her former foster child Joe Donnelly and his family. "A Painful Case" – Mr Duffy rebuffs Mrs Sinico four years realises that he has condemned her to loneliness and death. "Ivy Day in the Committee Room" – Minor politicians fail to live up to the memory of Charles Stewart Parnell. "A Mother" – Mrs Kearney tries to win a place of pride for her daughter, Kathleen, in the Irish cultural movement, by starring her in a series of concerts, but fails. "Grace" – After Mr Kernan injures himself falling down the stairs in a bar, his friends try to reform him through Catholicism. "The Dead" – Gabriel Conroy attends a party, as he speaks with his wife, has an epiphany about the nature of life and death. At 15–16,000 words this story has been classified as a novella; the Dead was adapted into a film by John Huston, written for the screen by his son Tony and starring his daughter Anjelica as Mrs. Conroy; when discussing Joyce's Dubliners, there are two types of critics that are at the forefront of the conversation: the "Realists" and the "Symbolists".

The Realists view Dubliners as the most simple of Joyce's works, which causes them to disregard the revolutionary nature of the work. The symbolists instead neglect the rebellious meanings behind Joyce's symbols. While some choose only one side to argue, others believe that Dubliners defies any form of characterization. Without any clear evidence of thematic unity, logic of plot, or closure, Joyce prevents any conclusive critical analysis; as Sonja Bašić argues, the book "should be seen not just as a realist/naturalist masterpiece, but as a significant stepping- stone integrated into the modernist structure of Joyce's mature work."It has been argued that the narrators in Dubliners mediate, which means that there are limited descriptions of their thoughts and emotions, a practice said to accompany narratorial invisibility where the narrator sees instead of tells. While some point to Joyce's use of free indirect discourse as a way to understand his characters, he obscures the reliability of his characters in a way that would make any kind of analysis difficult.

As Richard Ellmann has argued, "Joyce claims importance by claiming nothing" His characters' personalities can

John Chapman (publisher)

John Chapman was an English publisher who acquired the influential radical journal, the Westminster Review. His assistant editor and lodger Mary Ann Evans wrote classic novels under the name George Eliot, he was born on 16 June 1821. He was son of a chemist at Nottingham, he was apprenticed to a watchmaker at Worksop, not staying long with him, went to his brother, a medical student at Edinburgh, who sent him out to Adelaide to start in business as a watchmaker and optician. Returning to Europe about 1844, he began studying medicine in Paris, continued his studies at St. George's Hospital, London. After submitting a book on human nature to Green, a publisher and bookseller in Newgate Street, he was led to take over Green's business, which he transferred to 142 Strand. In 1846, he published the first English translation of David Strauss' Life of Jesus, translated by Mary Ann Evans better known by her pen name of George Eliot. Seven years he published her translation of Feuerbach's The Essence of Christianity.

He acquired the philosophical radical journal the Westminster Review in 1851, provided a platform for emerging ideas of evolution. His assistant Mary Anne Evans brought together authors including Francis William Newman, W. R. Greg, Harriet Martineau and the young journalist Herbert Spencer, John Stuart Mill, William Carpenter, Robert Chambers, George Holyoake and Thomas Huxley. Herbert Spencer "despaired of getting his sociological writings published. Thomas Huxley famous as the most ardent supporter of Darwinism, calling himself Darwin's bulldog and cheerfully going into battle with bishops over On the Origin of Species while Darwin lay low at his home in Kent, was plucked from poverty and obscurity by Chapman, his first paid employment was as scientific reviewer on the Westminster Review, the radical quarterly periodical that Chapman bought in 1851 and turned into the best journal of the century." Chapman subsequently became a qualified specialist in sickness and psychological medicine, in 1865 Charles Darwin invited Dr. Chapman to Downe and gave him a long list of the symptoms he had suffered from for 25 years.

Chapman prescribed a spinal freezing treatment. In 19th-century Britain there was high-class patronage of Hydropathy. Charles Darwin was a user of it and his old friend Dr. James Manby Gully had a thriving hydropathic institution in Malvern, he was connected to John Chapman, a homeopath in London and a friend of Thomas Huxley. According to Emma Darwin's diary, John Chapman visited Darwin on 20 May 1865. Chapman was proprietor and editor of the Westminster Review, to which Huxley had been a regular contributor." For his woes, Chapman had Darwin using bags of ice applied to the spine. Chapman lived with both his wife and mistress, Mary Ann Evans is believed to have had an affair with him, as well as having an earlier relationship with suffragette and women's rights activist Barbara Leigh Smith Bodichon, he died in Paris on 25 November 1894, from the result of being run over by a cab. Diarrhœa and cholera: their nature and treatment through the agency of the nervous system, John Chapman, 1866 The medical institutions of the United Kingdom: a history exemplifying the evils of over-legislation, John Chapman, 1870 Neuralgia and kindred diseases of the nervous system: their nature and treatment: a series of cases, preceded by an analytical exposition of them, exemplifying the principles and practice of neuro-dynamic medicine, John Chapman, 1873 Cholera curable: a demonstration of the causes, non-contagiousness, successful treatment of the disease, John Chapman, 1885 George Eliot & John Chapman: with Chapman's Diaries, Gordon S. Haight, 1940 Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Alger, John Goldworth.

"Chapman, John". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Rosemary Ashton, The Smart Set, The Guardian, 4 November 2006

René Schnitzler

René Schnitzler is a German football player, he plays for 1. FC Bettrath, he made his debut on the professional league level in the Bundesliga for Borussia Mönchengladbach on May 19, 2007 when he came on as a substitute in the 57th minute in a game against VfL Bochum. After just one day with K. Sint-Truidense V. V. signed for FC Wegberg-Beeck who signed a two years contract. In 2011 Schnitzler admitted receiving €100,000 to fix five matches while playing for St. Pauli in 2008. On July 19, 2011 the former St Pauli forward was banned for 30 months in Germany for his part in fixing five second division matches in 2008. In July 2013 he signed a contract with Sportfreunde 1927 Neersbroich, the self-proclaimed "Geilster Club der Welt"

Neville Kennard

Neville Kennard was an England actor and writer, most active in the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s. He was a prolific writer of sketches and a specialist in variety entertainment, one of the most famous names associated with the concert party form of entertainment. Neville Kennard, real name Lord Nevil Brown, was born in Eastbourne in 1900, the son of Harriet and Edwin Brown, a carpenter, they had married on 20 February 1892 in Sussex where Harriet was from. Lord Nevil was the third of at least five children, he grew up in 12 Mona Road with his four sisters: Evelyn Violet, Winifred Kennard, Bessie Lilian and Gwendoline Isabella Linda. Lord Nevil Brown took as his stage name Neville Kennard Kennard's career was encouraged by the great music-hall comedian, Sam Mayo. Neville's early years were with alfresco concert parties, a form of entertainment described as long-gone and much lamented, he performed in variety alongside the comedian, Gladys Wells, who became his wife. Together they were billed as "Kennard and Wells".

In the 1930s he advertised himself as "The Perfect Fool" alongside Gladys Wells. It was at this time, he toured with Fred Karno's Mumming Birds, an act made famous by the pairing of Charles Chaplin and Stan Laurel. He became a popular principal comedian in pantomime and summer show. During the Second World War, he continued to perform in pantomime. At every performance of the 1943 pantomime, "Cinderella," Neville Kennard, who played Buttons, appealed for anything smokeable for the troops, he presented his own summer shows, wrote a number of successful concert party sketches including: The tale of a tail. In the "It's Up To You Sir" sketch the audience were invited to make suggestions as to how the sketch should proceed. After the gradual demise of concert party and other forms of variety due to the rise of cinema, he remained active. In 1949 he started to write a weekly column in the theatrical newspaper The Performer all about summer shows, it was called "Pom Poms and Ruffles" and was so successful that he continued it once the winter started and called it "Bon Bons and Trifles".

He spent his years, from 1956, in Eastbourne. He died on 30 December 1963 and in the "Business of the Theatrical Managers' Association" section of The Stage magazine a small obituary was posted. Kennard was married to Gladys Wells. Thye had married at the latter end of 1938 in Middlesex. Despite much of their work being in London, they lived for most of the 1930s in Sharrow. At the end of the thirties they had relocated to Kenton before living in Eastbourne from 1956, he died in Cuckfield, Sussex in 1963

UFC 224

UFC 224: Nunes vs. Pennington was a mixed martial arts event produced by the Ultimate Fighting Championship, held on May 12, 2018, at the Jeunesse Arena in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; the UFC was targeting a UFC Women's Featherweight Championship bout between the current champion Cris Cyborg and the current UFC Women's Bantamweight Champion Amanda Nunes to take place at this event and serve as the headliner. However, Cyborg was instead scheduled for a title defense at UFC 222 in March, the plans were scrapped. In turn, it was announced on February 23 that Raquel Pennington would instead face Nunes for the bantamweight title. A light heavyweight bout between former UFC Light Heavyweight Championship title challengers Volkan Oezdemir and Glover Teixeira was linked to take place at the event. However, Oezdemir was pulled from that pairing in favor of a matchup with former UFC Light Heavyweight Champion Maurício Rua the following week at UFC Fight Night: Maia vs. Usman. At the weigh-ins, Mackenzie Dern weighed in at 123 pounds, seven pounds over the strawweight non-title fight upper limit of 116 pounds.

As a result, the bout proceeded at catchweight, Dern was fined 30% of her purse which went to her opponent Amanda Cooper. This event tied the record, with UFC Fight Night: Rockhold vs. Bisping, for having the most finishes on a single modern UFC card with 11 finishes; the following fighters were awarded $50,000 bonuses: Fight of the Night: Kelvin Gastelum vs. Ronaldo Souza Performance of the Night: Lyoto Machida and Oleksiy Oliynyk List of UFC events List of current UFC fighters 2018 in UFC

Circle of confusion

In optics, a circle of confusion is an optical spot caused by a cone of light rays from a lens not coming to a perfect focus when imaging a point source. It is known as disk of confusion, circle of indistinctness, blur circle, or blur spot. In photography, the circle of confusion is used to determine the depth of field, the part of an image, acceptably sharp. A standard value of CoC is associated with each image format, but the most appropriate value depends on visual acuity, viewing conditions, the amount of enlargement. Usages in context include maximum permissible circle of confusion, circle of confusion diameter limit, the circle of confusion criterion. Real lenses do not focus all rays so that at best focus, a point is imaged as a spot rather than a point; the smallest such spot that a lens can produce is referred to as the circle of least confusion. Two important uses of this term and concept need to be distinguished: 1. For describing the largest blur spot, indistinguishable from a point.

A lens can focus objects at only one distance. Defocused object points are imaged as blur spots rather than points; such a blur spot has the same shape as the lens aperture, but for simplicity, is treated as if it were circular. In practice, objects at different distances from the camera can still appear sharp; the common criterion for “acceptable sharpness” in the final image is that the blur spot be indistinguishable from a point. 2. For describing the blur spot achieved by a lens, at its best focus or more Recognizing that real lenses do not focus all rays under the best conditions, the term circle of least confusion is used for the smallest blur spot a lens can make, for example by picking a best focus position that makes a good compromise between the varying effective focal lengths of different lens zones due to spherical or other aberrations; the term circle of confusion is applied more to the size of the out-of-focus spot to which a lens images an object point. Diffraction effects from wave optics and the finite aperture of a lens determine the circle of least confusion.

In idealized ray optics, where rays are assumed to converge to a point when focused, the shape of a defocus blur spot from a lens with a circular aperture is a hard-edged circle of light. A more general blur spot has soft edges due to diffraction and aberrations, may be non-circular due to the aperture shape. Therefore, the diameter concept needs to be defined in order to be meaningful. Suitable definitions use the concept of encircled energy, the fraction of the total optical energy of the spot, within the specified diameter. Values of the fraction vary with application. In photography, the circle of confusion diameter limit is defined as the largest blur spot that will still be perceived by the human eye as a point, when viewed on a final image from a standard viewing distance; the CoC limit can be specified on the original image. With this definition, the CoC limit in the original image can be set based on several factors: The common values for CoC limit may not be applicable if reproduction or viewing conditions differ from those assumed in determining those values.

If the original image will be given greater enlargement, or viewed at a closer distance a smaller CoC will be required. All three factors above are accommodated with this formula: CoC in mm = / / enlargementFor example, to support a final-image resolution equivalent to 5 lp/mm for a 25 cm viewing distance when the anticipated viewing distance is 50 cm and the anticipated enlargement is 8: CoC = / 5 / 8 = 0.05 mmSince the final-image size is not known at the time of taking a photograph, it is common to assume a standard size such as 25 cm width, along with a conventional final-image CoC of 0.2 mm, 1/1250 of the image width. Conventions in terms of the diagonal measure are commonly used; the DoF computed using these conventions will need to be adjusted if the original image is cropped before enlarging to the final image size, or if the size and viewing assumptions are altered. For full-frame 35 mm format, a used CoC limit is d/1500, or 0.029 mm for full-frame 35 mm format, which corresponds to resolving 5 lines per millimeter on a print of 30 cm diagonal.

Values of 0.030 mm and 0.033 mm are common for full-frame 35 mm format. Criteria relating CoC to the lens focal length have been used. Kodak, 5) recommended 2 minutes of arc for critical viewing, giving CoC ≈ f /1720, where f is the lens focal length. For a 50 mm lens on full-frame 35 mm format, this gave CoC ≈ 0.0291 mm. This criterion evidently assumed that a final image would be viewed at “perspective-correct” distance: Viewing distance = focal length of taking lens × enlargementHowever, images are viewed at the “correct” distance.